Existentialism

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  • WHAT
  • WHEN
  • WHO
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  • Existentialism

    1. 1. Existentialism Figure 1 Source: nintaa. (2006). existential escape. deviantART. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/existential- escape-42683335
    2. 2. Existentialism Figure 2 Source: 1cor1313. (2008). Existential fingerprint. deviantART. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/Existential- Fingerprint-78714128 “Existential psychotherapy is an attitude toward human suffering [that] has no manual. It asks deep questions about the nature of the human being and the nature of anxiety, despair, grief, loneliness, isolation, and anomie. It also deals centrally with the questions of meaning, creativity, and love.” (Corey, 2013, p.139)
    3. 3. e existential theory was developed during the nineteenth century from existential philosophy (Corey, 2013).
    4. 4. Phenomenology Existentialism uses a philosophical method called phenomenology. According to Philosophy Index (2013), “…phenomenology is a philosophical model that was made to be free of presupposition. e idea is to study and describe objects and events from the position of observers, rather than to make claims about some objective reality (para. 1).” In other words, phenomenology deals with the client’s subjective reality.
    5. 5. Existential Philosophers Once you label me you negate me. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) (http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/f/soren_kierkegaard.html) at which does not kill us makes us stronger. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) (http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/f/friedrich_nietzsche.html) Every man is born as many men and dies as a single one. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) (http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/m/martin_heidegger.html)
    6. 6. Existential Philosophers cont… Man is condemned to be free; because once thrown into the world, he is responsible for everything he does. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) (http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/jeanpaul_sartre.html) Change your life today. Don't gamble on the future, act now, without delay. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) (http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/s/simone_de_beauvoir.html) I know of only one duty, and that is to love. Albert Camus (1913-1960) (http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/albert_camus.html)
    7. 7. Basic Concepts of Existentialism •  Philosophical in nature •  No specific techniques •  Focuses on issues related to human existence •  Values self-awareness •  Experimental approach to therapy •  Based on the relationship between client and therapist •  Stresses personal freedom of choice (Garrett, 2007)
    8. 8. According to Gooderapy.org (2013), “Existential psychotherapy is a unique style of therapy that puts emphasis on the human condition as a whole. Existential psychotherapy uses a positive approach that applauds human capacities while simultaneously maintaining a genuine perception of the limitations of the human being, human spirit, and human mind.” (para. 1) Existential Therapy
    9. 9. Existential Therapy Goal According to Corey (2013), “An aim of therapy is to assist clients in moving toward authenticity and learning to recognize when they are deceiving themselves.” (p. 154) Figure 3 Source: xetobyte. (2011). Self-Deception. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/Self-Deception-363519226
    10. 10. “Coming to terms with reality -- and one's own inner ‘demons’ -- without denying, avoiding, distorting or sugar-coating it is key to existential therapy.” (Diamond, 2010, para. 6) Figure 4 Source: *AnKer-Illustration. (2010). Inner Demon. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://www.deviantart.com/art/Inner-Demon-184187043
    11. 11. Key Themes to Existentialism •  Capacity for Self-Awareness •  Freedom and Responsibility •  Striving for Identity and Relationship to Others •  e Search for Meaning •  Anxiety as a Condition of Living •  Awareness of Death and Nonbeing (Corey, 2013)
    12. 12. Capacity for Self-Awareness Figure 5 Source: bryanxander. (2008). What am I???. deviantArt. Retrieved from http:// browse.deviantart.com/art/What-am-I-105351562 Freedom, choice, and responsibility are the foundations for self- awareness. Increasing self-awareness includes being aware of alternatives, motivations, any other factors influencing a person’s freedom of choice (Corey, 2013).
    13. 13. Freedom and Responsibility Figure 6 Source: madridy-boy. (2010). FreedoM. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/FreedoM-177450059 People are free to choose among their alternatives and which give them some control over their own destiny (Corey, 2013).
    14. 14. Values of Existential Therapy According to Schneider and Krug as quoted by Corey (2013), “…existential therapy embraces three values: (1) the freedom to become within the context of natural and self-imposed limitations; (2) the capacity to reflect on the meaning of our choices; and (3) the capacity to act on the choices we make.” (p. 147)
    15. 15. Striving for Identity and Relationship to Others Figure 7 Source: Wozzles. (2007). Identity. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/Identity-71449257 According to Corey (2013), “People are concerned about preserving their uniqueness and centeredness, yet at the same time they have an interest in going outside themselves to relate to other beings and to nature (p. 149).”
    16. 16. The Search for Meaning Figure 8 Source: bubuka812. (2013). Meaning of the life. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/Meaning-of-the-life-374190439 All human beings want a sense of significance and purpose in life (Corey, 2013).
    17. 17. Anxiety as a Condition of Living Figure 9 Source: iamkyosan. (2010). Anxiety. deviantArt. Retrieved from http:// browse.deviantart.com/art/Anxiety-158691721 Anxiety is a part of the human condition that “…arises from one’s personal strivings to survive and to maintain and assert one’s being.” (Corey, 2013, p. 152)
    18. 18. Awareness of Death and Nonbeing Figure 10 Source: iamxam. (2011). Guilt. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/quot-Guilt-quot-255661745 Awareness of death as a condition for human life gives significance to a person (Corey, 2013).
    19. 19. People who suffer from the following can benefit from existential counseling: •  Developmental Crisis •  Grief of Loss •  Death Confrontation •  Life Decisions •  Stage of Life Changes •  Identity Loss or Confusion •  Loss of Marriage or Work (Corey, 2013) Figure 11 Source: johnSOUTTER. (2009). existential crisis. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/existential-crisis-146292949
    20. 20. Existential Counseling Existentialism is not a set of rules to apply in therapy but a way of thinking and being towards the client. Because existentialism is based on a philosophy of freedom and responsibility, it can be used with other therapies such as Psychoanalysis and Cognitive-Behavioral (Corey, 2013).
    21. 21. Conclusion Existential thought can be applied to Freudian, Jungian, Gestalt, Behavioral, Cognitive, and other methods through the main concept of phenomenology. By understanding that a client is more than a patient, a therapist can view a client as a person with the capacity to change. Because existentialism is a way of thought that keeps the clients best interest at heart, it is a philosophy that would benefit a therapist in and out of counseling. In the end, to believe that we are all capable of change and that we are a sum of all our choices is a lifestyle that could benefit all of us and society as a whole.
    22. 22. References Corey, G. (2013). eory of practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. Diamond, A. S. (2010). What is existential psychotherapy? And why it matters today. [Blog]. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/evil-deeds/201007/ what-is-existential-psychotherapy-and-why-it-matters-today Garrett, J. (2007). Chapter 9: Existential therapy. [Lecture Notes]. Marshall University. Retrieved from http://mucounseling603theories.blogspot.com/2007/10/chapter-9-existential-therapy.htm Gooderapy.org. (2013). Existential therapy. Retrieved from http://www.goodtherapy.org/ Existential_Psychotherapy.html Philosophy Index. (2013). Existentialism and phenomenology. Colin Temple. Retrieved from http://www.philosophy-index.com/existentialism/phenomenon.php
    23. 23. Reference of Figures Figure 1: nintaa. (2006). existential escape. deviantART. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/existential-escape-42683335 Figure 2: 1cor1313. (2008). Existential fingerprint. deviantART. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/Existential- Fingerprint-78714128 Figure 3: xetobyte. (2011). Self-Deception. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/Self-Deception-363519226 Figure 4: *AnKer-Illustration. (2010). Inner Demon. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://www.deviantart.com/art/Inner- Demon-184187043 Figure 5: bryanxander. (2008). What am I???. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/What-am-I-105351562 Figure 6: madridy-boy. (2010). FreedoM. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/FreedoM-177450059 Figure 7: Wozzles. (2007). Identity. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/Identity-71449257 Figure 8: bubuka812. (2013). Meaning of the life. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/Meaning-of-the- life-374190439 Figure 9: iamkyosan. (2010). Anxiety. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/Anxiety-158691721 Figure 10: iamxam. (2011). Guilt. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/quot-Guilt-quot-255661745 Figure 11: johnSOUTTER. (2009). existential crisis. deviantArt. Retrieved from http://browse.deviantart.com/art/existential- crisis-146292949

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