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COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1>A communication model comprises of the following subsystems
a: source
b: transmitter
c: transmission system
d: receiver
e: destination
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
2>Match the following
source: accepts the incoming data
transmitter: carrier the data
transmission system: generates the data to be transmitted
receiver: converts the data into transmittable signals
destination: converts the received signals into data__________
3>_____are small networks which connect the systems in a building/campus, whereas_____cover a large geographical area,
cross public rights of way. And rely, in part , on common carrier circuits (LAN/MAN/WAN)
4>__________is a set of computer programs, procedures and associated documentation concerned with the operation of a data
processing system (program/software)
5>__________is defined as a set of computer programs which are used for generation, transmission and reception of
information between/among a set of computers connected by wired or wireless media (communication model/communication
software)
6>Following are some of the communication software programs
a: dialing
b: file transfer
c: terminal emulation
d: data encryption
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
7>___________software tells the computer how to place a call on a phone line connected to it (calling/dialing)
8>Identify features of dialling software
a: it tells the computer how to place a call on a phone line connected to it
b: it displays messages about the progress of the call
c: it can automatic redial, store phone numbers, voice based dial, transfer calls, answer calls
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all)
9>___________program encodes the data (data conversion/data encryption)
10>The communication software development must have the following objectives
a: to shorten the time of porting communication software to a new environment
b: to shorten the time of new communication software component developments
c: to make new developments easier by applying reusable components and design patterns
d: to assure higher quality
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
11>___________in communication software are the communication protocols which are based on several set of rules or
standards (computer software/computer program)
12>The main purpose of the __________is to keep all the subsystems informed of any changes in the design parameters
(communication environment/communication software)
13>Following are different types of events that can occur in a communication system
a: change reported from one of the subsystem
b: request for data from one subsystem to another
Ans: ___________ (a/b/both)
14>wrt to updating of changes of one subsystem in another, arrange the following events in correct sequence
a: take action
b: action taken
c: report changes
d: acknowledge changes
Ans: ___________ (cdba/cdab)
15>wrt requested data transfer from one subsystem to another, arrange the following events in correct sequence
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a: request to send
b: data sent
c: data request
d: data found
Ans: ___________ (cabd/cdab)
16>__________are the grammars through which computers or computer-based devices communicate with one another, the
way they organize and transmit the bits and bytes of electronic on-off signals, whose patterns encode the data (communication
software/communication protocol)
17>___________is a set of rules that governs, how a message containing data and control information are assembled at a
source for their transmission across the network and then disassembled when they reach their destination (software/protocol)
18>___________is defined as a set of rules governing the interactions of concurrent processes in a distributed system
(software/protocol)
19>The interactions in a protocol can be divided into following types
a: network level interactions
b: end to end level interactions for reliable transfer
c: application level interactions
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all)
20>___________are used for communications between entities in a system (software/protocol)
21>The key elements of a protocol are
a: syntax
b: semantics
c: timing
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all)
22>Match the following
Syntax : says about the control information and error handling
Semantic : talks about the speed matching and sequencing
Timing : includes data formats and signal levels
23>___________define a format, order of messages sent and received among the network entities, and actions taken on
message transmission and receipt (protocol/software)
24>A computer storage representation of a protocol can be represented by
a: sequence of message exchanges
b: flowchart i.e. an informal description of a protocol
Ans: ___________ (a/b/both)
25>Following are some formal methods used for protocol representation
a: finite state machines
b: petrinets
Ans: ___________ (a/b/both)
26>FSM stands for___________
27>A finite state machine M Is ___tuple (5/6)________
28>A finite state machine M is a five tuple, and is represented by M= (I, O, S, N, A) where__, __&__ are finite & nonempty
sets of input symbols, output symbols and states respectively.
29>In M= (I, O, S, N, A), __is a state transition function which gives next state from the current state based on the specified
input
30>In M= (I, O, S, N, A), __is an output function which represents set of actions for a given set of inputs in the current state
31>In FSM of simple message exchange protocol, the sender can be in any one the following states
a: idle
b: ready_send
c: send_data
d: wait_ack
e: receive
f: data-cons
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/de/f/all)
32>In FSM of simple message exchange protocol, the receiver can be in any one the following states
a: idle
b: ready_send
c: send_data
d: wait_ack
e: receive
f: data-cons
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/f/all)___________
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33>FSM's states and transitions can be represented in the form of tables called as___________ (truth table/state transition
table)
34>Following are some properties of FSM
a: strongly connected
b: completely specified
c: minimal
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all)
35>FSM is___________ connected if for every state pair (Si, Sj), there is transition path going from Si to Sj ie N (Si;I)=Sj
(completely/strongly/minimal)
36>FSM is___________ specified if from each state, it has a transition for each input symbol (completely/strongly/minimal)
37>FSM is___________ (completely/strongly/minimal), if number of states of FSM M is less than or equal to number of states
of M' equivalent to M, and no pair of states of M are equivalent ie for every pair of states (Si;Sj), i!=j, there is an input
sequence that distinguishes them, that is , ASi, I)!=A (Sj, I)
38>CFSM stands for___________
39>If the FSMs of the message exchange protocol are combined together using the channels for the signal and data transfers, it
is called as___________ (MFSM/CFSM)
40>___________representation is more suitable for the protocol process representation (CFSM/FSM)
41>___________is described as a set of CFSMs (protocol/software)
42>Each CFSM is represented by a directed labeled graph where____ represent states of the process, and_______ represent
transitions of the process (node/edge)
43>___________deals only with the state-transition aspect of protocols, and does not address the data aspect of protocols
(CFSM/FSM)
44>CFSM does not deal with the message contents or formats (true/false)___________
45>___________model is the model of communicating FSMs that has a finite number of message types and a finite number of
major states of each FSM (CFSM/extended FSM)
46>An extended FSM model is similar to CFSM but has following extended features
a: each type of message may be associated wrh typed message parameters
b: each FSM may be characterized by additional state variables
c: each transition may be associated with an additional condition
d: for each output produced, it is necessary to specify the values of the associated message parameters
e: for each transition, there is an additional action which performs an update of the additional state variables
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
47>A petrinet is a five tuple (P, T, IN, OUT, MO) where
___is a set of places, ___is a set of transitions, ___=initial marking , __ is an input function that defines directed arcs from
places to transitions, __is an output function that defines directed arcs from transitions to places
48>In pertinet, ___are represented by circles, ___by a period in a place, and _____by horizontal or vertical bars
(token/places/transition)
49>Petrinet model consist of following parts
a: the net structure that represents the static part of the system
b: marking that represents the overall state on the structure
Ans: ___________ (a/b/both)
50>The token distribution among the places of a petrinet is called it___________ (transition firing/marking)
51>In Pertinet, ___________means that tokens in the input places are apparently moved to the output places (transition
firing/marking)
52>In petrinet model for producer-consumer protocol with initial markings, the sequence of production-consumption is as
following (in order)
a: on firing of transition 'consume', the token in place c2 moves to c1
b: on firing of 'read' transition, the token in consumer moves from place c1 to c2 and the token in buffer moves from b2 to b1
c: after transition 'write' is fired, the token in producer moves to place p1 and the token in buffer moves from place b1 to b2
d: when transition 'produce' is fired by the producer. The token in place p1 moves to p2
Ans: ___________ (dacb/dcab/dcba)
53>Following are ways of design and development of communication protocols: ___________ (informal/formal/both)
54>The protocol design and development through informal and formal methods includes
a: specification
b: validation
c: implementation
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all)
55>___________way of specifications of the protocols include textual description and message exchange sequence
(informal/formal)
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56>___________description does not facilitate to represent large complex protocols which has enormous events and
conditions, and often leads to unclear and ambiguous specifications (informal/formal)
57>The complexity of protocols make them very hard to analyze in ___________way (informal/formal)
58>The communication software development process takes place in___ phases (5/6)________
59>The communication software development process takes place in following phases
a: informal specification of requirements
b: conceptual representation
c: concepts coding in a programming language
d: compilation
e: implementation
f: debugging/execution
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/f/all)
60>wrt informal way of protocol software development, arrange the following phases in correct sequence
a: informal specification of requirements
b: concepts coding in a programming language
c: conceptual representation
d: implementation
e: compilation
f: debugging/execution
Ans: ___________ (acbfed/acbefd/acbedf)
61>FDT stands for___________
62>The use of ___________techniques will facilitate design and implementation of communication software protocols quickly
and efficiently (informal/formal)
63>Following are examples of ___________ methods: FSM, extended FSM, Petrinet, Timed pertinet, CCS, temporal logic,
algebra calculi, formal grammar (informal/formal)
64>CCS stands for___________
65>Software development using FDT has following phases
a: informal specification of requirements
b: formal specification
c: simulation validation compilation
d: implementation
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
66>wrt Software development using FDT, arrange the following events in correct sequence
a: simulation validation compilation
b: formal specification
c: informal specification of requirements
d: implementation
Ans: ___________ (badc/cbda/cbad)
67>___________is an interdisciplinary area that deals with application of formal techniques and software engineering
methodologies to protocol design and implementation (communcation engineering/protocol engineering)
68>___________is used to describe the activities pertaining to construction of large scale software systems (protocol
engineering/software engineering)
69>___________specification techniques are used to facilitate unambiguous specificaton of protocol standards and automation
in the various phases of protocol development (formal/informal)
70>___________of protocol engineering includes the activities related to protocol design and development (domain/range)
71>___________deals with implementation, performance analysis and conformance testing (communication
engineering/protocol engineering)
72>Following are phases of protocol engineering
a: service specification
b: synthesis
c: protocol specification
d: protocol verification/validation
e: performance analysis
f: conformance testing
g: protocol implementation
h: monitoring/diagnosis
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/f/g/h/all)
73>Match the following
service specification :
Synthesis : it monitors the working of implemented protocol and checks for the errors
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protocol specification : it deals with the real coding of the protocol using software aspects
protocol verification/validation: it tests whether the protocol conforms to the specifications laid down in the
protocol specification phase
performance analysis : the services to be carried out by the protocol are being specified in a
formalized way
conformance testing : an automated tool is used to generate the formal specifications of a
protocol that represents the service specifications
protocol implementation : it looks into syntax and semantics of protocol specifications
monitoring/diagnosis : it checks for correctness and liveness properties of the protocol
___________
ANSWERS:
1>all
2>1-c 2-d 3-b 4-e 5-a
3>LAN ,WAN
4>software
5>communication software
6>all
7>dialing
8>all
9>data encryption
10>all
11>computer
12>communication environment
13>both
14>cdab
15>cdab
16>communication protocol
17>protocol
18>protocol
19>all
20>protocol
21>all
22>1-c 2-a 3-b
23>protocol
24>both
25>both
26>Finite State Machine
27>5
28>I ,O and S
29>N
30>A
31>abcd
32>aef
33>state transition
34>all
35>strongly
36>completely
37>minimal
38>Communicating FSM
39>CFSM
40>CFSM
41>protocol
42>node ,edge
43>CFSM
44>T
45>extended FSM
46>all
47>P ,T ,M0 ,IN ,OUT
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48>places ,token ,transition
49>both
50>marking
51>transition firing
52>dcba
53>both
54>all
55>informal
56>informal
57>informal
58>6
59>all
60>acbedf
61>Formal Description Technique
62>formal
63>formal
64>Calculi of Communication Systems
65>all
66>cbad
67>protocol engineering
68>software engineering
69>formal
70>domain
71>protocol
72>all
73>1-e 2-f 3-g 4-h 5-a 6-d 7-c 8-b
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CHAPTER 2: NETWORK REFERENCE MODEL
1>__________is a group of computers, printers and other devices that are connected together either with a cable or wireless
media (WAN/network)
2>In general, __________reference model defines the functions of communication software in a generalized and structured
manner which helps to carry out the network product development activities (OSI/network)
3>It is impractical to write a single protocol to handle all the communication tasks (true/false) __________
4>It is impractical to solve a wide range of problems that may arise in digital data communication. Some of the problems
include the following
a: host/link failure
b: network congestion
c: data delay or loss
d: data corruption
e: data duplication or packets out-of-sequence
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
5>Match the following
host failure: transmission errors can corrupt the data being transmitted
link failure: sometimes data is lost during the transmission or may experience excessive delay
network congestion: networks have finite capacity which cannot beexceeded
data delay or loss: transmission link may be damaged or disconnected
data corruption: host or gateway may fail due to a hardware or software crash
data duplication: whenever there is existence of more than one roote in a network connection, it is possible for transmitted
packets to arrive out of sequence at the receiver__________
6>In abstract representation of network architecture, at the_____level, we have application programs and hardware at
______level is required for data transmission across a network (top/bottom)
7>The layered architectures are the rulebooks upon which implementations are based, consisting of collection of protocols, the
rules by which physically separated entities interact, which is called as___________ reference model (network/OSI)
8>The entities in the same layer on different machines are called as___________entities (paired/peer)
9>___________define a technique to organize a network system into a succession of logically distinct entities, such that
service provided by one entity is solely based on the service provided by the previous entity (top down architecture/layered
architecture)
10>Layered architecture is suitable to deal with complex systems due to following reasons
a: explicit structure allows identification of the relationship among a complex system's pieces
b: modularization eases maintenance and updating of the system
c: change of implementation of a layer's service transparent to rest of system
d: if no layering is there, each new application has to be re-implemented for every network technology
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
11>___________is a set of primitives that a layer provides to the layer above it (procedure/service)
12>A service relates to an interface between two layers, with_____layer being the service provider and _____layer being the
service user (lower/upper)
13>___________is a point at which the services are accessible to the layers (socket/layer interface)
14>A Layer interface is a point at which the services are accessible to the layers.The services are available throgh
___________ (SIP/SAP)
15>SAP stands for___________
16>IDU stands for__________
17>SDU stands for___________
18>PDU stands for___________
19>ICI stands for___________
20>IDU consists of___________ (SDU/ICI/both)
21>_____is the information passed across a network to the peer entity and then up to the layer n+1.______is needed to help the
lower layer do its job but is not part of the data itself (SDU/ICI)
22>___________is a set of rules governing the format and meaning of frames, packets or messages that are exchanged by the
peer entities within a layer (protocol/program)
23>A protocol has to perform following functions
a: encapsulation
b: segmentation & reassembly
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c: flow & error control
d: multiplexing
e: addressing
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
24>A communication message contains________information (data/control/both)
25>______information consists of addresses, error-detection and dialog control._____information contains the data in standard
formats required for communication among machines (data/control)
26>__________is the technique used by layered protocols in which a layer accepts a message from a layer above it and places
it in the data portion of the lower level layers message unit (segmentation/encapsulation)
27>_________is needed for reliable end-to-end and link transmission (flow control/error control)
28>______error control makes sure that data is reliably transferred between hosts._____error control is done between the
intermediate nodes of a network which are used to switch the data from a sender to receiver (link level/end-to-end)
29>_______is necessary between host-to-host and intermediate node to intermediate node in order to control the congestion in
a network (congestion control/flow control)
30>A flow control entity at_____layer controls the flow of PDUs between the hosts and avoids flooding of PDUs at the
receiver, whereas flow control in entities at ______layer avoids the network congestion , and prevent network jamming
(lower/higher)
31>The ISO recommended a generally acceptable network reference model called________ (OSI or TCP/IP)
32>_______comprises of seven layers that serves a reference framework for the development of protocol specifications and
standards (OSI or TCP/IP)
33>In OSI referece model, each layer is associated with certain set of protocols facilitating ___________communication
among the corresponding layers between the computer systems (viral/virtual)
34>The advantage of OSI approach is that each layer can be considered independently of the other as long as the interfaces
remain the same (true/false)___________
35>TPDU stands for___________
36>wrt OSI model, arrange the following layers in correct sequence (from bottom to top)
a: data link
b: transport
c: presentation
d: physical
e: network
f: session
g: application
Ans: ___________ (daebfgc/daebfcg/daebgfc)
37>The ___________layers of the OSI model deal with application issues and are generally implemented only in software
(lower1to4/upper5to7)
38>In OSI model, ___________layer is closest to the end-user (application/physical)
39>___________layers of the OSI model handle data transport issues (lower1to4/upper5to7)
40>In OSI model, the physical layer and the data link layer are implemented in___________ (software/hardware/both)
41>In OSI model, __________layer is responsibald for actually placing information on the medium (physical/application)
42>Features of Physical layer are
a: it provides direct mechanical and electrical connections between the computer system and the network nodes
b: it concerns transmission of raw data over the medium
c: it has set of interfacing rules to communicate with devices like modems, the broadband or carrier band etc
d: data sent in this layer are bit string
e: it makes and breaks connections with the medium
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
43>Identify features of data link layer
a: it establishes and maintains a communication path between nodes of the network
b: it is responsible for transferring frames from one computer to another w/o errors
c: it is diveded into two sublayers LLC and MAC
d: it can perform flow control
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
44>In data link layer, ______sublayer manages communications between the devices over a single link of a network , and
_____sublayer manages protocol access to the physical network mediumLLC/MAC)
45>___________control moderates the transmissom of data so that the receiving euthad is not overwhelmed with more traffic
than it can handle at one time (flow/congestion)
46>Identify features of network layer
a: it is concerned with routing of data from one network node to another
b: routers use this layer to determine how to forward packets
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c: it has the responsibility of interconnecting two or more dissimilar networks
d: data sent in this layer are packets
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
47>Identify features of transport layer
a: it accepts the data from session layer and segments the data for transport across the network
b: it is responsible for making sure that the data is delivered error-free and in the proper sequence
c: flow control occurs at this layer
d: it provides multiplexing
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
48>___________control manages data transmission between devices so that the transmitting device does not send more data
than the receiving device can process (flow/congestion)
49>___________enables ata from several applications to be transmitted onto a single physical link
(encapsulation/multiplexing)
50>Identify features of session layer
a: it establishes , manages and terminates communication sessions
b: it determines which of the three modes of interaction the communication may take ie simplex, half duplex or full duplex
c: it provides synchronization and check-pointing to keep the two end devices in step with each other
d: SPDUs are types of data units exchanged
Ans: ______ (a/b/c/d/all)
51>Identify features of presentation jewes
a: it provides a variety of coding and conversion functions that are applied to application layer data
b: PPDUs are the types of data units exchanged
c: it includes common data representation formats, conversion of character representation formats, common data compression
schemes and common data encryption schemes
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all)
52>Identify features of application layer
a: it is the OSI layer closest to the end user
b: it provides the mechanisms and interfaces that enable an end user to communicate within the network environment
c: it includes logging in, checking password, file request, file transfer etc
d: APDUs are the data units exchanged
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/all)
53>Match the following
physical layer: any service provided to end users
data link layer: full duplex, accesses management eg token control synchronization
network layer: delivers a packet to a specified destination, performs fragmentation/reassembly of packets, packet scheduling ,
buffer mangement
transport layer: moves information between two systems connected by a physical link
session layer: framing ie attach frames separator , send data frames between peers, arbitrates the access to common physical
media, ensures reliable transmission, provides flow control
presentation layer: provides an inorder, error free and flow & congestion controlled end to end connection,
multiplexing/demultiplexing packets
application layer: converts data between various representation___________
54>Match the following
physical layer: defines data formats and rules to convert from one format to another
data link layer: implements reliability as well as flow & congestion control
network layer: layer addresses, implement MAC , provides error control
transport layer: coding scheme used to represent a bit, voltage levels, duration of a bit
session layer: defines global unique addresses, constructs routing tables, implements packet forwarding, fragments/
reassembler packets
presentation layer: token management, inserts checkpoints, implementsrolling back functions
application layer: depends on the application ___________
55>Match the following
physical layer: FTP, Telnet.WWW
data link layer: RPC
network layer: RIP, OSPF, IP
transport layer: CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA, Token ring, HDLC
session layer: ASN.1
presentation layer: TCP & UDP
application layer: coaxial cable, optical fiber links___________
56>The TCP/IP protocol suite is the world's most popular open system protocol quite because
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a: they can be used to communicate across any set of interconnected networks b: they are well suited for LAN and WAN
communications
Ans: ___________ (a/b/both)
57>DARPA stands for___________
58>In TCP/IP suite application, ______&_____layers are combined together to form one layer called application layer
(application/session/presentation)
59>In TCP/IP protocol suite, arrange the following layers in correct order (from bottom to top)
a: network access
b: IP
c: TCP
d: application
e: physical
Ans: ___________ (eadbc/eabdc/eabcd)
60>in TCP/IP protocol suite, Host to network interface is a combinationof_____&______ (network
access/IP/TCP/application/physical)
61>Network access layer in TCP/IP suite is similar to___________layers in OSI (LLC/MAC/both)
62>___________protocols are used for sharing a single broadcast channel among several users by avoiding conflicts between
the sending hosts (LLC/MAC)
63>MAC protocols may be categorized into following types
a: channel partitioning
b: random access protocols
c: taking turn protocols
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all)
64>___________category protocols mainly divides the channel into smaller pieces and allocate a piece to a node for exclusive
use (channel partitioning/random access protocols/taking turn protocols)
65>Examples of___________MAC protocols are: TDMA, FDMA & CDMA (channel partitioning/random access /taking turn)
66>In___________, access to a channel by the hosts is in rounds ie each station gets a fixed length slot in each round
(FDMA/TDMA/CDMA)
67>In___________, the unused slots by nodes go idle and hence the bandwidth is wasted (FDMA/TDMA/CDMA)
68>In___________, channel spectrum is divided into frequency bands where each host is assigned a fixed frequency band
(FDMA/TDMA/CDMA)
69>In___________, the unusedtransmission time in frequency bands goes idle and hence bandwidth is wasted
(FDMA/TDMA/CDMA)
70>In___________, a unique code is assigned to each host in a network (FDMA/TDMA/CDMA)
71>___________is used mostly in wireless broadcast channels where all hosts share same frequency, but each host has its own
chipping sequence to encode the data (FDMA/TDMA/CDMA)
72>In CDMA, the encoded signal is given as___________of original data and chipping sequence (sum/product)
73>In___________category protocols, channel is not divided into fixed slots but, are allowed collisions between the nodes and
some mechanisms to recover from collision are used (channel partitioning/random access/taking turn)
74>Examples of __________MAC protocols are pure Aloha, slotted Aloha , CSMA/CD (channel partitioning/random
access/taking turn)
75>In___________, the nodes can start transmission as and when the frames are ready.If transmission is not successful, a node
retransmits the frame ( pure Aloha or slotted Aloha or CSMA/CD)
76>___________has higher collsion probability ( pure Aloha or slotted Aloha or CSMA/CD)
77>___________considers all frames of same size since it divides time into equal sized slots which is given as the time to
transmit one frame ( pure Aloha or slotted Aloha or CSMA/CD)
78>In___________, if a node senses the channel to be idle, it transmits an entire frame otherwise defers the transmission ( pure
Aloha or slotted Aloha or CSMA/CD)
79>Match the following
IEEE 802.3 (CSMA/CD): wireless network topology
IEEE 802.4 (token bus): wired ring topology
IEEE 802.5 (token ring): wired logical ring topology
IEEE 802.11 (wireless CSMA/CA): wired bus topology___________
80>To avoid collisions, MAC protocols use following methods____________ (polling/token passing/both)
81>In__________, a master node invites the slave nodes to transmit in turn. In_______, a control token is passed from one
node to next sequentially where presence of token indicates transmit permission (polling/token passing)
82>The concerns of polling method are_____.The concerns of token passing mehod are______ (polling overhead/token
overhead/latency/single point of failure)
83>___________protocol is used for storing the data in the buffers until media is accessed and data sent is acknowledged
(MAC/LLC)
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84>Some we LLC protocols are
a: simple stop wait protocol
b: stop wait protocol with timers and ARQ
c: sliding window protocol
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all)
85>Match the following
simple stop wait protocol: it considers two channels in which regular frames will be sent in forward channel and ACKs will be
sent in the reverse channel
stop wait protocol with timers & ARQ: it assumes an error free channel with finite buffer capacity and processing speed at the
nodes, and prevents a sender from flooding the receiver
sliding window protocols: it is used in case of error prone channels which may either cause damage to frames or loss of the
frames___________
86>In__________protocol, sender sends one frame at a time and then waits for ACK before proceeding to transfer next data
(sliding window/stop wait/stop wait with ARQ)
87>In___________protocol, sender could send a frame and timeout, and send a frame again if it does not receive ACK from
the receiver (sliding window/stop wait/stop wait with ARQ)
88>___________protocol considers two channels in which regular frames will be sent in forward channel and ACKs will be
sent in the reverse channel (sliding window/stop wai/stop wait with ARQ)
89>In___________protocol, sender sends N frames and waits for an acknowledgment. If rth frame is in error, it starts sending
from rth to Nth frame and early packets received after rth frame will be discarded (sliding window/stop wait/stop wait with
ARQ/Goback)
90>wrt simplex stop wait protocol, arrange the following in correct sequence
a: frame2
b: frame1
c: ACK
Ans: ___________ (acb/bac/bca)
91>wrt one bit sliding window protocol, arrange the following in correct sequence
a: seq=0, ack=0, RF=1
b: seq=1, ack=1, RF=2
c: seq=0, ack=1, SF=1
d: seq=1, ack=1, SF=2
Ans: ___________ (cbda/cabd/cadb)
92>HDLC stands for___________
93>___________specifies a packetization standard for serial links connecting the remote devices in the network with central
computer, either point-to-point or point-to-multipoint (HDLC/SLIP/PPP)
94>___________is used to connect a computer to Internet over dialup line using the modem (HDLC/SLIP/PPP)
95>___________protocol does not support error checking , correction, detection & authentication bu supports only IP
networks and uses character stuffing for data framing (SLIP/PPP)
96>___________is an approved and widely used protocol to connect home PCs to Internet over dial-up lines
(HDLC/SLIP/PPP)
97>___________handles error detection (SLIP/PPP)
98>PPP has following components: ___________ (LCP/NCP/both)
99>LCP stands for___________
100>NCP stands for___________
101>_____is used for authentication , bringing up lines, negotiating and bring down lines when needed whereas_____handles
negotiation with network layer and gets the IP address allocated at connection time (LCP/NCP)
102>SLIP stands for______
103>The function of________protocols is to find the routes in a computer network to provide connectionless best effort
datagram delivery service to the network users, and perform fragmentation and reassembly of datagrams to support data links
with different MTU sizes (network/transport)
104>__________is mainly concerned with addressing of network nodes, security, remove quality of service and
fragmentation/reassembly of packets (IP/TCP)
105>IP header is___bytes long and can carry data upto___kb including header, but in practice, maximum size of IP packet
is____bytes (20/32/64/500/1500)
106>_______field in the IP packet helps to remove the orphan packets ie it acts as a counter that gradually decrements to zero,
and at this point the datagram is discarded, thus preventin looping of packets (TLV/TTL)
107>An IP address is___bits long (32/64)
108>IP networks can be divided into smaller networks called_______ (supernetwork/subnetwork)
109>__________provides the network administrator with extra flexibility and efficient use of network addresses
(supernetwork/subnetwork)
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110>Maximum hosts in class A, B & C is___ ___&____respectively (254/65543/16777214)
111>Match the following
class A: 192.0.1.0 to 223.255.254.0
class B: 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255
class C: 1.0.0.0 to 126.0.0.0
class D: 128.1.0.0 to 191.254.0.0
112>The Internet has been divided into logical clusters called__________ (autonomous system/autonomy system)
113>AS concept improves the connectivity of__________networks (small/large/both)
114>Following are different types of ASs
a: stub AS
b: multihomed AS
c: transit AS
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all)
115>Match the following
stub AS: used for large corporation which has multiplex connections to other ASs
multi-homed AS: used by service providers to hook many ASs together
transit AS: used forsmall corporation which has single connection to other ASs___________
116>Internet performs hierarchical routing (true/false)__________
117>Internet takes up the tasks of
a: routing within the ASs (intra-AS routing)
b: routing between the ASs (inter-AS routing)
Ans: __________ (a/b/both)
118>The routing protocol run by a router in an AS to find the routes within AS is called as_____AS routing protocol whereas
the routing protocol used by the gateway routers to find the paths between the ASs Is called ____AS routing protocol
(inter/intra)
119>In _____AS routing, the administrator is responsible for choice of routing algorithm within network whereas in______AS
routing, there is a unique standard for inter-AS routing (inter/intra)
120>Distance vector and link state routing are examples of ______AS routing (inter/intra)
121>BGP is an example of__________AS routing (inter/intra)
122>RIP is __________gateway routing protocol (interior/exterior)
123>ADBF stands for__________
124>The routing algorithm used in_____is ADBF (RIP/OSF/BGP)______
125>OSPF is ___________gateway protocol (exterior/interior)
126>_________uses link state or shortest path first based routing algorithm (RIP/OSPF/BGP)
127>Dijkstra algorithm is used in___________ (RIP/OSPF/BGP)
128>Distance vector algorithm is used in__________ (RIP/OSPF/BGP)
129>BGP is an________AS routing protocol (intra/inter)
130>Hosts using BGP communicate using_________ (TCP/UDP)
131>___________is a major protocol used in the Internet routing (RIP/OSPF/BGP)
132>IP supports multicasting by using class___addresses (C/D)________
133>IGMP stands for__________
134>__________is used by IP hosts to report their host group memberships to any immediately neighbouring multicast routers
(IGMP/ICMP)
135>Examples of multicast protocols are
a: DVMRP
b: PIM
c: MOSPF
Ans: ________ (a/b/c/all)
136>DVMRP stands for__________
137>PIM stands for__________
138>MOSPF stands for__________
139>__________allows a diskless client machine to discover its own IP address, the address of a server host and the name of a
file to be loded into memory and executed (DHCP/BOOTP)
140>__________is used to control vital networking parameters of hosts with the help of a server (DHCP/BOOTP)
141>DHCP supports following types of addresses
a: automatic
b: dynamic
c: manual
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all)
142>Match the following
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automatic addressing: address is assigned manually by network administrator
dynamic addressing: permanent IP address is assigned to the client
manual addressing: address is assigned for a limited period of time
143>Mobile IP allows the mobile node to use___IP addresses (2/3)
144>In mobile IP, ____address is static and is used whereas______address changes at each new point of attachment and can be
called as the mobile node's topologically significant address (home/care of )
145>The home address makes it appear that the mobile node is continually able to receive data on its home network, where
Mobile IP requires the existence of a network node known as__________ (home agent/foreign agent)
146>__________messages , delivered in IP packets, are used for out-of-band messages related to network operation or
misoperation (IGMP/ICMP)
147>CIDR overcomes following problems
a: running short of IP addresses
b: running out of capacity in the global routing tables
Ans: __________ (a/b/both)
148>CIDR currently uses prefixes anywhere in the range of__to__bits (12/13/24/27)______
149>With CIDR, blocks of addresses can be assigned to networks as small as____hosts or to those with over______hosts
(32/64/250000/500000)
150>In the CIDR ddress 206.13.01.48/25, the '/25' indicates the _____ 25 bits are used to identify the specific host
(first/last)_____
151>The CIDR addressing scheme enables___________in which a single high level route entry can represent many lower
level routes in the global routing tables (route association/route aggregation)
152>___________is used to negotiate with network nodes to reserve bandwidth to support QoS path setup (RSVP/RARP)
153>RSVP can be used for_________traffic flows (unicast/multicast/both)
154>___________maps IP address to MAC address (ARP/RARP)
155>___________maps the 48 bits MAC address to IP address (ARP/RARP)
156>___________provides reliable transmission of data over the Internet (TCP/UDP)
157>__________provides stream data transfer, reliability, efficient flow control, full duplex operation and multiplexing
(TCP/UDP)
158>TCP segments consist of fixed ____ byte header and the data segment not greater than ____kbytes (16/20/32/64)__
159>TCP consists of source and destination port numbers which are called_________ (TSAP/TPDU)
160>Using TCP, host must establish a connection oriented session with one another and it is performed by using_____way
handshake mechanism (two/three)
161>wrt TCP connection establishment, arrange the following events in correct sequence
a: syn (seq=y, ack=x+1)
b: syn (seq=x+1, ack=y+1)
c: syn (seq=x)
Ans: __________ (acb/cba/cab)
162>wrt TCP data transfer, arrange the following events in correct sequence
a: conn-response
b: conn-confirm
c: Ack
d: conn-request
Ans: __________ (dcab/dacb/dabc)
163>wrt TCP window control , arrange the following events in correct order
a: 2k, seq=2k
b: 2k, seq=0
c: ack=2k, w=2k
Ans: __________ (acb/bac/bca)
164>TCP uses ________ management for traffic flow control (window/timer)
165>__________is the time spent in waiting for Ack after sending a segment (delay/RTT)
166>TCP performs congestion control (true/false)__________
167>In TCP congestion control, congestion window (CWND) uses_____start algorithm (slow/fast)_____
168>Smoothed RTT is computed by using__________estimate (old/observed/both)
169>I TCP exponential averaging, the following equations are used in estimating SRTT & RTO when an acknowledgement for
(i+1)th packet is recieved
a: SRTT (i+1)=a*RTT (i+1)+ (1-a)*SRTT (i)
b: RTO=SRTT (i+1)*d
Ans: ___________ (a/b/both)
170>In TCP exponential averaging, the value of 'a must' be _____than unity (less/greater)_____
171>The values of 'a' within___&___give better RTT estimates (0.7/0.8/0.9)____
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172>In TCP Jacobson algorithm, the following equations are used to find SRTT when an acknowledgment is received for an
(i+1)th packet
a: SRTT (i+1)={ (1-a)SRTT (i)}+{a*RTT (i+1)}
b: SRTT (i+1)=RTT (i+1)-SRTT (i)
c: SDEV{ (i+1)={ (1-h)SDEV (i)}+{h*SERR (i+1)}
d: RTO (i+1)=SRTT (i+1)+B*SDEV (i+1)
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/all)
173>In TCP Jacobson algorithm, typical taver for a, B and h are____, ___and____respectively (0.125/0.25/4)
174>TCP__________algorithm suffers from retransmission ambiguity (karn/jacobson)
175>_________supports connectionless transport of data across the network (TCP/UDP)
176>__________does not provide reliablity, flow control or eror recovery functions to IP (TCP/UDP)
177>___headers contain fewer bytes and consumes less network overhead them_______ (TCP/UDP)
178>_____supports multimedia data transfer over Internet (RTP/RSVP)
179>RTP uses_______as a transport mechanism (TCP/UDP)___
180>The RTP services include
a: payload type identification
b: sequence numbering
c: timestamping
d: delivery monitoring
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/all)
181>RTU uses__________to monitor the quality of service and to convey information about the participants in an ongoing
session (RTCP/RSVP)
182>RTCP stands for__________
183>Application layer protocols typically has following pieces_________ (client/server/both)
184>__________is used to make reliable file transfer between the machines connected across the network by using TCP as a
transport protocol (FTP/TFTP)
185>In FTP, port=___is used for control and port=____is used for data (20/21)___
186>FTP server maintains following states
a: current directory
b: earlier authentication
Ans: __________ (a/b/both)
187>__________is used to perform unreliable file transfers between two machines connected across the network by using
UDP as a transport prtocol (FTP/TFTP)
188>__________is used in emulating the terminal (Telnet/TFTP)
189>Following are major components of email
a: user agents
b: mail servers
c: SMTP
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all)
190>Match the following
user agent: is a protocol between mail servers to exchange email messages
mailbox: is used for composing, editing and reading mail messages
SMTP: contains messages for the user
191>__________is used to fetch email from the remote mailbox and store it on the user's local machine to be read later
(IMAP/POP)
192>__________is designed to help the user who uses multiplex computers, perhaps, a workstation in office, a PC at home,
and a laptop on the road (IMAP/POP)
193>__________does not copy email to user's personal machines (IMAP/POP)
194>__________provides a systematic way of monitoring and managing a computer network (SNMP/SMTP)
195>SNMP is a request reply protocol running over _____ (TCP/UDP)_____
196>__________is primarily used for mapping host names and email destinations to IP addresses (DNS/HTTP)
197>DNS uses____conection to DNS server (TCP/UDP)______
198>Following are different types of DNS servers
a: local name server
b: root name server
c: authoritative name server
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all)
199>There are about____root name servers in the world (12/13/14)______
200>__________is a standard web transfer protocol used to retrieve HTML documents stored across the hosts in the Internet
(WAP/HTTP)
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201>HTTP uses _______as transport protocol (TCP/UDP)__
202>Using HTTP, client initiates TCP connection to server at port ___ (69/80/94)____
203>RTSP stands for_______
204>RTCP stands for_______
205>_______is a client server multimedia presentation protocol to enable controlled delivery of streamed multimedia data over
IP network (RTCP/RTSP)
ANSWERS:
1>network
2>network
3>T
4>all
5>1-e 2-d 3-c 4-b 5-a 6-f
6>top ,bottom
7>network
8>peer
9>layered architecture
10>all
11>service
12>lower ,upper
13>layer interface
14>SAP
15>Service Access Point
16>Interface Data Unit
17>Service Data Unit
18>Protocol Data Unit
19>Interface Control Information
20>both
21>SDU ,ICI
22>protocol
23>all
24>both
25>control ,data
26>encapsulation
27>error control
28>end-to-end
29>flow control
30>higher ,lower
31>OSI
32>OSI
33>virtual
34>T
35>Transport Protocol Data Unit
36>daebfcg
37>upper 5to7
38>application
39>lower 1to4
40>both
41>physical
42>all
43>all
44>LLC ,MAC
45>flow control
46>all
47>all
48>flow
49>multiplexing
50>all
51>all
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52>all
53>1-d 2-e 3-c 4-f 5-b 6-g 7-a
54>1-d 2-c 3-e 4-b 5-f 6-a 7-g
55>1-g 2-d 3-c 4-f 5-b 6-e 7-a
56>both
57>Defense Advanced Research Project Agency
58>presentation & session
59>eabcd
60>network access ,physical
61>both
62>MAC
63>all
64>channel partitioning
65>channel partitioning
66>TDMA
67>TDMA
68>FDMA
69>FDMA
70>CDMA
71>CDMA
72>product
73>rndom access
74>pure ALOHA
75>random access MAC
76>pure ALOHA
77>slotted ALOHA
78>CSMA
79>1-d 2-c 3-b 4-a
80>both
81>polling, token passing
82>polling overhead, latency & single point of failure; token overhead ,latency & single point of failure
83>LLC
84>all
85>1-b 2-c 3-a
86>simple stop-wait protocol
87>stop-wait protocol with timers & ARQ
88>Sliding window protocol
89>Goback
90>bca
91>cadb
92>High level Data Link Control
93>HDLC
94>SLIP
95>SLIP
96>PPP
97>PPP
98>both
99>Link Control Protocol
100>Network Control Protocol
101>LCP ,NCP
102>Serial Line IP
103>network
104>IP
105>20 ,64 ,1500
106>TTL
107>32
108>subnetwork
109>subnetting
110>16777214 ,65545 ,254
111>1-c 2-d 3-a 4-b
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112>Autonomous System
113>both
114>all
115>1-c 2-a 3-b
116>T
117>both
118>intra ,inter
119>intra, inter
120>intra
121>inter
122>interior
123>Asynchronous Distributed Bellman Ford algorithm
124>RIP
125>interior
126>OSPF
127>OSPF
128>RIP
129>inter
130>TCP
131>BGP
132>D
133>Internet Group Management Protocol
134>IGMP
135>all
136>Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
137>Protocol Independent Multicast
138>Multicast OSPF
139>BOOTP
140>DHCP
141>all
142>1-b 2-c 3-a
143>2
144>home, care-of-address
145>home agent
146>ICMP
147>both
148>13-27
149>32, 500000
150>first
151>route aggregation
152>RSVP
153>both
154>ARP
155>RARP
156>TCP
157>TCP
158>20 ,64
159>TSAP
160>3
161>cab
162>dabc
163>bca
164>window
165>RTT
166>T
167>slow
168>both
169>both
170>less
171>0.8-0.9
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172>all
173>0.125, 4 & 0.25
174>Jacobson
175>UDP
176>UDP
177>UDP ,TCP
178>RTP
179>UDP
180>all
181>RTCP
182>RTP Control Protocol
183>both
184>FTP
185>21 ,20
186>both
187>TFTP
188>Telnet
189>all
190>1-b 2-c 3-a
191>POP
192>IMAP
193>IMAP
194>SNMP
195>UDP
196>DNS
197>UDP
198>all
199>13
200>HTTP
201>TCP
202>80
203>Real Time Streaming Protocol
204>RTP Control Protocol
205>RTSP
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CHAPTER 3: PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION
1>__________is a representation of communication services, entities, interfaces and interactions ( protocol
specification/protocol engineering)
2>Following are components of a protocol
a: communication service
b: peer entity of a protocol
c: communication interfaces
d: interactions
e: message formats
Ans: __________ ( a/b/c/d/e/all)
3>Match the following
communication service: defines the sub-components of the message which includes the data as well as the control information
interactions: is a process that describes the behaviour of a protocol and its relation to its peer entity
peer entity: defines the way the service primitives of a protocol provides services to its upper layer, and uses services from its
lower layer
communication interfaces: is the message exchanged between the two processes of a protocol
message formats: describes the type of communications services of a protocol__________
4>__________are also called a service access points ( interface/interaction)
5>__________is based on a set of service priitive which is an abstract manner describe the interactions at the interface through
which the service is provided ( service specification/protocol specification)
6>Service specification primitives are
a: request
b: response
c: indication
d: confirm
Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/all)
7>Connection establishment uses____primitives whereas data transfer uses only_______ (
request/response/indication/confirm)
8>The interactions exchanged through the underlying communication service between the entities are called___________ (
PDU/SAP)
9>In FSM, the transitions are represented by___________ ( Event/Action/both)
10>_____indicates the occurrence of some function in a protocol and______corresponds to actions taken when those events
happen ( Event/Action)
11>In FSM of service specification for reliable data transfer of sender, arrange the following in correct sequence
a: send ( sndpkt) & start timer
b: compute checksum ( 2 bytes)
c: make pkt ( sndpkt, data, checksum)
Ans: ___________ ( acb/bac/bca)
12>In FSM of service specification for reliable datatransfer from receiver, arrange the following in correct sequence
a: deliver-data ( data)
b: rdt-send ( ACK)
c: extract ( revpkt, data)
Ans: __________ ( abc/cba/cab)
13>wrt service primitives for a conversation between the two machines, arrange the following primitives in correct order
a: connect_confirm
b: connect_response
c: connect_request
d: connect_indication
Ans: ___________ ( caba/cdba/cdab)
14>Following are behavior aspects of the protocol specifaction
a: temporal ordering of interactions
b: parameter range
c: selecting values of parameters
d: coding of PDUs
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e: liveners properties
f: real time properties
Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/e/f/all)
15>Match the following
temporal ordering of interactions: provide quantitative measures usually related to communication delay, attainable throughput,
probabilities of refusing service requests etc
parameter range: deals with specifying the order of events' occure of a protocol in time continuous manner
selecting values of parameters: defines the format in which the protocol data units and their paameters are coded for
transmission
coding of PDUs: range of possible values of interaction parameters of service primitives based on the protocol data units
liveners properties: define that certain interactions will actually happen, and the interactions will properly terminate
real time properties: defines i)the permissible parameter values for each interaction ii)for each received interaction the
significance of the parameter values for the subsequent processing___________
16>__________correspond for times when an entity is waiting for some event ( transition/state)
17>The transitions of a protocol entity occur typically when a packet is ___________ ( received/timed out/either)
18>wrt FSM of sender entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'initial data ready'
a: get_data ( data), rdt_data_request ( data)
b: sndpkt=make_pkt ( 0, data, checksum)
c: send ( sndpkt)
d: start_timer
Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/e)
19>wrt FSM of sender entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_rev ( revpkt)&&notcorrupt ( revpkt)'
astop_timer
b: get_data ( data), rdt_data_request ( data)
c: sndpkt=make_pkt ( 1, data, checksum)
d: send ( sndpkt)
e: start_timer
Ans: _________ ( a/b/c/d/e/all)
20>wrt FSM of sender entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_rev ( revpkt)&&notcorrupt ( revpkt)
a: stop_timer and get_data ( data)
b: rdt_data_request ( data)
c: sndpkt=make_pkt ( 0, data, checksum)
d: send ( sndpkt)
e: start_timer
Ans: _________ ( a/b/c/d/e/all)
21>wrt FSM of receiver entity specification, identify primitids of the event 'rdt_data_indication ( revpkt)&&corrupt ( revpkt)'
a: compute chksum
b: rdt_send ( NACK)
c: sndpkt=make_pkt ( sndpkt, NACK, chksum )
d: send ( sndpkt)
Ans: _________ ( a/b/c/d/all)
22>wrt FSM of receiver entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_data_indication ( revpkt)&&notcorrupt (
revpkt)&&has_seq0 ( revpkt)'
a: compute chksum
b: rdt_send ( NACK)
c: sndpkt=make_pkt ( sndpkt, ACK, chksum )
d: send ( sndpkt)
Ans: _________ ( a/b/c/d/all)
23>wrt FSM of receiver entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_data_indication ( revpkt)&&notcorrupt (
revpkt)&&has_seq0 ( revpkt)'
a: extract ( revpkt, etc)
b: deliver_data ( data)
c: compute checksum
d: rdt_send ( ACK)
e: sndpkt=make_pkt ( sndpkt, AC, chksum)
f: send ( sndpkt)
Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/e/f/all)
24>wrt FSM of receiver entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_data_indication ( revpkt)&&notcorrupt (
revpkt)&&has_seq1 ( revpkt)'
a: extract ( revpkt, etc)
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b: deliver_data ( data)
c: compute checksum
d: rdt_send ( ACK)
e: sndpkt=make_pkt ( sndpkt, ACK, chksum)
f: send ( sndpkt)
Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/e/f/all)___________
25>wrt FSM of receiver entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_data_indication ( revpkt)&&corrupt ( revpkt)
a: compute chksum
b: rdt_send ( NACK)
c: sndpkt=make_pkt ( sndpkt, NACK, chksum )
d: send ( sndpkt)
Ans: _________ ( a/b/c/d/all)
26>wrt FSM of receiver entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_data_indication ( revpkt)&&notcorrupt (
revpkt)&&has_seq1 ( revpkt)
a: compute chksum
b: rdt_send ( NACK)
c: sndpkt=make_pkt ( sndpkt, ACK, chksum )
d: send ( sndpkt)
Ans: _________ ( a/b/c/d/all)___________
27>___________are the communication paths used to connect one or more FSMs of protocol processes ( channel/connection)
28>The channel can be odeled as___________channel ( lossless/lopsy/either)
29>___________of a channel FSM represent one of the transitions ( transition edge/state edge)
30>___________are mechanisms that support interactions in protocol implementation ( communication/interace)
31>Following are different types of interfaces: ___________ ( internal/external/both)
32>_____interfaces are mechanisms that are internal to the protocol whereas______interfaces are mechanisms that make it
possible for other implementations like applications, higher or lower layer services or both to interact with the protocol being
developed ( internal/external)
33>The protocol designers are free to implement the___________interfaces ( internal/external)
34>Following are states in FSM of an interface of bus access protocol
a: idle
b: wait_for_bus
c: get_data
d: write_data
e: release_bus
Ans: __________ ( a/b/c/d/e/all)
35>Following are transitions in FSM of an interface of bus access protocol
a: bus_req
b: bus_idle
c: data_ready
d: data_write
e: bus_release
Ans: ________ ( a/b/c/d/e/al)
36>Interface options can be handled in following ways
a: options are considered as an inherent part of an interface such that different options can be used during operation
b: desired options are selected before operation
Ans: ___________ ( a/b/both)
37>In FSM of interactions between ISDN system and a user for activation of call forwarding service, FSM has___states for
ISDN system and___states for user ( 3/4/5)_____
38>___________systems are characterized by the differnt types of media streams they use ( communication/multimedia)
39>A video has to be transferred and presented to the user at a rate of atleast__to___pictures per second to create the
impression of a movie ( 15/16/25/36)____
40>Audio should be transferred and presented to the user at a rate of________samples per second ( 8000/6400)
41>Following are important parameters of multimedia systems
a: throughput
b: transfer delay
c: jitter
d: error rates
Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/all)
42>Match the following
throughput: indicates the loss of data in a continuous data tranfer
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transfer delay: expresses the variance of the transfer delay
jitter: defines the data transmission rate
error rates: is the time between the production of data at the source and its presentation at the sink
43>Considering a picture size of 640*480 pixels with 24 bits/pixel representing the colour of the pixel, a throughput of
about_____Mbps will be necessary ( 17.5/175/1.75)______
44>Jitter can be reduced in the end-systems by the use of___________ ( memory/buffer)
45>For reliable video transfer, loss of one frame per___frames is acceptable ( 30/300/3000)________
46>For data communication, only___________services have been offered ( guaranteed/best effort )
47>In the___________service, the service user can rely on the initially negotiated service characteristics (guaranteed/best
effort )
48>The QOS requirements of a multimedia application are given as___________information in the protocol specifications (
data/control)
49>ABP stands for___________
50>___________is a one bit sliding window protocol ( ABP/ARQ)
51>ABP transmits the packets with sequence number___________in a reliable manner ( 0/1/either)
52>ABP consists of
a: Sender_ABP
b: Receiver_ABP
c: Data_Medium
d: Ack_Medium
Ans: _______ ( a/b/c/d/all)
53>wrt ABP , arrange the following events in correct sequence
a: The Reciever_ABP acknowledges all incoming messages
b: The Sender ABP waits for an acknowledgement from the Reciever_ABP containin the same sequence number
c: if the appropriate acknowledgment does not arrive withintimeout period, the Sender_ABP resends the same message
d: The Sender_ABP takes a message which is ready to be sent and transmits the message together with a sequence number
Ans: _______ ( dbca/dbac/dacb)
54>HDLC is ___oriented protocol ( bit/byte)________
55>In HDLC, the frame is delimited with a flag sequence___________ ( 0111110/01111110)
56>In HDLC, if a frame contains sequence 01111110, it will be stuffed with zero after consecutive ___one ( 4/5/6)________
57>HDLC uses following types of control frames
a: information
b: supervisory
c: unnumbered
Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/all)
58>Match the following wrt supervisory frame in HDLC
type0: receive not ready
type1: selective reject
type2: ACK frame
type3: reject frame___________
59>Match the following wrt unnumbered frame in HDLC
type0: frame reject ( FRMR)
type1: set async balance mode ( SABM)
type2: set normal response mode ( SNRM)
type3: disconnect ( DISC)___________
60>In HDLC frame format, when used as___, the computer is inviting the terminal to send data. All frames sent by the
terminals, xcept the final one, have this bit set ( P/F)________
61>In HDLC, ___________command is used between two asymmetric partners like dumb terminal and computer (
SNRM/SABM)
62>In HDLC, control frames may be lost or damaged, so they must be acknowledged.A special control frame
called___________frame is provided for this purpose ( UA/NACK)
63>Following are components of HDLC protocol
a: link setup
b: PF control
c: source
d: sink
e: clock
Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/e/all)
64>In HDLC, the components can exchange messages with communication interfaces using following methods
a: direct coupling
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b: shared variables
c: hierarchical independence
d: complete independence
Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/all)
65>Match the following
direct coupling: variables shared between components such as between P/F control & clock, and sink & source
shared variables: link setup is initiated first, afterwards source and sink are initiated
hierarchical independence: it is locally independent and depends on local properties such as frame size
complete independence: executon of instructions simultaneously or sequentially at both ends happen whenever transition takes
place___________
66>Match the following wrt FSM of HDLC P/F control
P0, P=0: finished transfer, goto no polling
P1, P=1: finish=0
F0, F=0: polling mode
F1, F=1: not in polling mode___________
67>The working of FSM is different in SNRM and SABM modes, since_______mode treats all as equal partners (
SABM/SNRM)
68>___________is used to reserve the resources over the path connecting the server and the client to facilitate smooth running
of multimedia applications ( RTCP/RSVP/RTSP)
69>The types of messages used by RSVP protocol to establish and maintain the reserved paths are
a: PATH
b: RESV
c: PATH_ERR
d: RESV_ERR
e: PATH_TEAR
f: RESV_TEAR
Ans: _______ ( a/b/c/d/e/f/all)
70>Match the following
PATH: it removes the reservation along the route
RESV: it indicates an error in response to the RESV message
PATH_ERR: it carrier the reservation request from the receiver
RESV_ERR: it carries the data flow information from the sender to the receivr
PATH_TEAR: it is generated at the nodes where the node does not have path from sender to receiver
RESV_TEAR: it removes the PATH state along the route___________
71>An RSVP application has the following states
a: Idle
b: Arr
c: Join
d: Data_Send
Ans: __________ ( a/b/c/d/all)
72>Match the following
Idle: creates a data packet and sends it to a selected single/multicast destination that it rejects
Join: this state is activated whenever a message or a packet arrives for the application and by default returns to Idle state
Arr: the application will send a session call to local RSVP daemon.In response it receives the session Id from the Local daemon
Data_Send: this state has transitions to three states__________
73>In RSVP router states, the state Arr has following functions to be executed based on the type of message received
a: pathmsg
b: ptearmsg
c: resvmsg
d: rtearmsg
e: rconfmsg
Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/e/all)
74>Match the following wrt Arr state in RSVP router
pathmsg: it is invoked by the Arr state when a PATH_TEAR message is recieved
ptearmsg: it is invoked by the Arr when a RESV message is received
resvmsg: it is invoked by the Arr when a RESV_TEAR message is receive
rtearmsg: it is invoked by the Arr when a RESV_CONF message is received
rconfmsg: it is invoked by the Arr when a PATH message is received___________
75>PSB stands for___________
76>In RSVP host state diagram, the functions which are executed as internal events are as follows
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a: session
b: sender
c: reserve
d: receive
Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/all)
77>Match the following wrt RSVP host state diagram
Session: it is called from the Arr state whenever a sender call is received from the local application
sender: it is called from the Arr state whenever a Reserve call is received from the local application
reserve: it is called from the Arr state whenever a Release call is received from the local application
receive: it is called from the Arr state whenever a session call is received from the local application___________
ANSWERS:
1>protocol specification
2>all
3>1-e 2-d 3-b 4-d 5-a
4>interface
5>service specification
6>all
7>all; request & indication
8>PDU
9>both
10>event , action
11>bca
12>cab
13>cdba
14>all
15>1-b 2-d 3-f 4-c 5-e 6-a
16>state
17>either
18>all
19>all
20>all
21>all
22>all
23>all
24>all
25>all
26>all
27>channel
28>either
29>transition edge
30>interfaces
31>both
32>internal ,external
33>internal
34>all
35>all
36>both
37>3 ,4
38>multimedia
39>16-25
40>8000
41all
42>1-c 2-d 3-b 4-a
43>175
44>buffer
45>300
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46>best-effort
47>guaranteed
48>control
49>Alternating Bit Protocol
50>ABP
51>either
52>all
53>dbca
54>bit
55>01111110
56>5
57>all
58>1-c 2-d 3-a 4-b
59>1-d 2-b 3-b 4-a
60>P
61>SNRM
62>UA(Unnumbered Acknowledgment)
63>all
64>all
65>1-d 2-a 3-b 4-c
66>1-d 2-c 3-b 4-a
67>SABM
68>RSVP
69>all
70>1-d 2-c 3-e 4-b 5-f 6-a
71>all
72>1-d 2-c 3-b 4-a
73>all
74>1-e 2-a 3-b 4-c 5-d
75>Reservation State Block
76>all
77>1-d 2-a 3-b 4-c
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CHAPTER 4: SDL—A PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION
LANGUAGE
1>A protocol specification language specifies the communication protocols by using __________notation
(formal/graphical/either)
2>Following are some specification languages
a: LOTUS
b: ESTELLE
c: SDL
d: SPIN
e: CPN
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
3>LOTUS stands for__________
4>ESTELLE stands for__________
5>SDL stands for__________
6>SPIN stands for___________
7>CPN stands for___________
8>Identify features of SDL
a: It uses FSMs and its extensions for protocol specifications
b: it provides a clear and simple modular approach for protocol modeling
c: it can use ASN.1 and the programming language C type packages for a better message description
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all)
9>SDL is a formal language defined by___________ (ITU-T/CCITT)
10>SDL follows ___________oriented approach (object/procedure)
11>SDL provides
a: well defined set of concepts
b: unambiguous, clear, precise and concise specifications
c: thorough basis for analyzing specifications and conformance testing
d: basis for determining the consistency of spec factions
e: good computer support interface for generating applications w/o the need for the traditional coding phase
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
12>SDL provides
a: high degree of testability
b: portability, scalability and open specification
c: high degree of reuse
d: facility for applying optimization techniques and thus improves protocol efficiency
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/all)
13>A communication system described by an SDL specification is actually ___________ (ECFSM/CFSM)
14>A communication system described by an SDL specification is actually an ECFSM because
a: it consists of a set of concurrent processes, extended with variables and data space, which communicate by exchanging data
signals on finite length synchronous channels
b: it consists of a set of concurrent processes, extended with variables and data space, which communicate by exchanging
control signals on finite length asynchronous channels
Ans: ___________ (a/b/either)
15>figure 4.1___________
16>SDL uses the following components to specify and describe a communication system
a: structure
b: communication
c: behavior
d: data
e: inheritance
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
17>Match the following
Structure describing relations and specialization
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Communication abstract data types or predefined data types
Behavior a system, block, process and procedure hierarchy
Data signals with optional signal parameters and channels
Inheritance processes or entities
19>___________is the one that actually executes where the class is a declaration (class instance/object/either)
20>The instance methods provide computer _____and the class object characteristics provide relevant______ (instruction/data)
21>The SDL structure comprises of following main hierarchical levels
a: system
b: blocks
c: processes
d: procedures
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
22>___________consists of a set of instances, which are of different kinds such as block, process and service instance
(system/component)
23>The set of blocks are connected with each other and the environment by using___________ (channel/connection)
24>___________is a container for either sets of processes connected by signal routes or for a set of sub-structures of blocks
connected by channels (block/system)
25>___________is a primary instance of a system (block/process)
26>___________defines the properties of a category of process instances (data type/process type)
27>Communication by means of sending signals is___________, where the sending process does not wait until the signal is
handled by the receiver, and the receiving process keeps signals in a queue until it reaches a state in which it is prepared to
handle it (synchronous/asynchronous)
28>___________are part of processes and they define the patterns of behaviour of a protocol (procedure/subroutine)
29>SDL accepts following ways of describing data
a: predefined data types
b: ADT
Ans: __________ (a/b/both)
30>SDL supports ASN.1 data types (true/false)___________
31>The set of ___________data types in SDL are as follows: integer, real, natural, Boolean, character, duration, time,
charstring, Pid (predefined/abstract)
32>Match the following
INTEGER uses usual real numbers
REAL allowed values are TRUE and FALSE
BOOLEAN uses characters
CHARACTER the data contains string of characters
CHARSTRING the data contains ASCII characters
STRING are used to represent sequence of bits
BIT_STRING uses negative & positive integer numbers
33>Match the following
TIME the data contains a value representing a relative TIME
DURATION contains the process instance identifier
PId signal associated at a certain time
TIMER data contains indexed collection of items which are all of the same data type
ARRAY natural sequence of numbers
NATURAL it uses a real number
34>Match the following
first ('hello') : ll
last ('hello') : hello
length ('hello') : o
'he'//'llo' : h
: 5
35>______&_____are used to concatenate the string in CHARSTRING & STRING data types respectively (/ or //)
36>Using TIME data type, SET (NOW+2.0, mytimer),
a: sets the mytimer to current time plus two minutes
b: sets the mytimer to current time plus two seconds
Ans: ___________ (a/b/either)
37>In TIMER data type, the allowed operations are
a: SET
b: RESET
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c: active
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all)
38>___________data type is a data type with no specified data structure (abstract/predefined)
39>The constants in SDL are declared by using___________ (SYNONYM/SYNTYPE/both)
40>SYNTYPE Ex integer constants 0: 10 ENDSYNTYPE
In this, Ex is an integer type but a variable of this type is only allowed to contain values in the specified range 0 to 10.Such a
constant is called ___________condition (boundary/range)
41>The structure element__________ is used in SDL to encapsulate certain types of data (struct/class)
42>The variables can be imported and exported among he processes using the keywords ____&___in the variable declaration
of a process .The keyword ____is used to tell the system that a variable is remote to a process (remote/exported/imported)
43>Blocks in a system are interconnected by _____while processes & services within a block are interconnected by______
(signal routes/channels)
44>In SDL, communication on the bidirectional routes that connect processes is always ___________
(synchronous/asynchronous)
45>In___________ communication, each process has its own input queue, where signals coming from the environment or from
another process are buffered and sequentially processed (synchronous/asynchronous)
46>___________communication is provided by the remote procedure call instruction (synchronous/asynchronous)
47>SDL supports non-ordered signal reception by means of the _________operator, which postpones the consumption of a
specified signal to the next transition (RECORD/SAVE)
48>SDL uses following declarations for communication paths
a: signal CR, CI, CW /*signal declaration*/
b: signal list val=ok, nok, err/*list of signals in the subchannel val*/
Ans: ___________ (a/b/both)
49>A SDL specification consists of
a: system type diagram
b: block type diagram
c: process type diagram
d: service (procedure) type diagram
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
50>Following are examples of SDL based protocol specification
a: QA protocol
b: Xon-Xoff protocol
c: Alternating bit protocol
d: Sliding window protocol
e: BGP
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
51>___________protocol provides the service in the form of answers from the user A to the questions framed by the user Q
(QA/BGP)
52>In service specification of Question Answer protocol, arrange the following operations in correct sequence
a: user A generates the signal 'Areq' as an answer to 'Qreq' and sends it to the protocol entity of a user A
b: signal 'Areq' is sent as signal 'Dreq' to the service provider protocol entity
c: QA service provider sends signal 'Dind' to protocol entity of user Q
d: protocol entity at user Q forwards this as an 'Aind' to the user Q
e: signal 'Qreq' is sent to the protocol entity of user Q from the user Q
f: signal 'Qreq' is forwarded as signal 'Dreq' to service provider protocol entity
g: QA service provider forwards the 'Dreq' signal as 'Dind' signal to the user A's protocol entity
h: signal 'Dind' is sent as signal 'Qind' to the protocol entity of user A
Ans: ___________ (feghabdc/feghabcd/efghabcd)
53>The components of the QA protocol are
a: one block called QA protocol
b: three processes called 'Qentity', 'Aentity' and 'ServicePro' representing the user Q, user A , service provider respectively
c: three bidirectional signal routes represented as Q1, Q2, A1 and A2 are used in the protocol model
d: six signals are declared using the keyword 'SIGNAL'-Dreq, Dind, Qreq, Qind, Aind and Areq
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
54>___________is primitive flow control protocol, in which a receiver controls the data transfer by signaling the sender
(QA/Xon-Xoff)
55>Xon-Xoff protocol uses following types of PDUs
a: Data_PDU
b: Suspend_PDU
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c: Resume_PDU
Ans: ________ (a/b/c/all)
56>Match the following
Data_PDU it is sent to the sender PE by the receiver PE to signal the sender to resume sending
Data-PDUs
Suspend_PDU it is sent to the sender PE by the receiver PE to signal the sender to stop sending Data-
PDUs
Resume_PDU it is sent to the sender PE by the receiver PE
57>In Xon-Xoff, arrange the following operations in correct sequence
a: sender starts sending the data if it has received Resume PDU, else keeps waiting until the Resume_PDU is sent by the
receiver
b: signal 'LDreq (pdu)' from the receiver is received at them sender
c: the receiver sends either Resume_PDU or Suspend_PDU to the sender along with the signal 'LDreq (pdu)'
d: the sender sends the Data_PDU along with the signal 'LDreq (pdu)' to the receiver
Ans: _______ (dacb/dcab/dcba)
58>Match the following
! indicates not equal
// is used to access the member of the structure
/= indicates appending the buffer
59>The Components of Alternating bit protocol are
a: one block, which has sender and receiver entities along with the channel process
b: package defining all the signals used in the protocol model
c: two communication channels-ack loss signal and data loss signal connect the system to environment
d: input signals from the environment-Lose Data and Lose Ack
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
60>In system specification of ABP , the block consists of following processes
a: ULSenderP
b: ULRecieverP
c: DataMedium
d: SenderP
e: ReceiverP
f: AckMedium
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/f/all)
61>In ABP, the sender process contains the following items
a: data declarations : Timer1
b: states: Wait_0, Wait_1, Idle_0, Idle_1
c: inputs : AckS_0, AckS_1, Send
d: output : DataS_0, DataS_1, Sender_Ready
Ans: _________ (a/b/c/d/all)
62>In ABP, the receiver process contains the following items
a: states: Wait_0, Wait_1, Idle_0, Idle_1
b: inputs: DataR_1, DataR_0, Recieve
c: outputs: AckR_0, AckR_1, Deliver, Reciever_Ready
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all)
63>In ABP, the upper layer process at sender contains the following items
a: states: Wait
b: inputs: Sender_Ready
c: outputs_Send
Ans: _________ (a/b/c/all)
64>In ABP, the upper layer process at receiver contains the following items
a: states: Wait
b: inputs: Receiver_Ready, Deliver
c: outputs: Receive
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all)
65>In ABP, the data medium process contains the following items
a: states: Empty, Lose
b: inputs: DataS_0, DataS_1, Lose_Data
c: outputs: DataR_0, DataR_1
Ans: ______ (a/b/c/all)
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66>In ABP, the ack medium process contains the following items
a: states: Empty, Lose
b: inputs: AckR_0, AckR_1Lose_Ack
c: outputs: AcksS_0, AckS_1
Ans: ______ (a/b/c/all)
67>___________is used as MAC protocol in wireless networks, where signalling mechanisms are used to avoid the collisions
(CSMA/CD or CSMA/CA)
68>___________acts as an interface between the wireless and wired network (bridge/switch)
69>In specifications of bridge connecting CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA protocol, the components defined are
a: it has three blocks: bridge, csma_cd and csma_ca
b: package defining all the signals used in the block and process specifications
c: it has four channels connecting the blocks: c1, c2, c3 and c4 where each carrier different signals which are defined in the
package
d: input signals from the environment: user1 & user2 are the users of csma_cd block and user3 & user4 are users of csma_ca
Ans: _______ (a/b/c/d/all)
70>In specifications of a bridge connecting CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA protocols, the bridge block consists of the following
items
a: process: bridge_p
b: signal routes: p1 and pa which are connected to channels c1 and c2 respectively
c: input signls carried by p1 and pa are: fpacket1, res and end_pac
d: output signals carried by p1 are: packet1_bridge , req_chan_state and end_packet
e: output signals carried by p2 are: packet_bridge, req_chan_state and end_packet
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
71>In sliding window protocol, the components of the Transmitter process are
a: declaration: win, ns, nr and timer t initialization
b: states: transfer
c: inputs: tack
d: outputs: tpdu
e: the statement ns: = (ns+1) determines the next sequence number of the packet to be transmitted
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
72>In sliding window protocol, the recieve process comprises of following components
a: declarations: ns, nr and as integers
b: states: reception
c: input: rpdu
d: output: rack
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
73>In SDL specifications of TCP, Go back n sliding window protocol uses_____ (linear/exponential) increase in window size
upto maximum of window size and window size is reduced to____ (half/one) whenever the data losses are detected.
74>In SDL specifications of TCP, the components defined in the block are
a: transmitter: this process sends packet and uses Go-back-n principle to retransmit the data as well as controls the window size
b: channel1: provides service to transmit data from sender to receiver which is modeled to introduce losses
c: Receiver: this process receives packet from the channel1 process and keeps track of sequence number of packet
d: signals: Starsim, ACK1, ACK, packet , thr, packet1 and packet_junk
e: package p in which all the signals used in the block are defined
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
75>A simulating ___________can be used to give stimuli to the network specifications and record the performance parameters
(manager/analyst)
76>OSPF is an _____domain routing protocol which performs route computations in a network (intra/inter)______
77>___________uses link state vector routing algorithm (BGP/OSPF)
78>LSA stands for___________
79>In OSPF, ___________is used in updating routing tables (LSP/LSA)
80>In OSPF, the modeled components include
a: interface function
b: flooding function
c: LS refreshment function
d: router port interfaces
Ans: ____________ (a/b/c/d/all)
81>In OSPF, following types of modeled in SDL
a: point to point
b: broadcast
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Ans: ___________ (a/b/both)
82>In OSPF, the components of the SDL model are
a: three router process instances: R1 (0, 1), R2 (0, 1) and R3 (0, 1) router type
b: three link process instances of type point-to-point: L1 (0, 1), L2 (0, 1) and L3 (0, 1)
c: five signal routes: C11, C12, C21, C22 and C31 each with two signals RouterLink and LinkRouter
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all)
83>In OSPF, a RoutesType process does the following operations
a: whenever an LSA refresh message arrives at the router. It calculates the delay
b: updates the database registering new LSAs
c: floods LSAs to the network
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all)
84>_______is considered to be a path vector protocol (OSPF/BGP)____
85>A router rejects the 'best BGP' route when there are multiple BGP route possibilities of the same specificity. It goes on
following parameters
a: route specificity and reachability
b: BGP weight metric MED (Multi exit discriminator)
c: BGP local_pref metric
d: internally originated vs. externally originated
e: AS-path length
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
86>For competing BGP routes, the most likely way the router's is going to pick the best route is by looking at the_________
a: route specificity and reachability
b: BGP weight metric MED (Multi exit discriminator)
c: BGP local_pref metric
d: internally originated vs. externally originated
e: AS-path length
87>BGP selects only one path as the best path (true/false)___________
88>BGP uses the following criteria to select a path for a destination, arrange in correct sequence
a: if all paths have the same AS path length, prefer the path with the lowest origin type
b: if the origin codes are the same, prefer the path with the lowest MED attribute
c: if the paths have the same MED, prefer the external path over the internal path
d: if the paths are still the same, prefer the path through the closest IGP neighbour
e: prefer the path with the lowest IP address , as specified by the BGP router ID
f: if the path specifies a next host that is inaccessible, drop the update
g: prefer the path with the largest weight
h: if the weights are the same, prefer the path with he largest local preference
i: if the local preferences are the same, prefer the path that originated by BGP running on this router
j: if no route was originated, prefer the route that has the shortest AS path
Ans: ___________ (fhgijabcde/fghijabcde/fghjiabcde)
89>BGP systems send following types of messages
a: open
b: update
c: keepalive
d: notification
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
90>For TCP connection establishment, the typical messages exchanged between BGP peers are
a: transport connection open
b: transport connection open failed
c: transport connection closed
d: transport fatal error
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
91>BGP systems send___________ messages to exchange network reachability information
(open/update/keepalive/notification)
92>BGP systems exchange___________ messages to determine whether a link or host has failed or is no longer available
(open/update/keepalive/notification)
93>___________messages consist of the BGP header plus the optional fields (open/update/keepalive/notification)
94>BGP systems send__________ messages when an error condition is detected (open/update/keepalive/notification)
95>___________messages consist of the BGP header plus the error code and subcode, and data that describes the error
(open/update/keepalive/notification)
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96>___________is a set of rules that are applied to a BGP speaker's set of configured peers for the BGP operation (BGP
FSM/BGP CFSM)
97>BGP uses ___________as transport protocol (TCP/UDP)
98>following are different states of BGP FSM or BGP process for its peers
a: IDLE
b: CONNECT
c: ACTIVE
d: OPENSENT
e: OPENCONFIRM
f: ESTABLISHED
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/f/all)
99>Match the following wrt BGP process
IDLE BGP peer connection is established and exchanges UPDATE, NOTIFICATION
& KEEPALIVE messages with its peer
CONNECT BGP peer Is waiting for KEEPALIVE or NOTIFICATION message from its peer
ACTIVE BGP peer is waiting for OPEN message from its peer
OPENSENT state in which BGP peer tries to acquire a peer by listening and accepting TCP
connection
OPENCONFIRM state in which BGP peer waits for is TCP connection to be completed
ESTABLISHED state when BGP peer refuses any incoming connections
100>In MPLS, data transmission occurs on___________ (LSP/LSA)
101>In MPLS, the labels are distributed using__________ (LDP/RSVP/either)
102>The devices that participate in the MPLS protocol mechanisms can be classified into__________ (LER/LSR/both)
103>LER stands for__________
104>LSR stands for__________
105>__________is a device that operates at the edge of the access network and MPLS network (LER/LSR)
106>__________is a representation of a group of packets that share the same requirements for their transport (ARQ/FEC)
107>In MPLS, each LSR builds a table to specify how a packet must be forwarded.This table is called__________ (LIB/MIB)
108>LIB stands for__________
109>In MPLS, a label is carried or encapsulated in a layer-___header along with the packet (1/2/3)_______
110>MPLS operations are
a: label creation and distribution
b: creation of label table
c: label switched path creation
d: packet forwarding
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/all)
111>In MPLS, the contents of __________table specify the mapping between a label and an FEC (LIB/MIB)
112>LDP uses __________as transport protocol (TCP/UDP)
113>in LDP, __________routers initiate the distribution of labels and the label FEC binding (downstream/upstream)
114>In MPLS, traffic related characteristics and MPLS capabilities are negotiated using__________ (LSR/LSP/LDP)
115>A router supporting the MPLS with LDP consists of processes for
a: session initialization at ingress router, LER
b: session initialization at core router, LSR
c: operational ingress router
d: operational core router
e: operational egress router
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all)
116>Following are some popular protocol specification languages
a: SPIN
b: Estelle
c: LOTUS
d: Uppal
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/all)
117>SPIN stands for__________
118>__________is a widely used tool for specification, simulation and validation of communication protocols
(LOTUS/SPIN/Estelle/CPN)
119>SPIN census a strong formal like SDL , basis and is established, on___________ theory (FSM/CFSM/ECFSM)
120>SPIN uses a programming language C like specification notation called__________ (Petrinet/ProMeLa)
121>__________is a textual notation for ECFSM that comprises the constructs for data manipulation and communication
between processes (Petrinet/ProMeLa)
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122>__________supports efficient model checking (SPIN/LOTUS/CPN)
123>__________means validation of consistency requirements, invariant assertions and temporal properties expressed in an
adhoc linear temporal logic (model verification/model checking)
124>___________is a formal description technique for the specification of distributed and concurrent systems
(Estelle/SPIN/UML)
125>Estelle is based on_____ (CFSM/ECFSM)theory in modeling event-driven behaviours and employs ______in data
manipulation (C/Pascal/java)
126>A standard Estelle specification is a unique document that collects following fields
a: declaration of data types
b: channel types
c: procedures and functions
Ans: _________ (a/b/c/all)
127>LOTUS stands for___________
128>__________is a formal description technique for specifying concurrent and communicating systems (LOTUS/SPIN)
129>LOTUS adopts a peculiar modeling approach called___________ (linear algebra/process algebra)
130>CPN stands for_________
131>___________is a specification formalism that employs PN features to model parallel behaviour and high level
programming languages to define data types (LOTUS/CPN/SPIN)
132>CPN supports
a: hierarchical description by means of transition refinements
b: model checking for static and dynamic properties
c: formal analysis methods
d: simulation
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
133>__________is a toolbox for modeling, simulation and verification of Timed Automata (SPIN/Lotus/Uppaal/UML)
134>Uppaal has been provided with a graphical, platform independent interface, being written in__________ (Pascal/C/Java)
135>In Uppaal, __________regions makes it possible to convert the unbounded behaviour into a finite state space
(stochastic/temporal)
136>UML stands for__________
137>__________is the most important graphic notation for object oriented software systems (CPN/UML)
138>OMG stands for__________
139>__________specifications are collections of diagrams (UML/Uppaal)
140>__________specification language is based on the theory of timed automata, which can be interpreted as an extension of
FSMs by means of timers (UML/Uppaal)
141>Some features of UML have been included in SDL=______to enrich SDL communication software architecture
description capabilities (2000/2005)
ANSWERS:
1>either
2>all
3>Language of Temporal Ordering Specification
4>Extended State Transition Language
5>Specification and Description Language
6>Simple Promela Interpreter
7>Coloured PetriNets
8>all
9>ITU-T
10>object
11>all
12>all
13>ECFSM
14>b
15>
16>all
17>1-c 2-d 3-c 4-b 5-a
18>
19>either
20>instruction,data
21>all
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22>system
23>channel
24>block
25>process
26>process type
27>asynchronous
28>procedures
29>both
30>T
31>predefined
32>1-g 2-a 3-b 4-c 5-c 6-e 7-f
33>1-f 2-a 3-b 4-c 5-d 6-e
34>1-d 2-c 3-e 4-b 5-a
35>// and /
36>b
37>all
38>abstract
39>both
40>range
41>struct
42>imported,exported,remote
43>channels,signal routes
44>asynchronous
45>asynchronous
46>synchronous
47>SAVE
48>both
49>all
50>all
51>QA
52>efghabcd
53>all
54>Xon-Xoff
55>all
56>1-c 2-b 3- a
57>dcba
58>1-b 2-c 3-a
59>all
60>all
61>all
62>all
63>all
64>all
65>all
66>all
67>CSMA/CA
68>bridge
69>all
70>all
71>all
72>all
73>exponential
74>all
75>manager
76>intra
77>OSPF
78>Link State Advertisement
79>LSA
80>all
81>both
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82>all
83>all84>BGP
85>all
86>e
87>T
88>fghijabcde
89>all
90>all
91>update
92>keepalive
93>update
94>notification
95>notification
96>BGP FSM
97>TCP
98>all
99>1-f 2-e 3-d 4-c 5-b 6-a
100>LSP
101>either
102>both
103>Label Edge Router
104>Label Switching Router
105>LER
106>FEC
107>LIB
108>Label Information Base
109>2
110>all
111>LIB
112>TCP
113>downstream
114>LDP
115>all
116>all
117>Simple ProMeLa Interpreter
118>SPIN
119>ECFSM
120>ProMeLa
121>ProMeLa
122>SPIN
123>model checking
124>Estella
125>ECFSM,pascal
126>all
127>Language Of Temporal Ordering Specifications
128>LOTUS
129>process algebra
130>Coloured PetriNets
131>CPN
132>all
133>Uppaal
134>Java
135>temporal
136>Unified Modeling Language
137>UML
138>Object Management Group
139>UML
140>Uppaal
141>2000
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CHAPTER 5: PROTOCOL VERIFICATION/VALIDATION
1>__________are the foundations of modern communication networks such as the Internet, intelligent networks and wireless
networks (communication protocol/communication specification)
2>Programs that implement computer communication protocols can exhibit extremely complicated behaviour because they
must cope with
a: asynchronous computing programs
b: the possibility of failures in the programs and in the communication medium
Ans: __________ (a/b/both)
3>__________mainly concentrates on verifying the correctness of liveness and safety properties of a given protocol
specification (protocol validation/protocol verification)
4>___________ properties have the form 'bad things will not happen' (safety/liveness)
5>The safety properties of a protocol are
a: non-violation of assertions
b: invariants
Ans: __________ (a/b/both)
6>___________ properties of a protocol have the form 'good things will happen' (safety/liveness)
7>Liveness properties include
a: termination requirements in sequential protocols
b: recurrent properties in non-terminating protocols like network operating system protocols
Ans: ___________ (a/b/both)
8>In a protocol verification approach, a protocol is modeled by a set of interacting ___________that represent logical units of
the communication system such as the communication medium, transmitter and the receiver (components/modules)
9>Modules of a protocol can be categorized into ___________ (processes/monitors)
10>_____is an active protocol component, and ______is a data abstraction with synchronization (processes/monitors)
11>At the___________ level, the properties of processes and monitors are verified by examination of their code
(lowest/highest)
12>Following are approaches used for protocol verification
a: FSM
b: petrinet
c: temporal logic
Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all)
13>The steps required to perform verification of a protocol (ABP) are
a: each of the protocol entities, namely sender , receiver and channel have individual FSM consisting of states and transitions
b: create a global system combining all the processes of given protocol
c: generate all transition events of the protocol and create a table with the following items: transition event, frames accepted,
frame emitted and frame delivered to the receiver
d: check for the safety and liveness properties of the protocol from the table
Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all)
14>___________state in a state of a system whose occurrence means all the specified messages have been transmitted and
received correctly (finished/terminator)
15>Many protocol implementations used in the Internet have almost suffered design failures because
a: of some serious design errors due to ambiguous protocol requirement specification
b: of some serious design errors due to unambiguous protocol requirement specification
Ans: ___________ (a/b/either)
16>__________is a method of checking whether the interactions of protocol entities are according to the protocol specification
(protocol verification/protocol validation)
17>___________refers to check the protocol specification such that it will not get into protocol design errors like deadlock,
unspecified receptions and livelock errors (validation/verification)
18>The following are the possible design errors that can occur during protocol design and development
a: non-executable interaction
b: unspecified receptions
c: unboundedness of a protocol
d: state ambiguity of protocol
e: lack of adaptation in a protocol
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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING

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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING

  • 1.
  • 2. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1>A communication model comprises of the following subsystems a: source b: transmitter c: transmission system d: receiver e: destination Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 2>Match the following source: accepts the incoming data transmitter: carrier the data transmission system: generates the data to be transmitted receiver: converts the data into transmittable signals destination: converts the received signals into data__________ 3>_____are small networks which connect the systems in a building/campus, whereas_____cover a large geographical area, cross public rights of way. And rely, in part , on common carrier circuits (LAN/MAN/WAN) 4>__________is a set of computer programs, procedures and associated documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system (program/software) 5>__________is defined as a set of computer programs which are used for generation, transmission and reception of information between/among a set of computers connected by wired or wireless media (communication model/communication software) 6>Following are some of the communication software programs a: dialing b: file transfer c: terminal emulation d: data encryption Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 7>___________software tells the computer how to place a call on a phone line connected to it (calling/dialing) 8>Identify features of dialling software a: it tells the computer how to place a call on a phone line connected to it b: it displays messages about the progress of the call c: it can automatic redial, store phone numbers, voice based dial, transfer calls, answer calls Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all) 9>___________program encodes the data (data conversion/data encryption) 10>The communication software development must have the following objectives a: to shorten the time of porting communication software to a new environment b: to shorten the time of new communication software component developments c: to make new developments easier by applying reusable components and design patterns d: to assure higher quality Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 11>___________in communication software are the communication protocols which are based on several set of rules or standards (computer software/computer program) 12>The main purpose of the __________is to keep all the subsystems informed of any changes in the design parameters (communication environment/communication software) 13>Following are different types of events that can occur in a communication system a: change reported from one of the subsystem b: request for data from one subsystem to another Ans: ___________ (a/b/both) 14>wrt to updating of changes of one subsystem in another, arrange the following events in correct sequence a: take action b: action taken c: report changes d: acknowledge changes Ans: ___________ (cdba/cdab) 15>wrt requested data transfer from one subsystem to another, arrange the following events in correct sequence VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 3. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 2 a: request to send b: data sent c: data request d: data found Ans: ___________ (cabd/cdab) 16>__________are the grammars through which computers or computer-based devices communicate with one another, the way they organize and transmit the bits and bytes of electronic on-off signals, whose patterns encode the data (communication software/communication protocol) 17>___________is a set of rules that governs, how a message containing data and control information are assembled at a source for their transmission across the network and then disassembled when they reach their destination (software/protocol) 18>___________is defined as a set of rules governing the interactions of concurrent processes in a distributed system (software/protocol) 19>The interactions in a protocol can be divided into following types a: network level interactions b: end to end level interactions for reliable transfer c: application level interactions Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all) 20>___________are used for communications between entities in a system (software/protocol) 21>The key elements of a protocol are a: syntax b: semantics c: timing Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all) 22>Match the following Syntax : says about the control information and error handling Semantic : talks about the speed matching and sequencing Timing : includes data formats and signal levels 23>___________define a format, order of messages sent and received among the network entities, and actions taken on message transmission and receipt (protocol/software) 24>A computer storage representation of a protocol can be represented by a: sequence of message exchanges b: flowchart i.e. an informal description of a protocol Ans: ___________ (a/b/both) 25>Following are some formal methods used for protocol representation a: finite state machines b: petrinets Ans: ___________ (a/b/both) 26>FSM stands for___________ 27>A finite state machine M Is ___tuple (5/6)________ 28>A finite state machine M is a five tuple, and is represented by M= (I, O, S, N, A) where__, __&__ are finite & nonempty sets of input symbols, output symbols and states respectively. 29>In M= (I, O, S, N, A), __is a state transition function which gives next state from the current state based on the specified input 30>In M= (I, O, S, N, A), __is an output function which represents set of actions for a given set of inputs in the current state 31>In FSM of simple message exchange protocol, the sender can be in any one the following states a: idle b: ready_send c: send_data d: wait_ack e: receive f: data-cons Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/de/f/all) 32>In FSM of simple message exchange protocol, the receiver can be in any one the following states a: idle b: ready_send c: send_data d: wait_ack e: receive f: data-cons Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/f/all)___________ VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 4. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 3 33>FSM's states and transitions can be represented in the form of tables called as___________ (truth table/state transition table) 34>Following are some properties of FSM a: strongly connected b: completely specified c: minimal Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all) 35>FSM is___________ connected if for every state pair (Si, Sj), there is transition path going from Si to Sj ie N (Si;I)=Sj (completely/strongly/minimal) 36>FSM is___________ specified if from each state, it has a transition for each input symbol (completely/strongly/minimal) 37>FSM is___________ (completely/strongly/minimal), if number of states of FSM M is less than or equal to number of states of M' equivalent to M, and no pair of states of M are equivalent ie for every pair of states (Si;Sj), i!=j, there is an input sequence that distinguishes them, that is , ASi, I)!=A (Sj, I) 38>CFSM stands for___________ 39>If the FSMs of the message exchange protocol are combined together using the channels for the signal and data transfers, it is called as___________ (MFSM/CFSM) 40>___________representation is more suitable for the protocol process representation (CFSM/FSM) 41>___________is described as a set of CFSMs (protocol/software) 42>Each CFSM is represented by a directed labeled graph where____ represent states of the process, and_______ represent transitions of the process (node/edge) 43>___________deals only with the state-transition aspect of protocols, and does not address the data aspect of protocols (CFSM/FSM) 44>CFSM does not deal with the message contents or formats (true/false)___________ 45>___________model is the model of communicating FSMs that has a finite number of message types and a finite number of major states of each FSM (CFSM/extended FSM) 46>An extended FSM model is similar to CFSM but has following extended features a: each type of message may be associated wrh typed message parameters b: each FSM may be characterized by additional state variables c: each transition may be associated with an additional condition d: for each output produced, it is necessary to specify the values of the associated message parameters e: for each transition, there is an additional action which performs an update of the additional state variables Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 47>A petrinet is a five tuple (P, T, IN, OUT, MO) where ___is a set of places, ___is a set of transitions, ___=initial marking , __ is an input function that defines directed arcs from places to transitions, __is an output function that defines directed arcs from transitions to places 48>In pertinet, ___are represented by circles, ___by a period in a place, and _____by horizontal or vertical bars (token/places/transition) 49>Petrinet model consist of following parts a: the net structure that represents the static part of the system b: marking that represents the overall state on the structure Ans: ___________ (a/b/both) 50>The token distribution among the places of a petrinet is called it___________ (transition firing/marking) 51>In Pertinet, ___________means that tokens in the input places are apparently moved to the output places (transition firing/marking) 52>In petrinet model for producer-consumer protocol with initial markings, the sequence of production-consumption is as following (in order) a: on firing of transition 'consume', the token in place c2 moves to c1 b: on firing of 'read' transition, the token in consumer moves from place c1 to c2 and the token in buffer moves from b2 to b1 c: after transition 'write' is fired, the token in producer moves to place p1 and the token in buffer moves from place b1 to b2 d: when transition 'produce' is fired by the producer. The token in place p1 moves to p2 Ans: ___________ (dacb/dcab/dcba) 53>Following are ways of design and development of communication protocols: ___________ (informal/formal/both) 54>The protocol design and development through informal and formal methods includes a: specification b: validation c: implementation Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all) 55>___________way of specifications of the protocols include textual description and message exchange sequence (informal/formal) VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 5. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 4 56>___________description does not facilitate to represent large complex protocols which has enormous events and conditions, and often leads to unclear and ambiguous specifications (informal/formal) 57>The complexity of protocols make them very hard to analyze in ___________way (informal/formal) 58>The communication software development process takes place in___ phases (5/6)________ 59>The communication software development process takes place in following phases a: informal specification of requirements b: conceptual representation c: concepts coding in a programming language d: compilation e: implementation f: debugging/execution Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/f/all) 60>wrt informal way of protocol software development, arrange the following phases in correct sequence a: informal specification of requirements b: concepts coding in a programming language c: conceptual representation d: implementation e: compilation f: debugging/execution Ans: ___________ (acbfed/acbefd/acbedf) 61>FDT stands for___________ 62>The use of ___________techniques will facilitate design and implementation of communication software protocols quickly and efficiently (informal/formal) 63>Following are examples of ___________ methods: FSM, extended FSM, Petrinet, Timed pertinet, CCS, temporal logic, algebra calculi, formal grammar (informal/formal) 64>CCS stands for___________ 65>Software development using FDT has following phases a: informal specification of requirements b: formal specification c: simulation validation compilation d: implementation Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 66>wrt Software development using FDT, arrange the following events in correct sequence a: simulation validation compilation b: formal specification c: informal specification of requirements d: implementation Ans: ___________ (badc/cbda/cbad) 67>___________is an interdisciplinary area that deals with application of formal techniques and software engineering methodologies to protocol design and implementation (communcation engineering/protocol engineering) 68>___________is used to describe the activities pertaining to construction of large scale software systems (protocol engineering/software engineering) 69>___________specification techniques are used to facilitate unambiguous specificaton of protocol standards and automation in the various phases of protocol development (formal/informal) 70>___________of protocol engineering includes the activities related to protocol design and development (domain/range) 71>___________deals with implementation, performance analysis and conformance testing (communication engineering/protocol engineering) 72>Following are phases of protocol engineering a: service specification b: synthesis c: protocol specification d: protocol verification/validation e: performance analysis f: conformance testing g: protocol implementation h: monitoring/diagnosis Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/f/g/h/all) 73>Match the following service specification : Synthesis : it monitors the working of implemented protocol and checks for the errors VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 6. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 5 protocol specification : it deals with the real coding of the protocol using software aspects protocol verification/validation: it tests whether the protocol conforms to the specifications laid down in the protocol specification phase performance analysis : the services to be carried out by the protocol are being specified in a formalized way conformance testing : an automated tool is used to generate the formal specifications of a protocol that represents the service specifications protocol implementation : it looks into syntax and semantics of protocol specifications monitoring/diagnosis : it checks for correctness and liveness properties of the protocol ___________ ANSWERS: 1>all 2>1-c 2-d 3-b 4-e 5-a 3>LAN ,WAN 4>software 5>communication software 6>all 7>dialing 8>all 9>data encryption 10>all 11>computer 12>communication environment 13>both 14>cdab 15>cdab 16>communication protocol 17>protocol 18>protocol 19>all 20>protocol 21>all 22>1-c 2-a 3-b 23>protocol 24>both 25>both 26>Finite State Machine 27>5 28>I ,O and S 29>N 30>A 31>abcd 32>aef 33>state transition 34>all 35>strongly 36>completely 37>minimal 38>Communicating FSM 39>CFSM 40>CFSM 41>protocol 42>node ,edge 43>CFSM 44>T 45>extended FSM 46>all 47>P ,T ,M0 ,IN ,OUT VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 7. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 6 48>places ,token ,transition 49>both 50>marking 51>transition firing 52>dcba 53>both 54>all 55>informal 56>informal 57>informal 58>6 59>all 60>acbedf 61>Formal Description Technique 62>formal 63>formal 64>Calculi of Communication Systems 65>all 66>cbad 67>protocol engineering 68>software engineering 69>formal 70>domain 71>protocol 72>all 73>1-e 2-f 3-g 4-h 5-a 6-d 7-c 8-b VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 8. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 7 CHAPTER 2: NETWORK REFERENCE MODEL 1>__________is a group of computers, printers and other devices that are connected together either with a cable or wireless media (WAN/network) 2>In general, __________reference model defines the functions of communication software in a generalized and structured manner which helps to carry out the network product development activities (OSI/network) 3>It is impractical to write a single protocol to handle all the communication tasks (true/false) __________ 4>It is impractical to solve a wide range of problems that may arise in digital data communication. Some of the problems include the following a: host/link failure b: network congestion c: data delay or loss d: data corruption e: data duplication or packets out-of-sequence Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 5>Match the following host failure: transmission errors can corrupt the data being transmitted link failure: sometimes data is lost during the transmission or may experience excessive delay network congestion: networks have finite capacity which cannot beexceeded data delay or loss: transmission link may be damaged or disconnected data corruption: host or gateway may fail due to a hardware or software crash data duplication: whenever there is existence of more than one roote in a network connection, it is possible for transmitted packets to arrive out of sequence at the receiver__________ 6>In abstract representation of network architecture, at the_____level, we have application programs and hardware at ______level is required for data transmission across a network (top/bottom) 7>The layered architectures are the rulebooks upon which implementations are based, consisting of collection of protocols, the rules by which physically separated entities interact, which is called as___________ reference model (network/OSI) 8>The entities in the same layer on different machines are called as___________entities (paired/peer) 9>___________define a technique to organize a network system into a succession of logically distinct entities, such that service provided by one entity is solely based on the service provided by the previous entity (top down architecture/layered architecture) 10>Layered architecture is suitable to deal with complex systems due to following reasons a: explicit structure allows identification of the relationship among a complex system's pieces b: modularization eases maintenance and updating of the system c: change of implementation of a layer's service transparent to rest of system d: if no layering is there, each new application has to be re-implemented for every network technology Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 11>___________is a set of primitives that a layer provides to the layer above it (procedure/service) 12>A service relates to an interface between two layers, with_____layer being the service provider and _____layer being the service user (lower/upper) 13>___________is a point at which the services are accessible to the layers (socket/layer interface) 14>A Layer interface is a point at which the services are accessible to the layers.The services are available throgh ___________ (SIP/SAP) 15>SAP stands for___________ 16>IDU stands for__________ 17>SDU stands for___________ 18>PDU stands for___________ 19>ICI stands for___________ 20>IDU consists of___________ (SDU/ICI/both) 21>_____is the information passed across a network to the peer entity and then up to the layer n+1.______is needed to help the lower layer do its job but is not part of the data itself (SDU/ICI) 22>___________is a set of rules governing the format and meaning of frames, packets or messages that are exchanged by the peer entities within a layer (protocol/program) 23>A protocol has to perform following functions a: encapsulation b: segmentation & reassembly VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 9. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 8 c: flow & error control d: multiplexing e: addressing Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 24>A communication message contains________information (data/control/both) 25>______information consists of addresses, error-detection and dialog control._____information contains the data in standard formats required for communication among machines (data/control) 26>__________is the technique used by layered protocols in which a layer accepts a message from a layer above it and places it in the data portion of the lower level layers message unit (segmentation/encapsulation) 27>_________is needed for reliable end-to-end and link transmission (flow control/error control) 28>______error control makes sure that data is reliably transferred between hosts._____error control is done between the intermediate nodes of a network which are used to switch the data from a sender to receiver (link level/end-to-end) 29>_______is necessary between host-to-host and intermediate node to intermediate node in order to control the congestion in a network (congestion control/flow control) 30>A flow control entity at_____layer controls the flow of PDUs between the hosts and avoids flooding of PDUs at the receiver, whereas flow control in entities at ______layer avoids the network congestion , and prevent network jamming (lower/higher) 31>The ISO recommended a generally acceptable network reference model called________ (OSI or TCP/IP) 32>_______comprises of seven layers that serves a reference framework for the development of protocol specifications and standards (OSI or TCP/IP) 33>In OSI referece model, each layer is associated with certain set of protocols facilitating ___________communication among the corresponding layers between the computer systems (viral/virtual) 34>The advantage of OSI approach is that each layer can be considered independently of the other as long as the interfaces remain the same (true/false)___________ 35>TPDU stands for___________ 36>wrt OSI model, arrange the following layers in correct sequence (from bottom to top) a: data link b: transport c: presentation d: physical e: network f: session g: application Ans: ___________ (daebfgc/daebfcg/daebgfc) 37>The ___________layers of the OSI model deal with application issues and are generally implemented only in software (lower1to4/upper5to7) 38>In OSI model, ___________layer is closest to the end-user (application/physical) 39>___________layers of the OSI model handle data transport issues (lower1to4/upper5to7) 40>In OSI model, the physical layer and the data link layer are implemented in___________ (software/hardware/both) 41>In OSI model, __________layer is responsibald for actually placing information on the medium (physical/application) 42>Features of Physical layer are a: it provides direct mechanical and electrical connections between the computer system and the network nodes b: it concerns transmission of raw data over the medium c: it has set of interfacing rules to communicate with devices like modems, the broadband or carrier band etc d: data sent in this layer are bit string e: it makes and breaks connections with the medium Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 43>Identify features of data link layer a: it establishes and maintains a communication path between nodes of the network b: it is responsible for transferring frames from one computer to another w/o errors c: it is diveded into two sublayers LLC and MAC d: it can perform flow control Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 44>In data link layer, ______sublayer manages communications between the devices over a single link of a network , and _____sublayer manages protocol access to the physical network mediumLLC/MAC) 45>___________control moderates the transmissom of data so that the receiving euthad is not overwhelmed with more traffic than it can handle at one time (flow/congestion) 46>Identify features of network layer a: it is concerned with routing of data from one network node to another b: routers use this layer to determine how to forward packets VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 10. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 9 c: it has the responsibility of interconnecting two or more dissimilar networks d: data sent in this layer are packets Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 47>Identify features of transport layer a: it accepts the data from session layer and segments the data for transport across the network b: it is responsible for making sure that the data is delivered error-free and in the proper sequence c: flow control occurs at this layer d: it provides multiplexing Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 48>___________control manages data transmission between devices so that the transmitting device does not send more data than the receiving device can process (flow/congestion) 49>___________enables ata from several applications to be transmitted onto a single physical link (encapsulation/multiplexing) 50>Identify features of session layer a: it establishes , manages and terminates communication sessions b: it determines which of the three modes of interaction the communication may take ie simplex, half duplex or full duplex c: it provides synchronization and check-pointing to keep the two end devices in step with each other d: SPDUs are types of data units exchanged Ans: ______ (a/b/c/d/all) 51>Identify features of presentation jewes a: it provides a variety of coding and conversion functions that are applied to application layer data b: PPDUs are the types of data units exchanged c: it includes common data representation formats, conversion of character representation formats, common data compression schemes and common data encryption schemes Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all) 52>Identify features of application layer a: it is the OSI layer closest to the end user b: it provides the mechanisms and interfaces that enable an end user to communicate within the network environment c: it includes logging in, checking password, file request, file transfer etc d: APDUs are the data units exchanged Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/all) 53>Match the following physical layer: any service provided to end users data link layer: full duplex, accesses management eg token control synchronization network layer: delivers a packet to a specified destination, performs fragmentation/reassembly of packets, packet scheduling , buffer mangement transport layer: moves information between two systems connected by a physical link session layer: framing ie attach frames separator , send data frames between peers, arbitrates the access to common physical media, ensures reliable transmission, provides flow control presentation layer: provides an inorder, error free and flow & congestion controlled end to end connection, multiplexing/demultiplexing packets application layer: converts data between various representation___________ 54>Match the following physical layer: defines data formats and rules to convert from one format to another data link layer: implements reliability as well as flow & congestion control network layer: layer addresses, implement MAC , provides error control transport layer: coding scheme used to represent a bit, voltage levels, duration of a bit session layer: defines global unique addresses, constructs routing tables, implements packet forwarding, fragments/ reassembler packets presentation layer: token management, inserts checkpoints, implementsrolling back functions application layer: depends on the application ___________ 55>Match the following physical layer: FTP, Telnet.WWW data link layer: RPC network layer: RIP, OSPF, IP transport layer: CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA, Token ring, HDLC session layer: ASN.1 presentation layer: TCP & UDP application layer: coaxial cable, optical fiber links___________ 56>The TCP/IP protocol suite is the world's most popular open system protocol quite because VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 11. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 10 a: they can be used to communicate across any set of interconnected networks b: they are well suited for LAN and WAN communications Ans: ___________ (a/b/both) 57>DARPA stands for___________ 58>In TCP/IP suite application, ______&_____layers are combined together to form one layer called application layer (application/session/presentation) 59>In TCP/IP protocol suite, arrange the following layers in correct order (from bottom to top) a: network access b: IP c: TCP d: application e: physical Ans: ___________ (eadbc/eabdc/eabcd) 60>in TCP/IP protocol suite, Host to network interface is a combinationof_____&______ (network access/IP/TCP/application/physical) 61>Network access layer in TCP/IP suite is similar to___________layers in OSI (LLC/MAC/both) 62>___________protocols are used for sharing a single broadcast channel among several users by avoiding conflicts between the sending hosts (LLC/MAC) 63>MAC protocols may be categorized into following types a: channel partitioning b: random access protocols c: taking turn protocols Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all) 64>___________category protocols mainly divides the channel into smaller pieces and allocate a piece to a node for exclusive use (channel partitioning/random access protocols/taking turn protocols) 65>Examples of___________MAC protocols are: TDMA, FDMA & CDMA (channel partitioning/random access /taking turn) 66>In___________, access to a channel by the hosts is in rounds ie each station gets a fixed length slot in each round (FDMA/TDMA/CDMA) 67>In___________, the unused slots by nodes go idle and hence the bandwidth is wasted (FDMA/TDMA/CDMA) 68>In___________, channel spectrum is divided into frequency bands where each host is assigned a fixed frequency band (FDMA/TDMA/CDMA) 69>In___________, the unusedtransmission time in frequency bands goes idle and hence bandwidth is wasted (FDMA/TDMA/CDMA) 70>In___________, a unique code is assigned to each host in a network (FDMA/TDMA/CDMA) 71>___________is used mostly in wireless broadcast channels where all hosts share same frequency, but each host has its own chipping sequence to encode the data (FDMA/TDMA/CDMA) 72>In CDMA, the encoded signal is given as___________of original data and chipping sequence (sum/product) 73>In___________category protocols, channel is not divided into fixed slots but, are allowed collisions between the nodes and some mechanisms to recover from collision are used (channel partitioning/random access/taking turn) 74>Examples of __________MAC protocols are pure Aloha, slotted Aloha , CSMA/CD (channel partitioning/random access/taking turn) 75>In___________, the nodes can start transmission as and when the frames are ready.If transmission is not successful, a node retransmits the frame ( pure Aloha or slotted Aloha or CSMA/CD) 76>___________has higher collsion probability ( pure Aloha or slotted Aloha or CSMA/CD) 77>___________considers all frames of same size since it divides time into equal sized slots which is given as the time to transmit one frame ( pure Aloha or slotted Aloha or CSMA/CD) 78>In___________, if a node senses the channel to be idle, it transmits an entire frame otherwise defers the transmission ( pure Aloha or slotted Aloha or CSMA/CD) 79>Match the following IEEE 802.3 (CSMA/CD): wireless network topology IEEE 802.4 (token bus): wired ring topology IEEE 802.5 (token ring): wired logical ring topology IEEE 802.11 (wireless CSMA/CA): wired bus topology___________ 80>To avoid collisions, MAC protocols use following methods____________ (polling/token passing/both) 81>In__________, a master node invites the slave nodes to transmit in turn. In_______, a control token is passed from one node to next sequentially where presence of token indicates transmit permission (polling/token passing) 82>The concerns of polling method are_____.The concerns of token passing mehod are______ (polling overhead/token overhead/latency/single point of failure) 83>___________protocol is used for storing the data in the buffers until media is accessed and data sent is acknowledged (MAC/LLC) VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 12. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 11 84>Some we LLC protocols are a: simple stop wait protocol b: stop wait protocol with timers and ARQ c: sliding window protocol Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all) 85>Match the following simple stop wait protocol: it considers two channels in which regular frames will be sent in forward channel and ACKs will be sent in the reverse channel stop wait protocol with timers & ARQ: it assumes an error free channel with finite buffer capacity and processing speed at the nodes, and prevents a sender from flooding the receiver sliding window protocols: it is used in case of error prone channels which may either cause damage to frames or loss of the frames___________ 86>In__________protocol, sender sends one frame at a time and then waits for ACK before proceeding to transfer next data (sliding window/stop wait/stop wait with ARQ) 87>In___________protocol, sender could send a frame and timeout, and send a frame again if it does not receive ACK from the receiver (sliding window/stop wait/stop wait with ARQ) 88>___________protocol considers two channels in which regular frames will be sent in forward channel and ACKs will be sent in the reverse channel (sliding window/stop wai/stop wait with ARQ) 89>In___________protocol, sender sends N frames and waits for an acknowledgment. If rth frame is in error, it starts sending from rth to Nth frame and early packets received after rth frame will be discarded (sliding window/stop wait/stop wait with ARQ/Goback) 90>wrt simplex stop wait protocol, arrange the following in correct sequence a: frame2 b: frame1 c: ACK Ans: ___________ (acb/bac/bca) 91>wrt one bit sliding window protocol, arrange the following in correct sequence a: seq=0, ack=0, RF=1 b: seq=1, ack=1, RF=2 c: seq=0, ack=1, SF=1 d: seq=1, ack=1, SF=2 Ans: ___________ (cbda/cabd/cadb) 92>HDLC stands for___________ 93>___________specifies a packetization standard for serial links connecting the remote devices in the network with central computer, either point-to-point or point-to-multipoint (HDLC/SLIP/PPP) 94>___________is used to connect a computer to Internet over dialup line using the modem (HDLC/SLIP/PPP) 95>___________protocol does not support error checking , correction, detection & authentication bu supports only IP networks and uses character stuffing for data framing (SLIP/PPP) 96>___________is an approved and widely used protocol to connect home PCs to Internet over dial-up lines (HDLC/SLIP/PPP) 97>___________handles error detection (SLIP/PPP) 98>PPP has following components: ___________ (LCP/NCP/both) 99>LCP stands for___________ 100>NCP stands for___________ 101>_____is used for authentication , bringing up lines, negotiating and bring down lines when needed whereas_____handles negotiation with network layer and gets the IP address allocated at connection time (LCP/NCP) 102>SLIP stands for______ 103>The function of________protocols is to find the routes in a computer network to provide connectionless best effort datagram delivery service to the network users, and perform fragmentation and reassembly of datagrams to support data links with different MTU sizes (network/transport) 104>__________is mainly concerned with addressing of network nodes, security, remove quality of service and fragmentation/reassembly of packets (IP/TCP) 105>IP header is___bytes long and can carry data upto___kb including header, but in practice, maximum size of IP packet is____bytes (20/32/64/500/1500) 106>_______field in the IP packet helps to remove the orphan packets ie it acts as a counter that gradually decrements to zero, and at this point the datagram is discarded, thus preventin looping of packets (TLV/TTL) 107>An IP address is___bits long (32/64) 108>IP networks can be divided into smaller networks called_______ (supernetwork/subnetwork) 109>__________provides the network administrator with extra flexibility and efficient use of network addresses (supernetwork/subnetwork) VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 13. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 12 110>Maximum hosts in class A, B & C is___ ___&____respectively (254/65543/16777214) 111>Match the following class A: 192.0.1.0 to 223.255.254.0 class B: 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 class C: 1.0.0.0 to 126.0.0.0 class D: 128.1.0.0 to 191.254.0.0 112>The Internet has been divided into logical clusters called__________ (autonomous system/autonomy system) 113>AS concept improves the connectivity of__________networks (small/large/both) 114>Following are different types of ASs a: stub AS b: multihomed AS c: transit AS Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all) 115>Match the following stub AS: used for large corporation which has multiplex connections to other ASs multi-homed AS: used by service providers to hook many ASs together transit AS: used forsmall corporation which has single connection to other ASs___________ 116>Internet performs hierarchical routing (true/false)__________ 117>Internet takes up the tasks of a: routing within the ASs (intra-AS routing) b: routing between the ASs (inter-AS routing) Ans: __________ (a/b/both) 118>The routing protocol run by a router in an AS to find the routes within AS is called as_____AS routing protocol whereas the routing protocol used by the gateway routers to find the paths between the ASs Is called ____AS routing protocol (inter/intra) 119>In _____AS routing, the administrator is responsible for choice of routing algorithm within network whereas in______AS routing, there is a unique standard for inter-AS routing (inter/intra) 120>Distance vector and link state routing are examples of ______AS routing (inter/intra) 121>BGP is an example of__________AS routing (inter/intra) 122>RIP is __________gateway routing protocol (interior/exterior) 123>ADBF stands for__________ 124>The routing algorithm used in_____is ADBF (RIP/OSF/BGP)______ 125>OSPF is ___________gateway protocol (exterior/interior) 126>_________uses link state or shortest path first based routing algorithm (RIP/OSPF/BGP) 127>Dijkstra algorithm is used in___________ (RIP/OSPF/BGP) 128>Distance vector algorithm is used in__________ (RIP/OSPF/BGP) 129>BGP is an________AS routing protocol (intra/inter) 130>Hosts using BGP communicate using_________ (TCP/UDP) 131>___________is a major protocol used in the Internet routing (RIP/OSPF/BGP) 132>IP supports multicasting by using class___addresses (C/D)________ 133>IGMP stands for__________ 134>__________is used by IP hosts to report their host group memberships to any immediately neighbouring multicast routers (IGMP/ICMP) 135>Examples of multicast protocols are a: DVMRP b: PIM c: MOSPF Ans: ________ (a/b/c/all) 136>DVMRP stands for__________ 137>PIM stands for__________ 138>MOSPF stands for__________ 139>__________allows a diskless client machine to discover its own IP address, the address of a server host and the name of a file to be loded into memory and executed (DHCP/BOOTP) 140>__________is used to control vital networking parameters of hosts with the help of a server (DHCP/BOOTP) 141>DHCP supports following types of addresses a: automatic b: dynamic c: manual Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all) 142>Match the following VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 14. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 13 automatic addressing: address is assigned manually by network administrator dynamic addressing: permanent IP address is assigned to the client manual addressing: address is assigned for a limited period of time 143>Mobile IP allows the mobile node to use___IP addresses (2/3) 144>In mobile IP, ____address is static and is used whereas______address changes at each new point of attachment and can be called as the mobile node's topologically significant address (home/care of ) 145>The home address makes it appear that the mobile node is continually able to receive data on its home network, where Mobile IP requires the existence of a network node known as__________ (home agent/foreign agent) 146>__________messages , delivered in IP packets, are used for out-of-band messages related to network operation or misoperation (IGMP/ICMP) 147>CIDR overcomes following problems a: running short of IP addresses b: running out of capacity in the global routing tables Ans: __________ (a/b/both) 148>CIDR currently uses prefixes anywhere in the range of__to__bits (12/13/24/27)______ 149>With CIDR, blocks of addresses can be assigned to networks as small as____hosts or to those with over______hosts (32/64/250000/500000) 150>In the CIDR ddress 206.13.01.48/25, the '/25' indicates the _____ 25 bits are used to identify the specific host (first/last)_____ 151>The CIDR addressing scheme enables___________in which a single high level route entry can represent many lower level routes in the global routing tables (route association/route aggregation) 152>___________is used to negotiate with network nodes to reserve bandwidth to support QoS path setup (RSVP/RARP) 153>RSVP can be used for_________traffic flows (unicast/multicast/both) 154>___________maps IP address to MAC address (ARP/RARP) 155>___________maps the 48 bits MAC address to IP address (ARP/RARP) 156>___________provides reliable transmission of data over the Internet (TCP/UDP) 157>__________provides stream data transfer, reliability, efficient flow control, full duplex operation and multiplexing (TCP/UDP) 158>TCP segments consist of fixed ____ byte header and the data segment not greater than ____kbytes (16/20/32/64)__ 159>TCP consists of source and destination port numbers which are called_________ (TSAP/TPDU) 160>Using TCP, host must establish a connection oriented session with one another and it is performed by using_____way handshake mechanism (two/three) 161>wrt TCP connection establishment, arrange the following events in correct sequence a: syn (seq=y, ack=x+1) b: syn (seq=x+1, ack=y+1) c: syn (seq=x) Ans: __________ (acb/cba/cab) 162>wrt TCP data transfer, arrange the following events in correct sequence a: conn-response b: conn-confirm c: Ack d: conn-request Ans: __________ (dcab/dacb/dabc) 163>wrt TCP window control , arrange the following events in correct order a: 2k, seq=2k b: 2k, seq=0 c: ack=2k, w=2k Ans: __________ (acb/bac/bca) 164>TCP uses ________ management for traffic flow control (window/timer) 165>__________is the time spent in waiting for Ack after sending a segment (delay/RTT) 166>TCP performs congestion control (true/false)__________ 167>In TCP congestion control, congestion window (CWND) uses_____start algorithm (slow/fast)_____ 168>Smoothed RTT is computed by using__________estimate (old/observed/both) 169>I TCP exponential averaging, the following equations are used in estimating SRTT & RTO when an acknowledgement for (i+1)th packet is recieved a: SRTT (i+1)=a*RTT (i+1)+ (1-a)*SRTT (i) b: RTO=SRTT (i+1)*d Ans: ___________ (a/b/both) 170>In TCP exponential averaging, the value of 'a must' be _____than unity (less/greater)_____ 171>The values of 'a' within___&___give better RTT estimates (0.7/0.8/0.9)____ VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 15. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 14 172>In TCP Jacobson algorithm, the following equations are used to find SRTT when an acknowledgment is received for an (i+1)th packet a: SRTT (i+1)={ (1-a)SRTT (i)}+{a*RTT (i+1)} b: SRTT (i+1)=RTT (i+1)-SRTT (i) c: SDEV{ (i+1)={ (1-h)SDEV (i)}+{h*SERR (i+1)} d: RTO (i+1)=SRTT (i+1)+B*SDEV (i+1) Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/all) 173>In TCP Jacobson algorithm, typical taver for a, B and h are____, ___and____respectively (0.125/0.25/4) 174>TCP__________algorithm suffers from retransmission ambiguity (karn/jacobson) 175>_________supports connectionless transport of data across the network (TCP/UDP) 176>__________does not provide reliablity, flow control or eror recovery functions to IP (TCP/UDP) 177>___headers contain fewer bytes and consumes less network overhead them_______ (TCP/UDP) 178>_____supports multimedia data transfer over Internet (RTP/RSVP) 179>RTP uses_______as a transport mechanism (TCP/UDP)___ 180>The RTP services include a: payload type identification b: sequence numbering c: timestamping d: delivery monitoring Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/all) 181>RTU uses__________to monitor the quality of service and to convey information about the participants in an ongoing session (RTCP/RSVP) 182>RTCP stands for__________ 183>Application layer protocols typically has following pieces_________ (client/server/both) 184>__________is used to make reliable file transfer between the machines connected across the network by using TCP as a transport protocol (FTP/TFTP) 185>In FTP, port=___is used for control and port=____is used for data (20/21)___ 186>FTP server maintains following states a: current directory b: earlier authentication Ans: __________ (a/b/both) 187>__________is used to perform unreliable file transfers between two machines connected across the network by using UDP as a transport prtocol (FTP/TFTP) 188>__________is used in emulating the terminal (Telnet/TFTP) 189>Following are major components of email a: user agents b: mail servers c: SMTP Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all) 190>Match the following user agent: is a protocol between mail servers to exchange email messages mailbox: is used for composing, editing and reading mail messages SMTP: contains messages for the user 191>__________is used to fetch email from the remote mailbox and store it on the user's local machine to be read later (IMAP/POP) 192>__________is designed to help the user who uses multiplex computers, perhaps, a workstation in office, a PC at home, and a laptop on the road (IMAP/POP) 193>__________does not copy email to user's personal machines (IMAP/POP) 194>__________provides a systematic way of monitoring and managing a computer network (SNMP/SMTP) 195>SNMP is a request reply protocol running over _____ (TCP/UDP)_____ 196>__________is primarily used for mapping host names and email destinations to IP addresses (DNS/HTTP) 197>DNS uses____conection to DNS server (TCP/UDP)______ 198>Following are different types of DNS servers a: local name server b: root name server c: authoritative name server Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all) 199>There are about____root name servers in the world (12/13/14)______ 200>__________is a standard web transfer protocol used to retrieve HTML documents stored across the hosts in the Internet (WAP/HTTP) VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 16. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 15 201>HTTP uses _______as transport protocol (TCP/UDP)__ 202>Using HTTP, client initiates TCP connection to server at port ___ (69/80/94)____ 203>RTSP stands for_______ 204>RTCP stands for_______ 205>_______is a client server multimedia presentation protocol to enable controlled delivery of streamed multimedia data over IP network (RTCP/RTSP) ANSWERS: 1>network 2>network 3>T 4>all 5>1-e 2-d 3-c 4-b 5-a 6-f 6>top ,bottom 7>network 8>peer 9>layered architecture 10>all 11>service 12>lower ,upper 13>layer interface 14>SAP 15>Service Access Point 16>Interface Data Unit 17>Service Data Unit 18>Protocol Data Unit 19>Interface Control Information 20>both 21>SDU ,ICI 22>protocol 23>all 24>both 25>control ,data 26>encapsulation 27>error control 28>end-to-end 29>flow control 30>higher ,lower 31>OSI 32>OSI 33>virtual 34>T 35>Transport Protocol Data Unit 36>daebfcg 37>upper 5to7 38>application 39>lower 1to4 40>both 41>physical 42>all 43>all 44>LLC ,MAC 45>flow control 46>all 47>all 48>flow 49>multiplexing 50>all 51>all VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 17. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 16 52>all 53>1-d 2-e 3-c 4-f 5-b 6-g 7-a 54>1-d 2-c 3-e 4-b 5-f 6-a 7-g 55>1-g 2-d 3-c 4-f 5-b 6-e 7-a 56>both 57>Defense Advanced Research Project Agency 58>presentation & session 59>eabcd 60>network access ,physical 61>both 62>MAC 63>all 64>channel partitioning 65>channel partitioning 66>TDMA 67>TDMA 68>FDMA 69>FDMA 70>CDMA 71>CDMA 72>product 73>rndom access 74>pure ALOHA 75>random access MAC 76>pure ALOHA 77>slotted ALOHA 78>CSMA 79>1-d 2-c 3-b 4-a 80>both 81>polling, token passing 82>polling overhead, latency & single point of failure; token overhead ,latency & single point of failure 83>LLC 84>all 85>1-b 2-c 3-a 86>simple stop-wait protocol 87>stop-wait protocol with timers & ARQ 88>Sliding window protocol 89>Goback 90>bca 91>cadb 92>High level Data Link Control 93>HDLC 94>SLIP 95>SLIP 96>PPP 97>PPP 98>both 99>Link Control Protocol 100>Network Control Protocol 101>LCP ,NCP 102>Serial Line IP 103>network 104>IP 105>20 ,64 ,1500 106>TTL 107>32 108>subnetwork 109>subnetting 110>16777214 ,65545 ,254 111>1-c 2-d 3-a 4-b VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 18. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 17 112>Autonomous System 113>both 114>all 115>1-c 2-a 3-b 116>T 117>both 118>intra ,inter 119>intra, inter 120>intra 121>inter 122>interior 123>Asynchronous Distributed Bellman Ford algorithm 124>RIP 125>interior 126>OSPF 127>OSPF 128>RIP 129>inter 130>TCP 131>BGP 132>D 133>Internet Group Management Protocol 134>IGMP 135>all 136>Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol 137>Protocol Independent Multicast 138>Multicast OSPF 139>BOOTP 140>DHCP 141>all 142>1-b 2-c 3-a 143>2 144>home, care-of-address 145>home agent 146>ICMP 147>both 148>13-27 149>32, 500000 150>first 151>route aggregation 152>RSVP 153>both 154>ARP 155>RARP 156>TCP 157>TCP 158>20 ,64 159>TSAP 160>3 161>cab 162>dabc 163>bca 164>window 165>RTT 166>T 167>slow 168>both 169>both 170>less 171>0.8-0.9 VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 19. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 18 172>all 173>0.125, 4 & 0.25 174>Jacobson 175>UDP 176>UDP 177>UDP ,TCP 178>RTP 179>UDP 180>all 181>RTCP 182>RTP Control Protocol 183>both 184>FTP 185>21 ,20 186>both 187>TFTP 188>Telnet 189>all 190>1-b 2-c 3-a 191>POP 192>IMAP 193>IMAP 194>SNMP 195>UDP 196>DNS 197>UDP 198>all 199>13 200>HTTP 201>TCP 202>80 203>Real Time Streaming Protocol 204>RTP Control Protocol 205>RTSP VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 20. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 19 CHAPTER 3: PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION 1>__________is a representation of communication services, entities, interfaces and interactions ( protocol specification/protocol engineering) 2>Following are components of a protocol a: communication service b: peer entity of a protocol c: communication interfaces d: interactions e: message formats Ans: __________ ( a/b/c/d/e/all) 3>Match the following communication service: defines the sub-components of the message which includes the data as well as the control information interactions: is a process that describes the behaviour of a protocol and its relation to its peer entity peer entity: defines the way the service primitives of a protocol provides services to its upper layer, and uses services from its lower layer communication interfaces: is the message exchanged between the two processes of a protocol message formats: describes the type of communications services of a protocol__________ 4>__________are also called a service access points ( interface/interaction) 5>__________is based on a set of service priitive which is an abstract manner describe the interactions at the interface through which the service is provided ( service specification/protocol specification) 6>Service specification primitives are a: request b: response c: indication d: confirm Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/all) 7>Connection establishment uses____primitives whereas data transfer uses only_______ ( request/response/indication/confirm) 8>The interactions exchanged through the underlying communication service between the entities are called___________ ( PDU/SAP) 9>In FSM, the transitions are represented by___________ ( Event/Action/both) 10>_____indicates the occurrence of some function in a protocol and______corresponds to actions taken when those events happen ( Event/Action) 11>In FSM of service specification for reliable data transfer of sender, arrange the following in correct sequence a: send ( sndpkt) & start timer b: compute checksum ( 2 bytes) c: make pkt ( sndpkt, data, checksum) Ans: ___________ ( acb/bac/bca) 12>In FSM of service specification for reliable datatransfer from receiver, arrange the following in correct sequence a: deliver-data ( data) b: rdt-send ( ACK) c: extract ( revpkt, data) Ans: __________ ( abc/cba/cab) 13>wrt service primitives for a conversation between the two machines, arrange the following primitives in correct order a: connect_confirm b: connect_response c: connect_request d: connect_indication Ans: ___________ ( caba/cdba/cdab) 14>Following are behavior aspects of the protocol specifaction a: temporal ordering of interactions b: parameter range c: selecting values of parameters d: coding of PDUs VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 21. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 20 e: liveners properties f: real time properties Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/e/f/all) 15>Match the following temporal ordering of interactions: provide quantitative measures usually related to communication delay, attainable throughput, probabilities of refusing service requests etc parameter range: deals with specifying the order of events' occure of a protocol in time continuous manner selecting values of parameters: defines the format in which the protocol data units and their paameters are coded for transmission coding of PDUs: range of possible values of interaction parameters of service primitives based on the protocol data units liveners properties: define that certain interactions will actually happen, and the interactions will properly terminate real time properties: defines i)the permissible parameter values for each interaction ii)for each received interaction the significance of the parameter values for the subsequent processing___________ 16>__________correspond for times when an entity is waiting for some event ( transition/state) 17>The transitions of a protocol entity occur typically when a packet is ___________ ( received/timed out/either) 18>wrt FSM of sender entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'initial data ready' a: get_data ( data), rdt_data_request ( data) b: sndpkt=make_pkt ( 0, data, checksum) c: send ( sndpkt) d: start_timer Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/e) 19>wrt FSM of sender entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_rev ( revpkt)&&notcorrupt ( revpkt)' astop_timer b: get_data ( data), rdt_data_request ( data) c: sndpkt=make_pkt ( 1, data, checksum) d: send ( sndpkt) e: start_timer Ans: _________ ( a/b/c/d/e/all) 20>wrt FSM of sender entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_rev ( revpkt)&&notcorrupt ( revpkt) a: stop_timer and get_data ( data) b: rdt_data_request ( data) c: sndpkt=make_pkt ( 0, data, checksum) d: send ( sndpkt) e: start_timer Ans: _________ ( a/b/c/d/e/all) 21>wrt FSM of receiver entity specification, identify primitids of the event 'rdt_data_indication ( revpkt)&&corrupt ( revpkt)' a: compute chksum b: rdt_send ( NACK) c: sndpkt=make_pkt ( sndpkt, NACK, chksum ) d: send ( sndpkt) Ans: _________ ( a/b/c/d/all) 22>wrt FSM of receiver entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_data_indication ( revpkt)&&notcorrupt ( revpkt)&&has_seq0 ( revpkt)' a: compute chksum b: rdt_send ( NACK) c: sndpkt=make_pkt ( sndpkt, ACK, chksum ) d: send ( sndpkt) Ans: _________ ( a/b/c/d/all) 23>wrt FSM of receiver entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_data_indication ( revpkt)&&notcorrupt ( revpkt)&&has_seq0 ( revpkt)' a: extract ( revpkt, etc) b: deliver_data ( data) c: compute checksum d: rdt_send ( ACK) e: sndpkt=make_pkt ( sndpkt, AC, chksum) f: send ( sndpkt) Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/e/f/all) 24>wrt FSM of receiver entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_data_indication ( revpkt)&&notcorrupt ( revpkt)&&has_seq1 ( revpkt)' a: extract ( revpkt, etc) VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 22. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 21 b: deliver_data ( data) c: compute checksum d: rdt_send ( ACK) e: sndpkt=make_pkt ( sndpkt, ACK, chksum) f: send ( sndpkt) Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/e/f/all)___________ 25>wrt FSM of receiver entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_data_indication ( revpkt)&&corrupt ( revpkt) a: compute chksum b: rdt_send ( NACK) c: sndpkt=make_pkt ( sndpkt, NACK, chksum ) d: send ( sndpkt) Ans: _________ ( a/b/c/d/all) 26>wrt FSM of receiver entity specification, identify primitives of the event 'rdt_data_indication ( revpkt)&&notcorrupt ( revpkt)&&has_seq1 ( revpkt) a: compute chksum b: rdt_send ( NACK) c: sndpkt=make_pkt ( sndpkt, ACK, chksum ) d: send ( sndpkt) Ans: _________ ( a/b/c/d/all)___________ 27>___________are the communication paths used to connect one or more FSMs of protocol processes ( channel/connection) 28>The channel can be odeled as___________channel ( lossless/lopsy/either) 29>___________of a channel FSM represent one of the transitions ( transition edge/state edge) 30>___________are mechanisms that support interactions in protocol implementation ( communication/interace) 31>Following are different types of interfaces: ___________ ( internal/external/both) 32>_____interfaces are mechanisms that are internal to the protocol whereas______interfaces are mechanisms that make it possible for other implementations like applications, higher or lower layer services or both to interact with the protocol being developed ( internal/external) 33>The protocol designers are free to implement the___________interfaces ( internal/external) 34>Following are states in FSM of an interface of bus access protocol a: idle b: wait_for_bus c: get_data d: write_data e: release_bus Ans: __________ ( a/b/c/d/e/all) 35>Following are transitions in FSM of an interface of bus access protocol a: bus_req b: bus_idle c: data_ready d: data_write e: bus_release Ans: ________ ( a/b/c/d/e/al) 36>Interface options can be handled in following ways a: options are considered as an inherent part of an interface such that different options can be used during operation b: desired options are selected before operation Ans: ___________ ( a/b/both) 37>In FSM of interactions between ISDN system and a user for activation of call forwarding service, FSM has___states for ISDN system and___states for user ( 3/4/5)_____ 38>___________systems are characterized by the differnt types of media streams they use ( communication/multimedia) 39>A video has to be transferred and presented to the user at a rate of atleast__to___pictures per second to create the impression of a movie ( 15/16/25/36)____ 40>Audio should be transferred and presented to the user at a rate of________samples per second ( 8000/6400) 41>Following are important parameters of multimedia systems a: throughput b: transfer delay c: jitter d: error rates Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/all) 42>Match the following throughput: indicates the loss of data in a continuous data tranfer VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 23. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 22 transfer delay: expresses the variance of the transfer delay jitter: defines the data transmission rate error rates: is the time between the production of data at the source and its presentation at the sink 43>Considering a picture size of 640*480 pixels with 24 bits/pixel representing the colour of the pixel, a throughput of about_____Mbps will be necessary ( 17.5/175/1.75)______ 44>Jitter can be reduced in the end-systems by the use of___________ ( memory/buffer) 45>For reliable video transfer, loss of one frame per___frames is acceptable ( 30/300/3000)________ 46>For data communication, only___________services have been offered ( guaranteed/best effort ) 47>In the___________service, the service user can rely on the initially negotiated service characteristics (guaranteed/best effort ) 48>The QOS requirements of a multimedia application are given as___________information in the protocol specifications ( data/control) 49>ABP stands for___________ 50>___________is a one bit sliding window protocol ( ABP/ARQ) 51>ABP transmits the packets with sequence number___________in a reliable manner ( 0/1/either) 52>ABP consists of a: Sender_ABP b: Receiver_ABP c: Data_Medium d: Ack_Medium Ans: _______ ( a/b/c/d/all) 53>wrt ABP , arrange the following events in correct sequence a: The Reciever_ABP acknowledges all incoming messages b: The Sender ABP waits for an acknowledgement from the Reciever_ABP containin the same sequence number c: if the appropriate acknowledgment does not arrive withintimeout period, the Sender_ABP resends the same message d: The Sender_ABP takes a message which is ready to be sent and transmits the message together with a sequence number Ans: _______ ( dbca/dbac/dacb) 54>HDLC is ___oriented protocol ( bit/byte)________ 55>In HDLC, the frame is delimited with a flag sequence___________ ( 0111110/01111110) 56>In HDLC, if a frame contains sequence 01111110, it will be stuffed with zero after consecutive ___one ( 4/5/6)________ 57>HDLC uses following types of control frames a: information b: supervisory c: unnumbered Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/all) 58>Match the following wrt supervisory frame in HDLC type0: receive not ready type1: selective reject type2: ACK frame type3: reject frame___________ 59>Match the following wrt unnumbered frame in HDLC type0: frame reject ( FRMR) type1: set async balance mode ( SABM) type2: set normal response mode ( SNRM) type3: disconnect ( DISC)___________ 60>In HDLC frame format, when used as___, the computer is inviting the terminal to send data. All frames sent by the terminals, xcept the final one, have this bit set ( P/F)________ 61>In HDLC, ___________command is used between two asymmetric partners like dumb terminal and computer ( SNRM/SABM) 62>In HDLC, control frames may be lost or damaged, so they must be acknowledged.A special control frame called___________frame is provided for this purpose ( UA/NACK) 63>Following are components of HDLC protocol a: link setup b: PF control c: source d: sink e: clock Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/e/all) 64>In HDLC, the components can exchange messages with communication interfaces using following methods a: direct coupling VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 24. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 23 b: shared variables c: hierarchical independence d: complete independence Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/all) 65>Match the following direct coupling: variables shared between components such as between P/F control & clock, and sink & source shared variables: link setup is initiated first, afterwards source and sink are initiated hierarchical independence: it is locally independent and depends on local properties such as frame size complete independence: executon of instructions simultaneously or sequentially at both ends happen whenever transition takes place___________ 66>Match the following wrt FSM of HDLC P/F control P0, P=0: finished transfer, goto no polling P1, P=1: finish=0 F0, F=0: polling mode F1, F=1: not in polling mode___________ 67>The working of FSM is different in SNRM and SABM modes, since_______mode treats all as equal partners ( SABM/SNRM) 68>___________is used to reserve the resources over the path connecting the server and the client to facilitate smooth running of multimedia applications ( RTCP/RSVP/RTSP) 69>The types of messages used by RSVP protocol to establish and maintain the reserved paths are a: PATH b: RESV c: PATH_ERR d: RESV_ERR e: PATH_TEAR f: RESV_TEAR Ans: _______ ( a/b/c/d/e/f/all) 70>Match the following PATH: it removes the reservation along the route RESV: it indicates an error in response to the RESV message PATH_ERR: it carrier the reservation request from the receiver RESV_ERR: it carries the data flow information from the sender to the receivr PATH_TEAR: it is generated at the nodes where the node does not have path from sender to receiver RESV_TEAR: it removes the PATH state along the route___________ 71>An RSVP application has the following states a: Idle b: Arr c: Join d: Data_Send Ans: __________ ( a/b/c/d/all) 72>Match the following Idle: creates a data packet and sends it to a selected single/multicast destination that it rejects Join: this state is activated whenever a message or a packet arrives for the application and by default returns to Idle state Arr: the application will send a session call to local RSVP daemon.In response it receives the session Id from the Local daemon Data_Send: this state has transitions to three states__________ 73>In RSVP router states, the state Arr has following functions to be executed based on the type of message received a: pathmsg b: ptearmsg c: resvmsg d: rtearmsg e: rconfmsg Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/e/all) 74>Match the following wrt Arr state in RSVP router pathmsg: it is invoked by the Arr state when a PATH_TEAR message is recieved ptearmsg: it is invoked by the Arr when a RESV message is received resvmsg: it is invoked by the Arr when a RESV_TEAR message is receive rtearmsg: it is invoked by the Arr when a RESV_CONF message is received rconfmsg: it is invoked by the Arr when a PATH message is received___________ 75>PSB stands for___________ 76>In RSVP host state diagram, the functions which are executed as internal events are as follows VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 25. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 24 a: session b: sender c: reserve d: receive Ans: ___________ ( a/b/c/d/all) 77>Match the following wrt RSVP host state diagram Session: it is called from the Arr state whenever a sender call is received from the local application sender: it is called from the Arr state whenever a Reserve call is received from the local application reserve: it is called from the Arr state whenever a Release call is received from the local application receive: it is called from the Arr state whenever a session call is received from the local application___________ ANSWERS: 1>protocol specification 2>all 3>1-e 2-d 3-b 4-d 5-a 4>interface 5>service specification 6>all 7>all; request & indication 8>PDU 9>both 10>event , action 11>bca 12>cab 13>cdba 14>all 15>1-b 2-d 3-f 4-c 5-e 6-a 16>state 17>either 18>all 19>all 20>all 21>all 22>all 23>all 24>all 25>all 26>all 27>channel 28>either 29>transition edge 30>interfaces 31>both 32>internal ,external 33>internal 34>all 35>all 36>both 37>3 ,4 38>multimedia 39>16-25 40>8000 41all 42>1-c 2-d 3-b 4-a 43>175 44>buffer 45>300 VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 26. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 25 46>best-effort 47>guaranteed 48>control 49>Alternating Bit Protocol 50>ABP 51>either 52>all 53>dbca 54>bit 55>01111110 56>5 57>all 58>1-c 2-d 3-a 4-b 59>1-d 2-b 3-b 4-a 60>P 61>SNRM 62>UA(Unnumbered Acknowledgment) 63>all 64>all 65>1-d 2-a 3-b 4-c 66>1-d 2-c 3-b 4-a 67>SABM 68>RSVP 69>all 70>1-d 2-c 3-e 4-b 5-f 6-a 71>all 72>1-d 2-c 3-b 4-a 73>all 74>1-e 2-a 3-b 4-c 5-d 75>Reservation State Block 76>all 77>1-d 2-a 3-b 4-c VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 27. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 26 CHAPTER 4: SDL—A PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION LANGUAGE 1>A protocol specification language specifies the communication protocols by using __________notation (formal/graphical/either) 2>Following are some specification languages a: LOTUS b: ESTELLE c: SDL d: SPIN e: CPN Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 3>LOTUS stands for__________ 4>ESTELLE stands for__________ 5>SDL stands for__________ 6>SPIN stands for___________ 7>CPN stands for___________ 8>Identify features of SDL a: It uses FSMs and its extensions for protocol specifications b: it provides a clear and simple modular approach for protocol modeling c: it can use ASN.1 and the programming language C type packages for a better message description Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all) 9>SDL is a formal language defined by___________ (ITU-T/CCITT) 10>SDL follows ___________oriented approach (object/procedure) 11>SDL provides a: well defined set of concepts b: unambiguous, clear, precise and concise specifications c: thorough basis for analyzing specifications and conformance testing d: basis for determining the consistency of spec factions e: good computer support interface for generating applications w/o the need for the traditional coding phase Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 12>SDL provides a: high degree of testability b: portability, scalability and open specification c: high degree of reuse d: facility for applying optimization techniques and thus improves protocol efficiency Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/all) 13>A communication system described by an SDL specification is actually ___________ (ECFSM/CFSM) 14>A communication system described by an SDL specification is actually an ECFSM because a: it consists of a set of concurrent processes, extended with variables and data space, which communicate by exchanging data signals on finite length synchronous channels b: it consists of a set of concurrent processes, extended with variables and data space, which communicate by exchanging control signals on finite length asynchronous channels Ans: ___________ (a/b/either) 15>figure 4.1___________ 16>SDL uses the following components to specify and describe a communication system a: structure b: communication c: behavior d: data e: inheritance Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 17>Match the following Structure describing relations and specialization VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 28. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 27 Communication abstract data types or predefined data types Behavior a system, block, process and procedure hierarchy Data signals with optional signal parameters and channels Inheritance processes or entities 19>___________is the one that actually executes where the class is a declaration (class instance/object/either) 20>The instance methods provide computer _____and the class object characteristics provide relevant______ (instruction/data) 21>The SDL structure comprises of following main hierarchical levels a: system b: blocks c: processes d: procedures Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 22>___________consists of a set of instances, which are of different kinds such as block, process and service instance (system/component) 23>The set of blocks are connected with each other and the environment by using___________ (channel/connection) 24>___________is a container for either sets of processes connected by signal routes or for a set of sub-structures of blocks connected by channels (block/system) 25>___________is a primary instance of a system (block/process) 26>___________defines the properties of a category of process instances (data type/process type) 27>Communication by means of sending signals is___________, where the sending process does not wait until the signal is handled by the receiver, and the receiving process keeps signals in a queue until it reaches a state in which it is prepared to handle it (synchronous/asynchronous) 28>___________are part of processes and they define the patterns of behaviour of a protocol (procedure/subroutine) 29>SDL accepts following ways of describing data a: predefined data types b: ADT Ans: __________ (a/b/both) 30>SDL supports ASN.1 data types (true/false)___________ 31>The set of ___________data types in SDL are as follows: integer, real, natural, Boolean, character, duration, time, charstring, Pid (predefined/abstract) 32>Match the following INTEGER uses usual real numbers REAL allowed values are TRUE and FALSE BOOLEAN uses characters CHARACTER the data contains string of characters CHARSTRING the data contains ASCII characters STRING are used to represent sequence of bits BIT_STRING uses negative & positive integer numbers 33>Match the following TIME the data contains a value representing a relative TIME DURATION contains the process instance identifier PId signal associated at a certain time TIMER data contains indexed collection of items which are all of the same data type ARRAY natural sequence of numbers NATURAL it uses a real number 34>Match the following first ('hello') : ll last ('hello') : hello length ('hello') : o 'he'//'llo' : h : 5 35>______&_____are used to concatenate the string in CHARSTRING & STRING data types respectively (/ or //) 36>Using TIME data type, SET (NOW+2.0, mytimer), a: sets the mytimer to current time plus two minutes b: sets the mytimer to current time plus two seconds Ans: ___________ (a/b/either) 37>In TIMER data type, the allowed operations are a: SET b: RESET VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 29. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 28 c: active Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all) 38>___________data type is a data type with no specified data structure (abstract/predefined) 39>The constants in SDL are declared by using___________ (SYNONYM/SYNTYPE/both) 40>SYNTYPE Ex integer constants 0: 10 ENDSYNTYPE In this, Ex is an integer type but a variable of this type is only allowed to contain values in the specified range 0 to 10.Such a constant is called ___________condition (boundary/range) 41>The structure element__________ is used in SDL to encapsulate certain types of data (struct/class) 42>The variables can be imported and exported among he processes using the keywords ____&___in the variable declaration of a process .The keyword ____is used to tell the system that a variable is remote to a process (remote/exported/imported) 43>Blocks in a system are interconnected by _____while processes & services within a block are interconnected by______ (signal routes/channels) 44>In SDL, communication on the bidirectional routes that connect processes is always ___________ (synchronous/asynchronous) 45>In___________ communication, each process has its own input queue, where signals coming from the environment or from another process are buffered and sequentially processed (synchronous/asynchronous) 46>___________communication is provided by the remote procedure call instruction (synchronous/asynchronous) 47>SDL supports non-ordered signal reception by means of the _________operator, which postpones the consumption of a specified signal to the next transition (RECORD/SAVE) 48>SDL uses following declarations for communication paths a: signal CR, CI, CW /*signal declaration*/ b: signal list val=ok, nok, err/*list of signals in the subchannel val*/ Ans: ___________ (a/b/both) 49>A SDL specification consists of a: system type diagram b: block type diagram c: process type diagram d: service (procedure) type diagram Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 50>Following are examples of SDL based protocol specification a: QA protocol b: Xon-Xoff protocol c: Alternating bit protocol d: Sliding window protocol e: BGP Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 51>___________protocol provides the service in the form of answers from the user A to the questions framed by the user Q (QA/BGP) 52>In service specification of Question Answer protocol, arrange the following operations in correct sequence a: user A generates the signal 'Areq' as an answer to 'Qreq' and sends it to the protocol entity of a user A b: signal 'Areq' is sent as signal 'Dreq' to the service provider protocol entity c: QA service provider sends signal 'Dind' to protocol entity of user Q d: protocol entity at user Q forwards this as an 'Aind' to the user Q e: signal 'Qreq' is sent to the protocol entity of user Q from the user Q f: signal 'Qreq' is forwarded as signal 'Dreq' to service provider protocol entity g: QA service provider forwards the 'Dreq' signal as 'Dind' signal to the user A's protocol entity h: signal 'Dind' is sent as signal 'Qind' to the protocol entity of user A Ans: ___________ (feghabdc/feghabcd/efghabcd) 53>The components of the QA protocol are a: one block called QA protocol b: three processes called 'Qentity', 'Aentity' and 'ServicePro' representing the user Q, user A , service provider respectively c: three bidirectional signal routes represented as Q1, Q2, A1 and A2 are used in the protocol model d: six signals are declared using the keyword 'SIGNAL'-Dreq, Dind, Qreq, Qind, Aind and Areq Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 54>___________is primitive flow control protocol, in which a receiver controls the data transfer by signaling the sender (QA/Xon-Xoff) 55>Xon-Xoff protocol uses following types of PDUs a: Data_PDU b: Suspend_PDU VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 30. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 29 c: Resume_PDU Ans: ________ (a/b/c/all) 56>Match the following Data_PDU it is sent to the sender PE by the receiver PE to signal the sender to resume sending Data-PDUs Suspend_PDU it is sent to the sender PE by the receiver PE to signal the sender to stop sending Data- PDUs Resume_PDU it is sent to the sender PE by the receiver PE 57>In Xon-Xoff, arrange the following operations in correct sequence a: sender starts sending the data if it has received Resume PDU, else keeps waiting until the Resume_PDU is sent by the receiver b: signal 'LDreq (pdu)' from the receiver is received at them sender c: the receiver sends either Resume_PDU or Suspend_PDU to the sender along with the signal 'LDreq (pdu)' d: the sender sends the Data_PDU along with the signal 'LDreq (pdu)' to the receiver Ans: _______ (dacb/dcab/dcba) 58>Match the following ! indicates not equal // is used to access the member of the structure /= indicates appending the buffer 59>The Components of Alternating bit protocol are a: one block, which has sender and receiver entities along with the channel process b: package defining all the signals used in the protocol model c: two communication channels-ack loss signal and data loss signal connect the system to environment d: input signals from the environment-Lose Data and Lose Ack Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 60>In system specification of ABP , the block consists of following processes a: ULSenderP b: ULRecieverP c: DataMedium d: SenderP e: ReceiverP f: AckMedium Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/f/all) 61>In ABP, the sender process contains the following items a: data declarations : Timer1 b: states: Wait_0, Wait_1, Idle_0, Idle_1 c: inputs : AckS_0, AckS_1, Send d: output : DataS_0, DataS_1, Sender_Ready Ans: _________ (a/b/c/d/all) 62>In ABP, the receiver process contains the following items a: states: Wait_0, Wait_1, Idle_0, Idle_1 b: inputs: DataR_1, DataR_0, Recieve c: outputs: AckR_0, AckR_1, Deliver, Reciever_Ready Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all) 63>In ABP, the upper layer process at sender contains the following items a: states: Wait b: inputs: Sender_Ready c: outputs_Send Ans: _________ (a/b/c/all) 64>In ABP, the upper layer process at receiver contains the following items a: states: Wait b: inputs: Receiver_Ready, Deliver c: outputs: Receive Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all) 65>In ABP, the data medium process contains the following items a: states: Empty, Lose b: inputs: DataS_0, DataS_1, Lose_Data c: outputs: DataR_0, DataR_1 Ans: ______ (a/b/c/all) VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 31. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 30 66>In ABP, the ack medium process contains the following items a: states: Empty, Lose b: inputs: AckR_0, AckR_1Lose_Ack c: outputs: AcksS_0, AckS_1 Ans: ______ (a/b/c/all) 67>___________is used as MAC protocol in wireless networks, where signalling mechanisms are used to avoid the collisions (CSMA/CD or CSMA/CA) 68>___________acts as an interface between the wireless and wired network (bridge/switch) 69>In specifications of bridge connecting CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA protocol, the components defined are a: it has three blocks: bridge, csma_cd and csma_ca b: package defining all the signals used in the block and process specifications c: it has four channels connecting the blocks: c1, c2, c3 and c4 where each carrier different signals which are defined in the package d: input signals from the environment: user1 & user2 are the users of csma_cd block and user3 & user4 are users of csma_ca Ans: _______ (a/b/c/d/all) 70>In specifications of a bridge connecting CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA protocols, the bridge block consists of the following items a: process: bridge_p b: signal routes: p1 and pa which are connected to channels c1 and c2 respectively c: input signls carried by p1 and pa are: fpacket1, res and end_pac d: output signals carried by p1 are: packet1_bridge , req_chan_state and end_packet e: output signals carried by p2 are: packet_bridge, req_chan_state and end_packet Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 71>In sliding window protocol, the components of the Transmitter process are a: declaration: win, ns, nr and timer t initialization b: states: transfer c: inputs: tack d: outputs: tpdu e: the statement ns: = (ns+1) determines the next sequence number of the packet to be transmitted Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 72>In sliding window protocol, the recieve process comprises of following components a: declarations: ns, nr and as integers b: states: reception c: input: rpdu d: output: rack Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 73>In SDL specifications of TCP, Go back n sliding window protocol uses_____ (linear/exponential) increase in window size upto maximum of window size and window size is reduced to____ (half/one) whenever the data losses are detected. 74>In SDL specifications of TCP, the components defined in the block are a: transmitter: this process sends packet and uses Go-back-n principle to retransmit the data as well as controls the window size b: channel1: provides service to transmit data from sender to receiver which is modeled to introduce losses c: Receiver: this process receives packet from the channel1 process and keeps track of sequence number of packet d: signals: Starsim, ACK1, ACK, packet , thr, packet1 and packet_junk e: package p in which all the signals used in the block are defined Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 75>A simulating ___________can be used to give stimuli to the network specifications and record the performance parameters (manager/analyst) 76>OSPF is an _____domain routing protocol which performs route computations in a network (intra/inter)______ 77>___________uses link state vector routing algorithm (BGP/OSPF) 78>LSA stands for___________ 79>In OSPF, ___________is used in updating routing tables (LSP/LSA) 80>In OSPF, the modeled components include a: interface function b: flooding function c: LS refreshment function d: router port interfaces Ans: ____________ (a/b/c/d/all) 81>In OSPF, following types of modeled in SDL a: point to point b: broadcast VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 32. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 31 Ans: ___________ (a/b/both) 82>In OSPF, the components of the SDL model are a: three router process instances: R1 (0, 1), R2 (0, 1) and R3 (0, 1) router type b: three link process instances of type point-to-point: L1 (0, 1), L2 (0, 1) and L3 (0, 1) c: five signal routes: C11, C12, C21, C22 and C31 each with two signals RouterLink and LinkRouter Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all) 83>In OSPF, a RoutesType process does the following operations a: whenever an LSA refresh message arrives at the router. It calculates the delay b: updates the database registering new LSAs c: floods LSAs to the network Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/all) 84>_______is considered to be a path vector protocol (OSPF/BGP)____ 85>A router rejects the 'best BGP' route when there are multiple BGP route possibilities of the same specificity. It goes on following parameters a: route specificity and reachability b: BGP weight metric MED (Multi exit discriminator) c: BGP local_pref metric d: internally originated vs. externally originated e: AS-path length Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 86>For competing BGP routes, the most likely way the router's is going to pick the best route is by looking at the_________ a: route specificity and reachability b: BGP weight metric MED (Multi exit discriminator) c: BGP local_pref metric d: internally originated vs. externally originated e: AS-path length 87>BGP selects only one path as the best path (true/false)___________ 88>BGP uses the following criteria to select a path for a destination, arrange in correct sequence a: if all paths have the same AS path length, prefer the path with the lowest origin type b: if the origin codes are the same, prefer the path with the lowest MED attribute c: if the paths have the same MED, prefer the external path over the internal path d: if the paths are still the same, prefer the path through the closest IGP neighbour e: prefer the path with the lowest IP address , as specified by the BGP router ID f: if the path specifies a next host that is inaccessible, drop the update g: prefer the path with the largest weight h: if the weights are the same, prefer the path with he largest local preference i: if the local preferences are the same, prefer the path that originated by BGP running on this router j: if no route was originated, prefer the route that has the shortest AS path Ans: ___________ (fhgijabcde/fghijabcde/fghjiabcde) 89>BGP systems send following types of messages a: open b: update c: keepalive d: notification Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 90>For TCP connection establishment, the typical messages exchanged between BGP peers are a: transport connection open b: transport connection open failed c: transport connection closed d: transport fatal error Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 91>BGP systems send___________ messages to exchange network reachability information (open/update/keepalive/notification) 92>BGP systems exchange___________ messages to determine whether a link or host has failed or is no longer available (open/update/keepalive/notification) 93>___________messages consist of the BGP header plus the optional fields (open/update/keepalive/notification) 94>BGP systems send__________ messages when an error condition is detected (open/update/keepalive/notification) 95>___________messages consist of the BGP header plus the error code and subcode, and data that describes the error (open/update/keepalive/notification) VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 33. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 32 96>___________is a set of rules that are applied to a BGP speaker's set of configured peers for the BGP operation (BGP FSM/BGP CFSM) 97>BGP uses ___________as transport protocol (TCP/UDP) 98>following are different states of BGP FSM or BGP process for its peers a: IDLE b: CONNECT c: ACTIVE d: OPENSENT e: OPENCONFIRM f: ESTABLISHED Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/f/all) 99>Match the following wrt BGP process IDLE BGP peer connection is established and exchanges UPDATE, NOTIFICATION & KEEPALIVE messages with its peer CONNECT BGP peer Is waiting for KEEPALIVE or NOTIFICATION message from its peer ACTIVE BGP peer is waiting for OPEN message from its peer OPENSENT state in which BGP peer tries to acquire a peer by listening and accepting TCP connection OPENCONFIRM state in which BGP peer waits for is TCP connection to be completed ESTABLISHED state when BGP peer refuses any incoming connections 100>In MPLS, data transmission occurs on___________ (LSP/LSA) 101>In MPLS, the labels are distributed using__________ (LDP/RSVP/either) 102>The devices that participate in the MPLS protocol mechanisms can be classified into__________ (LER/LSR/both) 103>LER stands for__________ 104>LSR stands for__________ 105>__________is a device that operates at the edge of the access network and MPLS network (LER/LSR) 106>__________is a representation of a group of packets that share the same requirements for their transport (ARQ/FEC) 107>In MPLS, each LSR builds a table to specify how a packet must be forwarded.This table is called__________ (LIB/MIB) 108>LIB stands for__________ 109>In MPLS, a label is carried or encapsulated in a layer-___header along with the packet (1/2/3)_______ 110>MPLS operations are a: label creation and distribution b: creation of label table c: label switched path creation d: packet forwarding Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/all) 111>In MPLS, the contents of __________table specify the mapping between a label and an FEC (LIB/MIB) 112>LDP uses __________as transport protocol (TCP/UDP) 113>in LDP, __________routers initiate the distribution of labels and the label FEC binding (downstream/upstream) 114>In MPLS, traffic related characteristics and MPLS capabilities are negotiated using__________ (LSR/LSP/LDP) 115>A router supporting the MPLS with LDP consists of processes for a: session initialization at ingress router, LER b: session initialization at core router, LSR c: operational ingress router d: operational core router e: operational egress router Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/e/all) 116>Following are some popular protocol specification languages a: SPIN b: Estelle c: LOTUS d: Uppal Ans: __________ (a/b/c/d/all) 117>SPIN stands for__________ 118>__________is a widely used tool for specification, simulation and validation of communication protocols (LOTUS/SPIN/Estelle/CPN) 119>SPIN census a strong formal like SDL , basis and is established, on___________ theory (FSM/CFSM/ECFSM) 120>SPIN uses a programming language C like specification notation called__________ (Petrinet/ProMeLa) 121>__________is a textual notation for ECFSM that comprises the constructs for data manipulation and communication between processes (Petrinet/ProMeLa) VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 34. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 33 122>__________supports efficient model checking (SPIN/LOTUS/CPN) 123>__________means validation of consistency requirements, invariant assertions and temporal properties expressed in an adhoc linear temporal logic (model verification/model checking) 124>___________is a formal description technique for the specification of distributed and concurrent systems (Estelle/SPIN/UML) 125>Estelle is based on_____ (CFSM/ECFSM)theory in modeling event-driven behaviours and employs ______in data manipulation (C/Pascal/java) 126>A standard Estelle specification is a unique document that collects following fields a: declaration of data types b: channel types c: procedures and functions Ans: _________ (a/b/c/all) 127>LOTUS stands for___________ 128>__________is a formal description technique for specifying concurrent and communicating systems (LOTUS/SPIN) 129>LOTUS adopts a peculiar modeling approach called___________ (linear algebra/process algebra) 130>CPN stands for_________ 131>___________is a specification formalism that employs PN features to model parallel behaviour and high level programming languages to define data types (LOTUS/CPN/SPIN) 132>CPN supports a: hierarchical description by means of transition refinements b: model checking for static and dynamic properties c: formal analysis methods d: simulation Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 133>__________is a toolbox for modeling, simulation and verification of Timed Automata (SPIN/Lotus/Uppaal/UML) 134>Uppaal has been provided with a graphical, platform independent interface, being written in__________ (Pascal/C/Java) 135>In Uppaal, __________regions makes it possible to convert the unbounded behaviour into a finite state space (stochastic/temporal) 136>UML stands for__________ 137>__________is the most important graphic notation for object oriented software systems (CPN/UML) 138>OMG stands for__________ 139>__________specifications are collections of diagrams (UML/Uppaal) 140>__________specification language is based on the theory of timed automata, which can be interpreted as an extension of FSMs by means of timers (UML/Uppaal) 141>Some features of UML have been included in SDL=______to enrich SDL communication software architecture description capabilities (2000/2005) ANSWERS: 1>either 2>all 3>Language of Temporal Ordering Specification 4>Extended State Transition Language 5>Specification and Description Language 6>Simple Promela Interpreter 7>Coloured PetriNets 8>all 9>ITU-T 10>object 11>all 12>all 13>ECFSM 14>b 15> 16>all 17>1-c 2-d 3-c 4-b 5-a 18> 19>either 20>instruction,data 21>all VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 35. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 34 22>system 23>channel 24>block 25>process 26>process type 27>asynchronous 28>procedures 29>both 30>T 31>predefined 32>1-g 2-a 3-b 4-c 5-c 6-e 7-f 33>1-f 2-a 3-b 4-c 5-d 6-e 34>1-d 2-c 3-e 4-b 5-a 35>// and / 36>b 37>all 38>abstract 39>both 40>range 41>struct 42>imported,exported,remote 43>channels,signal routes 44>asynchronous 45>asynchronous 46>synchronous 47>SAVE 48>both 49>all 50>all 51>QA 52>efghabcd 53>all 54>Xon-Xoff 55>all 56>1-c 2-b 3- a 57>dcba 58>1-b 2-c 3-a 59>all 60>all 61>all 62>all 63>all 64>all 65>all 66>all 67>CSMA/CA 68>bridge 69>all 70>all 71>all 72>all 73>exponential 74>all 75>manager 76>intra 77>OSPF 78>Link State Advertisement 79>LSA 80>all 81>both VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 36. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 35 82>all 83>all84>BGP 85>all 86>e 87>T 88>fghijabcde 89>all 90>all 91>update 92>keepalive 93>update 94>notification 95>notification 96>BGP FSM 97>TCP 98>all 99>1-f 2-e 3-d 4-c 5-b 6-a 100>LSP 101>either 102>both 103>Label Edge Router 104>Label Switching Router 105>LER 106>FEC 107>LIB 108>Label Information Base 109>2 110>all 111>LIB 112>TCP 113>downstream 114>LDP 115>all 116>all 117>Simple ProMeLa Interpreter 118>SPIN 119>ECFSM 120>ProMeLa 121>ProMeLa 122>SPIN 123>model checking 124>Estella 125>ECFSM,pascal 126>all 127>Language Of Temporal Ordering Specifications 128>LOTUS 129>process algebra 130>Coloured PetriNets 131>CPN 132>all 133>Uppaal 134>Java 135>temporal 136>Unified Modeling Language 137>UML 138>Object Management Group 139>UML 140>Uppaal 141>2000 VTU N O TESBYSR I
  • 37. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 36 CHAPTER 5: PROTOCOL VERIFICATION/VALIDATION 1>__________are the foundations of modern communication networks such as the Internet, intelligent networks and wireless networks (communication protocol/communication specification) 2>Programs that implement computer communication protocols can exhibit extremely complicated behaviour because they must cope with a: asynchronous computing programs b: the possibility of failures in the programs and in the communication medium Ans: __________ (a/b/both) 3>__________mainly concentrates on verifying the correctness of liveness and safety properties of a given protocol specification (protocol validation/protocol verification) 4>___________ properties have the form 'bad things will not happen' (safety/liveness) 5>The safety properties of a protocol are a: non-violation of assertions b: invariants Ans: __________ (a/b/both) 6>___________ properties of a protocol have the form 'good things will happen' (safety/liveness) 7>Liveness properties include a: termination requirements in sequential protocols b: recurrent properties in non-terminating protocols like network operating system protocols Ans: ___________ (a/b/both) 8>In a protocol verification approach, a protocol is modeled by a set of interacting ___________that represent logical units of the communication system such as the communication medium, transmitter and the receiver (components/modules) 9>Modules of a protocol can be categorized into ___________ (processes/monitors) 10>_____is an active protocol component, and ______is a data abstraction with synchronization (processes/monitors) 11>At the___________ level, the properties of processes and monitors are verified by examination of their code (lowest/highest) 12>Following are approaches used for protocol verification a: FSM b: petrinet c: temporal logic Ans: __________ (a/b/c/all) 13>The steps required to perform verification of a protocol (ABP) are a: each of the protocol entities, namely sender , receiver and channel have individual FSM consisting of states and transitions b: create a global system combining all the processes of given protocol c: generate all transition events of the protocol and create a table with the following items: transition event, frames accepted, frame emitted and frame delivered to the receiver d: check for the safety and liveness properties of the protocol from the table Ans: ___________ (a/b/c/d/all) 14>___________state in a state of a system whose occurrence means all the specified messages have been transmitted and received correctly (finished/terminator) 15>Many protocol implementations used in the Internet have almost suffered design failures because a: of some serious design errors due to ambiguous protocol requirement specification b: of some serious design errors due to unambiguous protocol requirement specification Ans: ___________ (a/b/either) 16>__________is a method of checking whether the interactions of protocol entities are according to the protocol specification (protocol verification/protocol validation) 17>___________refers to check the protocol specification such that it will not get into protocol design errors like deadlock, unspecified receptions and livelock errors (validation/verification) 18>The following are the possible design errors that can occur during protocol design and development a: non-executable interaction b: unspecified receptions c: unboundedness of a protocol d: state ambiguity of protocol e: lack of adaptation in a protocol VTU N O TESBYSR I