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Garden design session 3 presentation

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Garden Design - principles of design

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Garden design session 3 presentation

  1. 1. Introduction to Garden Planning and Design Session 3 – Garden Planning. Principles of Design
  2. 2. Learning objectives 1.1 Describe the relevance of garden planning principles to the production of a garden design that ‘works’, - one that follows accepted ‘rules’ or ‘conventions’, and which is pleasing to the eye 1.2 State the meaning of the following terms: symmetry; asymmetry; balance; colour; focal points 1.3 Describe how to achieve unity in the overall layout through rhythm, balance, proportion, scale, colour, texture and form. 1.4 State the importance of shape and line in garden design. 1.5 State the importance of vertical elements in a design 1.6 Describe the difference between formality and informality in garden design. 1.7 State the importance of garden design ‘styles’ and identify three main styles in garden design.
  3. 3. Principles of garden design  The main aim is to achieve unity (harmony) in the design.  The garden should look like it ‘belongs’ with the house and the wider environment.  It should be an enjoyable space to be in – whether designed for excitement or calm contemplation.  It should look as though each element was ‘meant’ to be where it is.  The simpler the design the more effective it is likely to be.
  4. 4. Is your garden well balanced?  Balance can be achieved through symmetry – repeating the same feature on either side of a dividing line. This is used in formal gardens  Or through balancing volumes or shapes on opposing sides of the garden or of a sight line (but with less attention to the strict centre line of a space). This is used in informal gardens
  5. 5. Scale and proportion  It is important to keep the features in the garden to a human scale and in proportion to each other. Paths need to be wide enough and spaces large enough for people to move about and use freely.  For example very tall planting in a small garden could make the space feel very claustrophobic.  A tall tree with only short planting in the rest of the garden may look out of place.
  6. 6. Has your design got rhythm?  Rhythm refers to the effect of repeating design features or effects regularly to give the whole a unified feel.  Use of long lines punctuated with uprights or green colours punctuated with bright colours can give rhythm to a design.  Formal gardens may use the same feature repeated to give rhythm; informal gardens perhaps the same shape but in a different material or colour.
  7. 7. An example of rhythm in a formal design
  8. 8. Colour in design  ‘Hot’ colours advance – they seem closer than they are  ‘Cool’ colours recede – they seem further away.  Harmonious colours create a peaceful, calm feeling.  Contrasting colours create more excitement.
  9. 9. The colour wheel  Complementary or contrasting colours are opposite each other on the wheel  Harmonious colours are next to each other
  10. 10. Texture in garden design  Textures refer to the feel of a surface and how it looks. So a shiny leaf and a matt leaf may feel the same but have contrasting visual ‘textures’.  Texture can come from hard landscaping materials, planting, water (still or flowing), buildings etc.  Keeping the number of different textures in the garden limited keeps the design simple and promotes unity
  11. 11. Shape and line  Strong shapes work best – circles, rectangles, squares or triangles. Organise the design around linked strong shapes (even if they will not be obvious once the garden is completed). These are the ‘use spaces’.  Avoid wiggly, fussy edges – large curves should be sections of a circle or an ellipse.  Flowing lines give a sense of movement; angles in lines make the eye pause.  Shapes organise the space; lines guide the eye.
  12. 12. Verticals  Vertical elements in design – walls, hedges, trees, statues, pergolas – give structure to the design. Can provide year round interest.  They break up sight lines – a garden is more interesting if you can’t see all of it at once.  Encourage exploration by providing focal points or divide the design into ‘rooms’  Control movement through the space.  Practical use – boundaries, shelter etc.
  13. 13. Formal and informal gardens Formal Garden Informal garden Follows a strict symmetry – obviously ‘designed’ Not necessarily symmetrical at all – though balance is still important Strong shapes in planting and formal features – topiary and monumental sculpture Planting is loose and features are quirky or casual. Often public or semi-public spaces Private and personal spaces. Structure of design is clear and apparent e.g. knot gardens. It may not, at first glance, look deliberately ‘designed’ at all.
  14. 14. Formal Garden in Italianate Style
  15. 15. Informal Garden in Cottage Style  The loose planting and lack of obvious symmetry give this garden a pleasing relaxed feel.  The white fence and the white flowers help to unite the design.
  16. 16. Styles of garden design  Design styles are sets of design features that create a distinct vocabulary – for example fountains, statutes, ballustraded stairs, olive or orange trees and clipped hedges are features of an Italianate garden (like Mount Edgecumbe in the earlier slide).  Design styles reflect different cultures e.g. Japanese gardens as compared with European gardens like Mount Edgecumbe.  Collect design styles – on mood boards etc – to consider  There are many design styles and the rules are there to be broken, once they are understood.
  17. 17. Design principles - reminder  Scale/proportion  Balance  Rhythm  Line and shape  Colour  Texture  Simplicity  Styles?
  18. 18. Learning outcomes 1.1 Describe the relevance of garden planning principles to the production of a garden design that ‘works’, - one that follows accepted ‘rules’ or ‘conventions’, and which is pleasing to the eye 1.2 State the meaning of the following terms: symmetry; asymmetry; balance; colour; focal points 1.3 Describe how to achieve unity in the overall layout through rhythm, balance, proportion, scale, colour, texture and form. 1.4 State the importance of shape and line in garden design. 1.5 State the importance of vertical elements in a design 1.6 Describe the difference between formality and informality in garden design. 1.7 State the importance of garden design ‘styles’ and identify three main styles in garden design.

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