Presented by Yasir Hussain
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The 5 elements of Landscape Design include:
• Color –
It is important to use a complementing color scheme throughout the
yard. Sometimes Contrast can create some interest and excitement.
• Direction or Line –
Linear patterns are used to direct physical movement and to draw
attention to areas in your garden.
• Form – Form can be expressed through built objects or trees and
shrubs of various shapes and sizes which create natural patterns.
• Texture – Paving and building materials along with plants with varying
textures can add to the atmosphere of your outdoor area.
• Scale – Your outdoor design should balance the size of the buildings or
established plants it surrounds, while maintaining a comfortable human
environment for the individuals who will use the area.
Advanced elements of landscape
A swimming pool, swimming bath, or
simply a pool, is a container filled with
water intended for swimming or waterbased recreation.
History? The “Great Bath” at the site of
Mohenjo-Daro was most likely dug during
the 3rd millennium BC. This pool is 12 by 7
meters, is lined with bricks and was covered
with a tar-based sealant.
Ancient Greeks and Romans built artificial
pools for athletic training , water games
and for military exercises.
Pools that may be used by many people or
by the general public are called public
Public pools usually start at 80 ft (24 m).
Public pools may belong to a hotel or
holiday resort, as an amenity for the
recreation of their guests.
Public pools are often found as part of a
larger leisure center or recreational
Pools used exclusively by a few people
or in a home are called private pools.
Private pools are usually smaller than
public pools, on average
12 × 24 ft (3.7 × 7.3 m) to 20 × 40 ft (6.1 × 12 m)
Privately owned outdoor pools in
backyards or gardens started to proliferate
in the 1950s in regions with warm
summer climates, particularly in the
Competition pools are generally indoors and heated to
enable their use all year round, and to more easily comply
with the regulations regarding temperature, lighting, and
automatic officiating equipment.
Federation Internationale de la Natation (FINA,
International Swimming Federation) sets standards for
competition pools: 25 or 50 m (82 or 164 ft) long and at
least 1.35 m (4.4 ft) deep
These consist of a small vessel in which the swimmer
swims in place, either against the push of an artificially
generated water current.
They are usually about 2.5 m x 5 m.
Outdoor Hot tubs and spa pools
Hot tubs and spa pools are common heated pools
used for relaxation and sometimes for therapy.
They rarely exceed 8 sq ft (0.74 m2) and are
typically 3’6” (1.07 m) deep.
An infinity edge pool is a swimming pool which
produces a visual effect of water extending to the
horizon, vanishing, or extending to “infinity”.
Often, the water appears to fall into an ocean,
lake, bay, or other similar body of water.
The illusion is most effective whenever there is a
significant change in elevation, though having a
natural body of water on the horizon.
Natural pools and ponds
Natural pools were developed in central and western
Europe in the early and mid 1980′s by designers and
landscape architects with environmental concerns.
They are constructed bodies of water in which no
chemicals or devices that disinfect or sterilize water are
used, and all the cleaning of the pool is achieved purely
with the motion of the water through biological filters
Zero-entry swimming pools
A zero-entry swimming pool, also called a beach
entry swimming pool, is a swimming pool having an
edge or entry that gradually slopes from the deck into
the water, becoming deeper with each step, in the
manner of a natural beach.
As there are no stairs or ladders to navigate, this
type of entry assists older people, young children and
people with accessibility problems where gradual
entry is useful.
Water Feature in which water is
forced to flow through small pipes
from an elevation.
A fountain (from the Latin “fons” or
“fontis”, a source or spring) is a piece of
architecture which pours water into a basin
or jets it into the air either to supply
drinking water or for decorative or dramatic
Types of fountains
i. Musical Fountains
ii. Splash fountains
iii. Drinking fountains
Musical fountains create a theatrical spectacle
with music, light and water, usually employing
a variety of programmable spouts and water jets
controlled by a computer.
A splash fountain or bathing fountain is
intended for people to come in and cool
off on hot summer days.
These fountains are designed to allow
easy access, and feature nonslip
surfaces, and have no standing water.
These splash pads are often located in
public pools, public parks, or public
Stones are hard, impermeable inorganic elements used
extensively in landscape architecture. Stones are basically
used for the following:
•Stacked stone wall
The surfaces of pathways or patios that lead to, or are
under structures, can be just as important as the structure
itself, and should tie into the total design….These pictures
illustrate using stone that was already on the site
Paving is the method of creating durable surfaces
laid down on an area intended to sustain traffic
(vehicular or foot traffic). The most common modern
paving methods are stone and concrete. In the past,
brick was extensively used. Today, permeable paving
methods are beginning to be used more for low-impact
roadways and walkways.
They are used to create relatively
level areas at different elevations,
where changes in elevation can’t be
accomplished by grading because of
limited horizontal distances or where
changes of grade must be
accomplished with least disturbance
Used as a
Base for a fence,
An accent element in
Retaining Walls as landscape
Used to level or retain slopes and give them a more
Provide usable space for landscape purpose
To maintain an existing grade around a tree or some
other landscape feature you’re trying to save
To support a level area such as a patio or driveway.
For visual effect in the landscape,
They feature an informal shape and irregular
placement of wall materials.
More pronounced in visual character than
functional retaining walls. Complement other
landscape elements such as plants, paving etc.
STACKED STONE WALLS:
Masonry stone walls are retaining walls with or
without concrete block foundations. Mortar adds
strength and longevity, and keeps the stones in place.
Masonry walls also include attention to drainage with
drainage gravel, fabric, and outlets to prevent hydraulic
pressure from damaging the wall.
STACKED STONE WALLS:
Natural stone is a popular alternative to the traditional modular
cement block for retaining wall construction. Dry-stacked, natural
stone walls add a very natural look to any landscape as the material
is taken right from the ground. Natural stone walls allow water to
flow freely behind and through the wall thus relieving a significant
amount of pressure on the wall.
Seating should be sited so as to:
• Be sheltered from wind
• Take advantage of site views
• Be situated back of circulation paths
• Provide a variety of options for pedestrians such
sunlight, shade, multitude, activity, formality,
• They include benches, stools, ledges, seat walls,
Benches, in the cityscape, are a focus of activity
and welcome relief for those who wish to sit and relax
or simply pass their time between various activities.
Tensile Fabric Structures
Tensile fabric structures are an environmentally sensitive
medium and an inexpensive way to create an organic form.
The biggest performance advantage is its strength to
weight ratio, which saves on materials
Being lightweight and flexible; fabric interacts better with
natural forces than a rigid material, its daytime translucency
and night-time luminosity gives a magical feeling of being
outdoors, combined with the security and comfort.
A pergola is a garden feature forming a shaded
walk or passageway of pillars that support crossbeams and a sturdy open lattice, upon which woody
vines are trained.
As a type of gazebo, it may also be an extension
of a building, or serve as protection for an open
terrace or a link between pavilions.
Materials can be differs according to the design
and the need.
An open framework, latticework, or design of
wood or steel in a vertical wall or horizontal
Vegetation is supported either vertically or
A covered shelter for protection from sun, rain, snow, treelitter, etc., that generally projects over a sidewalk, driveway,
entry, window or similar area.
It may be wholly supported by columns, poles, or braces
extending from the ground.
Can be of different materials and shapes.
A gazebo is a pavilion structure, sometimes
octagonal, in parks, gardens, and spacious public
Gazebos are freestanding or attached to a garden
wall, roofed, and open on all sides.
They provide shade, shelter, ornamental features
in a landscape, and a place to rest.
Some gazebos in public parks are large enough to
serve as bandstands or rain shelters.
FENCES, SCREENS &
Fences, screens & walls are used for
a variety of reasons:
Control of people & animals
Modification of environmental factors
like noise, wind, sunlight etc.
Purely aesthetic reasons
• An integral part of the architecture of the entire site.
• Should be compatible with adjacent buildings and fences or walls.
• Should be of durable material such as brick, wood, wrought iron, decorative
concrete block or similar
• Fences should generally be stepped up or down to accommodate changes in
topography rather than sloping with the ground.
• Fences adjacent to sidewalks should be at least 12” from the sidewalk.
•Limited Solid Material. All fences which have 50% or less solid material will
be considered limited solid material fences.
•Less than 50% solid material may be spaced eight feet (8’) on centre.
Example: chain link or split rail fences.
•Solid Material. All fences which have more than 50% solid materials will be
considered solid material fences.
•All fences must be installed within or on the property lines. It is the property
owner’s responsibility to locate the property lines.
•A fence, a hedge or a wall located in a side yard or rear yard area adjacent to a
driveway, alley or street, must comply with the visibility triangle requirements.
The height of light standards is the single factor that most directly determines
the quality of the light and the consequent ambience of the site.
Exterior lighting can be generally categorized as:
2.Vehicular use lighting
3.General site lighting
4.Pedestrian use lighting
•Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork
•Created by shaping or combining different materials.
•Materials may be worked by removal such as carving; or
they may be assembled such as by welding.
•Different materials like stone, wood, steel, marble etc.
can be used.
Signage is any kind of visual graphics created to display
information to a particular audience.
This is typically manifested in the form of way finding
information in places such as streets or outside of buildings.
Bollards are low profile sturdy posts embedded in the
floor to protect some other fragile structures or to exclude
vehicles from pedestrian precincts.
?The message they convey here is not of `STAY OUT’
but that of `COME IN ON YOUR FEET’.
Where vehicular traffic is to be restricted for a few
hours only, light weight temporary bollards are also used.
Bollards unlike railings do not form visually continuous
Bricks may be made from clay, shale, soft slate, calcium silicate, concrete,
or shaped from quarried stone.
Clay is the most common material, with modern clay bricks formed in one
of three processes – soft mud, dry press, or extruded.
Bricks are extensively used in landscaping for making:
Metals are nowadays extensively used in landscape architecture.
Metals like aluminum chrome steel wrought iron brass bronze etc are being
used to create different types of street furniture.
Metals are used to create benches, railings, fences, bollards, lighting poles dust
bins, pergolas, trellises, bicycle parking, bridges, sculptures, fountains etc