Advanced elements of landscape


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Advanced elements of landscape

  1. 1. Presented by Yasir Hussain E mail id. 6th semester Spring’ 2013 BUITEMS
  2. 2. The 5 elements of Landscape Design include: • Color – It is important to use a complementing color scheme throughout the yard. Sometimes Contrast can create some interest and excitement. • Direction or Line – Linear patterns are used to direct physical movement and to draw attention to areas in your garden. • Form – Form can be expressed through built objects or trees and shrubs of various shapes and sizes which create natural patterns. • Texture – Paving and building materials along with plants with varying textures can add to the atmosphere of your outdoor area. • Scale – Your outdoor design should balance the size of the buildings or established plants it surrounds, while maintaining a comfortable human environment for the individuals who will use the area.
  3. 3. Advanced elements of landscape  Water features  Stone  Shelters  Sitting  Fencing  Sculptures  Lightning  Other Elements
  4. 4. Water Features;
  5. 5. SWIMMING POOL  A swimming pool, swimming bath, or simply a pool, is a container filled with water intended for swimming or waterbased recreation.  History? The “Great Bath” at the site of Mohenjo-Daro was most likely dug during the 3rd millennium BC. This pool is 12 by 7 meters, is lined with bricks and was covered with a tar-based sealant.  Ancient Greeks and Romans built artificial pools for athletic training , water games and for military exercises.
  6. 6. Public pools  Pools that may be used by many people or by the general public are called public pools.  Public pools usually start at 80 ft (24 m).  Public pools may belong to a hotel or holiday resort, as an amenity for the recreation of their guests.  Public pools are often found as part of a larger leisure center or recreational complex.
  7. 7. Private pools  Pools used exclusively by a few people or in a home are called private pools.  Private pools are usually smaller than public pools, on average 12 × 24 ft (3.7 × 7.3 m) to 20 × 40 ft (6.1 × 12 m)  Privately owned outdoor pools in backyards or gardens started to proliferate in the 1950s in regions with warm summer climates, particularly in the United States.
  8. 8. Competition pools  Competition pools are generally indoors and heated to enable their use all year round, and to more easily comply with the regulations regarding temperature, lighting, and automatic officiating equipment.  Federation Internationale de la Natation (FINA, International Swimming Federation) sets standards for competition pools: 25 or 50 m (82 or 164 ft) long and at least 1.35 m (4.4 ft) deep Exercise pools  These consist of a small vessel in which the swimmer swims in place, either against the push of an artificially generated water current.  They are usually about 2.5 m x 5 m.
  9. 9. Outdoor Hot tubs and spa pools  Hot tubs and spa pools are common heated pools used for relaxation and sometimes for therapy.  They rarely exceed 8 sq ft (0.74 m2) and are typically 3’6” (1.07 m) deep.
  10. 10. Infinity pools  An infinity edge pool is a swimming pool which produces a visual effect of water extending to the horizon, vanishing, or extending to “infinity”.  Often, the water appears to fall into an ocean, lake, bay, or other similar body of water.  The illusion is most effective whenever there is a significant change in elevation, though having a natural body of water on the horizon.
  11. 11. Natural pools and ponds  Natural pools were developed in central and western Europe in the early and mid 1980′s by designers and landscape architects with environmental concerns.  They are constructed bodies of water in which no chemicals or devices that disinfect or sterilize water are used, and all the cleaning of the pool is achieved purely with the motion of the water through biological filters and plants
  12. 12. Zero-entry swimming pools  A zero-entry swimming pool, also called a beach entry swimming pool, is a swimming pool having an edge or entry that gradually slopes from the deck into the water, becoming deeper with each step, in the manner of a natural beach.  As there are no stairs or ladders to navigate, this type of entry assists older people, young children and people with accessibility problems where gradual entry is useful. Spouts  Water Feature in which water is forced to flow through small pipes from an elevation.
  13. 13. Fountains  A fountain (from the Latin “fons” or “fontis”, a source or spring) is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air either to supply drinking water or for decorative or dramatic effect.  Types of fountains i. Musical Fountains ii. Splash fountains iii. Drinking fountains
  14. 14. Musical Fountains  Musical fountains create a theatrical spectacle with music, light and water, usually employing a variety of programmable spouts and water jets controlled by a computer.
  15. 15. Splash fountains  A splash fountain or bathing fountain is intended for people to come in and cool off on hot summer days.  These fountains are designed to allow easy access, and feature nonslip surfaces, and have no standing water.  These splash pads are often located in public pools, public parks, or public playgrounds
  16. 16. STONE:  Stones are hard, impermeable inorganic elements used extensively in landscape architecture. Stones are basically used for the following: •Paving •Retaining walls •Stacked stone wall •Sitting •Shelters  The surfaces of pathways or patios that lead to, or are under structures, can be just as important as the structure itself, and should tie into the total design….These pictures illustrate using stone that was already on the site
  17. 17. Paving :  Paving is the method of creating durable surfaces laid down on an area intended to sustain traffic (vehicular or foot traffic). The most common modern paving methods are stone and concrete. In the past, brick was extensively used. Today, permeable paving methods are beginning to be used more for low-impact roadways and walkways.
  18. 18. RETAINING WALLS  They are used to create relatively level areas at different elevations, where changes in elevation can’t be accomplished by grading because of limited horizontal distances or where changes of grade must be accomplished with least disturbance to topography. Used as a  Bench wall,  Base for a fence,  An accent element in the landscape.
  19. 19. Retaining Walls as landscape elements  Used to level or retain slopes and give them a more vertical character.  Provide usable space for landscape purpose  To maintain an existing grade around a tree or some other landscape feature you’re trying to save  To support a level area such as a patio or driveway.  For visual effect in the landscape,  They feature an informal shape and irregular placement of wall materials.  More pronounced in visual character than functional retaining walls. Complement other landscape elements such as plants, paving etc.
  20. 20. STACKED STONE WALLS:  Masonry stone walls are retaining walls with or without concrete block foundations. Mortar adds strength and longevity, and keeps the stones in place. Masonry walls also include attention to drainage with drainage gravel, fabric, and outlets to prevent hydraulic pressure from damaging the wall.
  21. 21. STACKED STONE WALLS:  Natural stone is a popular alternative to the traditional modular cement block for retaining wall construction. Dry-stacked, natural stone walls add a very natural look to any landscape as the material is taken right from the ground. Natural stone walls allow water to flow freely behind and through the wall thus relieving a significant amount of pressure on the wall.
  22. 22. SEATING Seating should be sited so as to: • Be sheltered from wind • Take advantage of site views • Be situated back of circulation paths • Provide a variety of options for pedestrians such as… sunlight, shade, multitude, activity, formality, informality etc. • They include benches, stools, ledges, seat walls, steps etc. BENCHES  Benches, in the cityscape, are a focus of activity and welcome relief for those who wish to sit and relax or simply pass their time between various activities.
  23. 23. Tensile Fabric Structures  Tensile fabric structures are an environmentally sensitive medium and an inexpensive way to create an organic form.  The biggest performance advantage is its strength to weight ratio, which saves on materials  Being lightweight and flexible; fabric interacts better with natural forces than a rigid material, its daytime translucency and night-time luminosity gives a magical feeling of being outdoors, combined with the security and comfort.
  24. 24. Pergolas  A pergola is a garden feature forming a shaded walk or passageway of pillars that support crossbeams and a sturdy open lattice, upon which woody vines are trained.  As a type of gazebo, it may also be an extension of a building, or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions.  Materials can be differs according to the design and the need. Trellis An open framework, latticework, or design of wood or steel in a vertical wall or horizontal overhead. Vegetation is supported either vertically or horizontally.
  25. 25. Canopies  A covered shelter for protection from sun, rain, snow, treelitter, etc., that generally projects over a sidewalk, driveway, entry, window or similar area.  It may be wholly supported by columns, poles, or braces extending from the ground.  Can be of different materials and shapes.
  26. 26. Gazebos  A gazebo is a pavilion structure, sometimes octagonal, in parks, gardens, and spacious public areas.  Gazebos are freestanding or attached to a garden wall, roofed, and open on all sides.  They provide shade, shelter, ornamental features in a landscape, and a place to rest.  Some gazebos in public parks are large enough to serve as bandstands or rain shelters.
  27. 27. FENCES, SCREENS & WALLS  Fences, screens & walls are used for a variety of reasons:  Visual privacy  Physical inclusion  Control of people & animals  Modification of environmental factors like noise, wind, sunlight etc.  Purely aesthetic reasons
  28. 28. DESIGN INFORMATION • An integral part of the architecture of the entire site. • Should be compatible with adjacent buildings and fences or walls. • Should be of durable material such as brick, wood, wrought iron, decorative concrete block or similar • Fences should generally be stepped up or down to accommodate changes in topography rather than sloping with the ground. • Fences adjacent to sidewalks should be at least 12” from the sidewalk.
  29. 29. INSTALLATION MATERIAL •Limited Solid Material. All fences which have 50% or less solid material will be considered limited solid material fences. •Less than 50% solid material may be spaced eight feet (8’) on centre. Example: chain link or split rail fences. •Solid Material. All fences which have more than 50% solid materials will be considered solid material fences. LOCATION •All fences must be installed within or on the property lines. It is the property owner’s responsibility to locate the property lines. •A fence, a hedge or a wall located in a side yard or rear yard area adjacent to a driveway, alley or street, must comply with the visibility triangle requirements.
  30. 30. LIGHTING  The height of light standards is the single factor that most directly determines the quality of the light and the consequent ambience of the site. Exterior lighting can be generally categorized as: 1.Decorative lighting 2.Vehicular use lighting 3.General site lighting 4.Pedestrian use lighting 5.Feature lighting
  31. 31. Sculptures •Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork •Created by shaping or combining different materials. •Materials may be worked by removal such as carving; or they may be assembled such as by welding. •Different materials like stone, wood, steel, marble etc. can be used.
  32. 32. Signage  Signage is any kind of visual graphics created to display information to a particular audience.  This is typically manifested in the form of way finding information in places such as streets or outside of buildings. Bollards  Bollards are low profile sturdy posts embedded in the floor to protect some other fragile structures or to exclude vehicles from pedestrian precincts.  ?The message they convey here is not of `STAY OUT’ but that of `COME IN ON YOUR FEET’.  Where vehicular traffic is to be restricted for a few hours only, light weight temporary bollards are also used.  Bollards unlike railings do not form visually continuous horizontal barriers
  33. 33. Bricks:  Bricks may be made from clay, shale, soft slate, calcium silicate, concrete, or shaped from quarried stone.  Clay is the most common material, with modern clay bricks formed in one of three processes – soft mud, dry press, or extruded. Bricks are extensively used in landscaping for making: •Pavements •Screens •Planters •Kerb
  34. 34. Metal  Metals are nowadays extensively used in landscape architecture.  Metals like aluminum chrome steel wrought iron brass bronze etc are being used to create different types of street furniture.  Metals are used to create benches, railings, fences, bollards, lighting poles dust bins, pergolas, trellises, bicycle parking, bridges, sculptures, fountains etc