The area where water fills the aquifer is called the saturated zone (or saturation zone). The top of this zone is called the water table. When a well is drilled it strikes water once it reaches below the water table.
The Water Cycle (The Hydrological Cycle)Where could we get water from in the water cycle? Lakes and StreamsWe could but problems that are associated with lake and stream water:Lakes/streams can be polluted – runoff includingfertilisers and chemicals and bacteria from human and animal waste. Also in these hot/dry climates – lakes and streams may not exist.RainOnce again we could but associated problems:Hot/dry climate – water is scarce.Problems with storing large quantities of water if it only rains in one season. GroundwaterSafest, most reliable source. Think about why-we will return to this. Image Courtesy of:http://www.lbbuilders.co.uk/userimages/rain1.jpg
In particular, in the Dominican Republic 67% of their urban population use bottled water as their primary drinking source.
Day 2 recycle grey water
Recap: Introduction toWaterThis PowerPoint Presentation is developed and createdby :
Answer the following questions: Where do we get our drinking water? Where is it stored? Where does the wastewater from all the toilets go? Where does the water from the sinks and bathrooms go?
Stakeholders Revision! What is a Stakeholder? It is anyone who is involved with your design: Client Your Instructors Competing project designers Anyone who helps build the project People who will use the project A stakeholder is anyone who has a ‘stake’ in your project. They could be involved in the design, construction, maintenance or use of your project.
Stakeholder Analysis We need to make sure that our design meets the needs of the stakeholders. How do we do this?1) Identify who is involved in your project2) Access how important their ‘stake’ is.3) Communicate with them to find out their needs.4) Ensure your design meets their needs.
Where does the water come from? 70% of the earth’s surface is occupied by water. However 97% of this water is salty 2% is fresh water locked in snow and ice. Therefore only 1% of the earth’s water is available for drinking.
Distribution of the World’sWater How much of the World’s water is fresh & available? Our main source of water is groundwater
Where does it come from? Surface water can be obtained from lakes, reservoirs and rivers. Ground water can be accessed through wells Desalination: Removing the salt
Groundwater Groundwater is located beneath the ground in small spaces between soil particles or fractures of rock. When the soil is completed submerged below a point – at that level is the water table When the space is quite big it is called an aquifer. Groundwater can be accessed through wells Groundwater is recharged naturally.
Groundwater Groundwater can be accessed through wells
Revision: Ground WaterMovement ofwater throughthe ground/rocks Storage of groundwater Saturated Zone
Fact We always have the same amount of water on the plant and in our atmosphere. Water is always recycled... Your next drink of water could have once been drunk by a dinosaur... For more information on water visit: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleatmosphere.html
The Water/HydrologicalCycle Rain Lakes and StreamsGroundwater
Water Shortage Case Study: Mumbai Population over 20 Million Primarily collect surface water 2009: City wide cutbacks when levels in six nearby lakes and reservoirs used for storage fell low.
What affects water supply: Infrastructure Pollution Irrigation Dams Tourism and trade Wars Drought Anything else?
What affects water supply? Infrastructure: In Western cities with century old pipes, more than 10 % of water is often lost to leakage. In developing nations, better ways of delivering water seem to be on the rise. Pipes and other methods now serve some 87% of the planet’s population (1.6 billion more people than in 1990)
Options for obtaining fresh waterSome countries have an urban population that usebottled water as their primary drinking source due towater shortage.
Irrigation Irrigation for agriculture consumes 2/3 of the world’s fresh water withdrawals. As the world’s population is growing, more food is needed, therefore more agricultural output. Therefore we will need more water or use water more efficiently.
Discussion Water shortage Biggest problem facing the 21st century? Reuse, reduce, recycle Irrigation Rural issues
PDF Copy of Magazine. Available for download from internet (april 2010)
Local problems/ solution What does this mean for us? Task: Conduct water assessment of Pabal. Just like yesterday, map out what you see. Take lots of photos. Identify problems to do with water. Identify current practices that are good and bad. Where could we solve a water problem in Pabal? Can you think of any solutions?
Consider the Design Brief: Todesign a water system that can be used to recycle grey water.
Water terminology! White Water: Portable, fresh water than can be used for drinking Grey Water: Left over water from kitchen sink, bathroom, showers, hand basins, washing machine etc. Black Water: Sewage or Wastewater: Any water containing human waste.