Soil testing for n,p,k

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This document describes about testing NPK from soil contents

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Soil testing for n,p,k

  1. 1. Soil Testing This PowerPoint presentation is developed and created by:
  2. 2. When and How to take a sample of a soil? Soil sample must be taken at the right time and in the right way as described here: Before planting anything in the field and after you take out the crop Before application of any organic or chemical fertilizers Three months after application of any organic or chemical fertilizers. Do not take soil samples from the following areas: Where cattle graze Under a tree Garbage area
  3. 3. Only 0.5 kg soil is required for soil testing. Following is the correct procedure to collect soil for ‘soil sample’. Procedure 1.For ‘soil testing’, soil is taken from 15 different places. 2.Dig a ‘V’ shape pit in the ground which is 15 cm deep. Take soil sample (2 to 3 cm thick) from one side of it. 3.Follow the same procedure to take samples from 15 different places. 4.Clean the samples by removing any garbage if present in the soil. 5.Mix all the samples very well (Make 4 equal parts of the mixed sample. Then mix two diagonally opposite parts with each other. Repeat the procedure for 4/5 times) 6.Take 0.5 kg of the sample for ‘soil testing’.
  4. 4. Dig the pits as per the following figure. Yellow circles show location for the pit.
  5. 5. Dig each pit as shown in the figure. Take soil from the area shown in ‘brown’. Floor surface
  6. 6. **We are using a readymade kit from ‘Prerana Lab’ for all the tests. So, the procedures are given assuming that you have ‘Prerana Lab kit’ with you to carry out the tests. Contact Details of Prerana Lab are given on the last slide.**
  7. 7. Checking Nitrogen content in the soil We are using a readymade kit from ‘Prerana Lab’ for this test. 1.Take 6 ml AN-1 solution in the test bottle no. 1. 2.By using a funnel, add one teaspoon (approx. 1 gm) soil sample in the test bottle no. 1 3.Put the cap on the bottle and gently shake it for a minute. 4.Then keep the bottle still for 5 minutes. Now the soil will settle down and there will be a layer of clear liquid on the top of it. 5.Now, in an another test bottle (test bottle no. 2), take 2 ml clear liquid from test bottle no. 1 with the help of a dropper. Make sure that there won’t be any traces of soil from test bottle no. 1 in the dropper. 6.Add 4 drops of AN-2 solution in test bottle no. 2. 7.Put the cap on the bottle and shake it gently. 8.Keep the bottle still for 5 minutes. 9.Now shake the bottle and compare the colour of the solution in the bottle (test bottle no. 2) with the colour screen given in the kit. 10.Note down the Nitrogen content in the soil accordingly.
  8. 8. Checking Phosphorus content in the soil We are using a readymade kit from ‘Prerana Lab’ for this test. 1.Take 6 ml of EP-1 solution in the test bottle no. 1. 2.By using a funnel, add one teaspoon (approx. 1 gm) soil sample in the test bottle no. 1. 3.Put the cap on the bottle and gently shake it for a minute. 4.Then keep the bottle still for 5 minutes. Now the soil will settle down and there will be a layer of clear liquid on the top of it. 5.Now, in an another test bottle (test bottle no. 2), take 3 ml clear liquid from test bottle no. 1 with the help of a dropper. Make sure that there won’t be any traces of soil from test bottle no. 1 in the dropper. 6.Add 6 drops of AP-2 solution in test bottle no. 2. 7.Put the cap on the bottle and shake it gently. 8.Now add 2 drops of AP-3 solution in test bottle no. 2. 9.Put the cap on the bottle and shake it well. 10.Now, the solution in test bottle no. 2 will look blue in colour. 11.Compare this colour with the colour on ‘Phosphorus colour chart’ and accordingly note down the available phosphorus content in the soil.
  9. 9. Checking Potassium content in the soil: We are using a readymade kit from ‘Prerana Lab’ for this test. 1.Take 6 ml of AK-1 solution in test bottle no. 1. 2.By using a funnel, add two teaspoon (approx. 2 gm) soil sample in the test bottle no. 1. 3.Put the cap on the bottle and gently shake it for a minute. 4.Then keep the bottle still for 5 minutes. Now the soil will settle down and there will be a layer of clear liquid on the top of it. 5.Now, in an another test bottle (test bottle no. 2), take 2 ml clear liquid from test bottle no. 1 with the help of a dropper. Make sure that there won’t be any traces of soil from test bottle no. 1 in the dropper. 6.Add one tablet of AK-2 in the test bottle no. 2. 7.Let the tablet dissolve in the solution. (Do not put the cap on the bottle. It will take 5 to 6 minutes for the tablet to dissolve completely) 8.By now, colour of the solution in the test bottle no. 2 will change to light purple. 9.Now, take 1 ml of AK-4 solution in the red coloured syringes (available in the kit). 10.Add this solution (AK-4) in the test bottle no. 2 drop by drop till the colour of the solution in the bottle becomes blue. Continued…
  10. 10. Colour change Drop count of AK-4 Available Potassium (kg/hector) Potassium content in the soil More than 22 drops Less than 100 Very less 21 to 22 drops 100-150 Less 19 to 20 drops 150-200 Medium 17 to 18 drops 200-250 Average 15 to 16 drops 250-300 High Less than 15 drops More than 300 Very high Continued from last slide… 11.Keep a count of no. of drops of AK-4 solution added in the test bottle no. 2 to change the colour of the solution. 12.Refer the following chart to know the potassium content in the soil.
  11. 11. Organic Carbohydrates (OC) OC is a measure of organic matter available in the soil. It shouldn’t be less than 2% and shouldn’t be more than 30%. Bacteria grow properly if OC is in a proper limit. Carbon-Nitrogen (C:N) ratio also remains good in proper OC limit. *C:N ratio - C:N ratio means ratio between Carbon present in the soil to the ration of nitrogen present in the soil. Say for example if C:N ration of soil is 10:1 that means there is 10 part of carbon to each part of nitrogen in the soil. All living organisms require to produce energy for their survival and for that they need carbon as their main source of energy. But if carbon (OC) contain in soil is very less then micro-organisms will try to use nitrogen for their energy needs. This will lead to reduction in nitrogen content of soil, which is very important for plant growth.
  12. 12. Checking OC content available in the soil We are using a readymade kit from ‘Prerana Lab’ for this test. 1.Take 100 mg sample soil in test bottle no. 1. 2.Take 0.5 ml of OC-1 solution with the help of Green syringes and add that to test bottle no. 1. 3.Then add 80 drops of OC-2 solution in the same test bottle. (Do this very carefully as this contain concentrated acid). 4.Put the cap on the bottle and shake the bottle gently. 5.Take 5 ml of OC-3 solution and add it in the test bottle no. 1. Now keep the bottle still for 5 min. so that soil will set down and you will get a clear layer of liquid on the top. This liquid will have a colour. 6.Place this bottle in ‘organic carbon colour comparator’ to compare the colour of the liquid in the bottle with matching colour on the comparator. 7.Note down the percentage of organic carbon available in the soil accordingly.
  13. 13. Suggesting fertilizers according to the ‘soil testing’ results Main objective of soil testing is to know the content or amount of nutrients (for eg. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, pH, Organic carbon etc.) available in the soil. Balanced amount of all these nutrients are very important for healthy growth of any crop. Fertilizers are suggested depending upon the amount of nutrients available in the soil as well as requirement of the same for the crop. Soil nutrients are generally measured as ‘low, medium and high’. •If available soil nutrients are very low, increase the dose of fertilizer by 50%. •If available soil nutrients are low, increase the dose of fertilizer by 25%. •If available soil nutrients are medium or slightly more than medium, no need to change the fertilizer dose. •If available soil nutrients are very high, reduce the dose of fertilizer by 50%. •If available soil nutrients are high, reduce the dose of fertilizer by 25%.
  14. 14. References: www.vasat.icrisat.org www.faculty.rpcs.org http://www.terragis.bees.unsw.edu.au/terraGIS_soil/sp_soil_reaction_

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