Chap05 The Communication Process


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Chap05 The Communication Process

  1. 1. 5 The Communication Process McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. The Communications Process Fields of Experience Source / Channel Receiver / Sender Encoding Decoding Audience MESSAGE Noise Response Feedback Loop
  3. 3. Encoding / Decoding Symbols • Graphic • Verbal – Pictures – Spoken word – Drawings – Written word – Charts – Song lyrics • Musical • Animation – Arrangement – Action/motion – Instrumentation – Pace /speed – Voice or chorus – Shape/Form
  4. 4. Experiential Overlap Different Worlds Sender Sender Receiver Receiver Experience Experience Experience Experience Moderate Commonality Sender Sender Receiver Receiver Experience Experience Experience Experience High Commonality Sender Sender Receiver Experience Experience Experience
  5. 5. Semiotics Three Components of a marketing message Object Brand such as Marlboro Sign or symbol Interpretant/ representing intended intended meaning meaning (Cowboy) (masculine,rugged individualistic)
  6. 6. What is the symbolic meaning of the Snuggle bear?
  7. 7. Two Types of Channels • Direct (Personal) – One-on-one – One to group – Team to group • Indirect (Media) – Paid media – Unpaid media – Special media
  8. 8. Human Communicators • Verbal – Vocabulary – Grammar – Inflection • Nonverbal – Gestures – Facial expression – Body language
  9. 9. Levels of Audience Aggregation Mass Markets Market Segments Niche Markets Small Groups Individuals
  10. 10. Models of the Response Process Models Stages AIDA Hierarchy of Innovation Information model effects model adoption Processing Attention Awareness Awareness Presentation Cognitive Attention Knowledge Interest Comprehension Interest Linking Yielding Affective Preference Desire Conviction Evaluation Retention Trial Behavioral Action Purchase Adoption Behavior
  11. 11. Advertising is used to make consumers aware of new products and their features
  12. 12. Models of Obtaining Feedback Persuasion Process Effectiveness Test Circulation reach Exposure, presentation Listener, reader, Viewer recognition Attention Recall, checklists Comprehension Brand attitudes, Message acceptance/ Purchase intent yielding Recall over time Retention Inventory, POP Consumer panel Purchase behavior
  13. 13. An Alternative Response Hierarchy Topical Involvement High Low Learning Model Low Involvement Model Perceived product High differentiation Cognitive Cognitive Affective Conative Dissonance/ Conative Attribution Model Low Conative Affective Affective Cognitive
  14. 14. An ad for a low involvement product
  15. 15. Involvement Concept Antecedents of Possible results Possible results Antecedents of of involvement involvement derived involvement derived of involvement from the literature from the literature Elicitation of Elicitation of counterarguments to counterarguments to Person factors ads ads Person factors --Needs Needs Involvement Effectiveness of ad to Effectiveness of ad to Involvement --Importance Importance induce purchase induce purchase --Interest Interest Relative importance of Relative importance of --Values Values With advertisements the product class the product class With advertisements Perceived differences Perceived differences Object or stimulus factors in product attributes in product attributes Object or stimulus factors --Differentiation of Differentiation of With products With products Preference of aa Preference of alternatives alternatives particular kind particular kind --Source of communication Source of communication Influence of price on Influence of price on – Content of – Content of With purchase decisions With purchase decisions brand choice brand choice communication communication Amount of information Amount of information on search on search Situational factors Situational factors Time spend -Purchase/use Time spend -Purchase/use deliberating alternatives deliberating alternatives -Occasion -Occasion Type of decision rule Type of decision rule used in choice used in choice
  16. 16. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Thinking Feeling Involvement High 1 2 Informative Affective The Thinker The Feeler Involvement 3 4 Low Habit Self- Formation Satisfaction The Doer The Reactor
  17. 17. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Thinking 1 Informative Involvement The Thinker Car-house-furnishings-new products Model: Learn-feel-do (economic?) High Possible implications Test: Recall diagnostics Media: Long copy format Reflective vehicles Creative: Specific information Demonstration
  18. 18. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Feeling 2 Affective Involvement The Feeler Jewelry-cosmetics-fashion goods Model: Feel-learn -do (psychological?) High Possible implications Test: Attitude change Emotional arousal Media: Large space Image specials Creative: Executional Impact
  19. 19. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Thinking 3 Habit formation The Doer Involvement Food-household items Model: Do-learn-feel (responsive?) Low Possible implications Test: Sales Media: Small space ads 10-second ID’s Radio; Point of Sale Creative: Reminder
  20. 20. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Feeling 4 Self-satisfaction Involvement The Reactor Cigarettes, liquor, candy Model: Do-feel-learn (social?) Low Possible implications Test: Sales Media: Billboards Newspapers Point of Sale Creative: Attention
  21. 21. Cognitive Response A method for examining consumers’ cognitive processing of advertising messages by looking at their cognitive responses to hearing, viewing, or reading communications Examines types of thoughts that are evoked by an advertising message
  22. 22. A Model of Cognitive Response Cognitive Responses Attitudes Product/message Product/message Brand attitudes Brand attitudes thoughts thoughts Exposure to Exposure to Source-oriented Source-oriented Purchase Purchase advertisement advertisement thoughts thoughts intention intention Ad execution Ad execution Attitude towards Attitude towards thoughts thoughts the advertisement the advertisement
  23. 23. Cognitive Response Categories Product/Message Thoughts Counter arguments, support arguments Source - Oriented Thoughts Source derogation – source bolstering Ad – Execution Thoughts Thoughts about the ad itself Affect attitude toward the ad Important determinant of advertising effectiveness
  24. 24. The Elaboration Likelihood Model Focuses on the way consumers respond to persuasive messages based on the amount and nature of elaboration or processing of information Routes to attitude change Central route to persuasion – ability and motivation to process a message is high and close attention is paid to message content Peripheral route to persuasion – ability and motivation to process a message is low and receiver focuses more on peripheral cues rather than message content
  25. 25. Central processing usually occurs for high involvement products
  26. 26. An ad using peripheral cues
  27. 27. A framework for studying how advertising works Advertising Input Advertising Input Message Content, media Message Content, media scheduling, repetition scheduling, repetition Filters Filters Motivation, ability (involvement) Motivation, ability (involvement) Consumer Consumer Cognition Cognition Affect Affect Experience Experience Consumer Behavior Consumer Behavior Choice, consumption, loyalty, Choice, consumption, loyalty, habit, etc. habit, etc.