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Cloud Computing paradigm



By Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah




              1
Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah

1. Abstract

This report which is based on the Cloud computing paradigm contains researched information on the
types of cloud computing environments available and the associated advantages and disadvantages
of such a computing style. It also looks into the how Cloud computing works, where the idea originated
and the technological challenges Cloud 2.0 has to face. Cloud 2.0 is the latest release in Cloud
computing and supports the new technologies we know of today such as touch mobile devices. The
report also makes note of the potential advantages of Cloud computing within developing countries
where IT systems are costly and infrastructures the advance world take for granted such as an internet
connection and electricity are no luxury.

2.    Introduction

Cloud computing is basically the technology of accessing files and use virtual applications over the
internet. The term ‘Cloud’ is a visual representation of the internet-based environment. Cloud
computing is an improved concept of Grid computing and uses web services as a third-party service to
perform computing needs. Traditionally, IT users had to spend huge capital for handling their business
updates and maintenance. Nowadays the Cloud concept enables users to plug-into the ‘Cloud’ when
needed to obtain software services. Therefore, users only pay for the amount of computing services
consumed. This makes Cloud computing much easier and cost effective to operate than traditional
business hardware-software methods[1, 2].

Since cloud computing utilises many modern models such as the internet, it doesn’t have a sole
inventor and neither does the internet. The idea of outsourcing computer hardware has existed since
the 1960s with the time-sharing theory of John McCarthy, an American Computer Scientist. Computer
hardware and telecommunication systems back then were incapable of handling the technology[3].

Time-sharing is a computer environment that supports multiple user access simultaneously when
multiple terminals are connected to a single mainframe. The time-sharing system would provide a
complete operating environment, data storage and printing facilities among other resources. Users
were charged rent for the terminal, connection time, processor activity time, and storage usage which
was an expensive way of delivering computing resources[4].

Cloud computing with modern systems and the internet provide a similar computing model with huge
amount of users accessing same servers simultaneously. It is considered to be an evolving paradigm
in the computer world with its significant growth in the business world market from small to large size
organisations. Cloud has gained popularity such as the recent availability of the Amazon Elastic
Compute Cloud (EC2) web service. Yahoo! Mail and Google’s Gmail are examples of cloud computing
where the server and e-mail management software are in the cloud operated by the providers.
Registered users only require internet access to start emailing. Users and businesses benefit from not
requiring individual software licenses, multiple computers and multiple installation of the same
software from Cloud based environments[2].


3.    Cloud Types

There are several types of Cloud environments and they have similar basic features. The main
difference lies in which user is allowed to access which cloud environment. A brief description is given
below together with the benefits and flaws associated to each one.

3.1   Public cloud

Public cloud is a cloud where a service provider delivers resources to anyone over the internet. Users
are free to use the cloud whenever desired and are not tied into a contract for usage. This cloud
service may be free or pay-per-usage system such as IBM’s Blue Cloud service[5].

Public clouds are therefore easy and inexpensive to use as applications and bandwidth costs are
covered by the service provider and users only pay for what they use. Public cloud do not offer control
over resources and security of confidential data. The cloud can also have network performance issues
during peak usage times[5].



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Cloud Computing paradigm



3.2. Private cloud

Unlike a public cloud, a private cloud operates from a privately-managed data centre from which only
one organisation can have accessed to. The organisation therefore has more control over the cloud
service quality and level of security of confidential data. The cloud system can be located on the
premises of the organisation and would also benefit from better network performance but the
organisation will then require its own hardware, software and IT support to maintain the cloud which is
costly[6, 7].

Private clouds can also operate within a private section of a public cloud. Therefore, an organisation
can obtain all of the benefits of a public cloud together with a level of security and confidentiality in
private mode[6, 7].


3.3   Hybrid cloud

A hybrid Cloud is a combination of both the private and public clouds where an organisation makes
the most of both systems. For confidential information, the organisation makes use of the private cloud
and the associated benefits that it offers while for less confidential information, the organisation makes
use of the public cloud which could be free or pay-per-usage. Also, when the private cloud runs out of
resources, the public cloud is used as a reserve to keep performance and service availability to
users[8].

3.4   Community cloud

A community cloud was created to resolve the privacy issues within public cloud. The community
cloud basically restricts access to a defined set of users which might be direct competitors to an
organisation. Also, as one data server can handle multiple cloud networks for many users, resources
can unknowingly be shared. The community cloud ensures that unauthorised users cannot see such
resources[9].


4.    Essential characteristics of cloud computing

4.1   On-demand self-service approach

Cloud computing allows users to interact with easy to use and intuitive user interfaces whenever
required which help users to productively manage their business delivery routine. The benefits of self-
service are a level of user empowerment, independence and convenience that results in significant
business efficiency. These systems require less administrative involvement from the users which
saves time and money and allows users to work on other important responsibilities. With cloud, users
can directly access a pre-defined state of the application service they need, saving time and improving
efficiency[10, 11, 12].

4.2   Broad network access

Traditionally, users had to install, maintain and upgrade software like Microsoft Word or Power-point
on computers to use the program, and generated files could not be accessed on a computer without
the necessary programs. With Cloud computing, the files can be easily accessed by users through
internet enabled computer almost anywhere. Most software or a similar version is available online and
can be used to view or edit the files without the need to rely on bloated programs on a desktop PC[10,
11, 12].

4.3   Dynamic resource pooling

With current systems and data centres, users have difficulties in pooling resources from the internet as
institutions rarely share their computing resources. The multi-tenancy rules in Cloud computing
provide users to pool as much computing resources based on their needs and return those resources
back to the shared pool once their needs are met. Therefore, physical and virtual resources are being


                                                    3
Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah

pooled dynamically by the cloud system on the demand of multiple users. Resources can include
storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines[10, 11, 12].

4.4   Efficient and dynamic infrastructure

Traditionally, IT department had to update computer systems to keep up with technology to be able to
meet users’ demand which is a difficult and costly process to undertake. Cloud computing provides
ways of rapidly upgrading the existing system to meet new customer demands such as if a business
requires more computing resources. To the business, the service provider appears to be able to
supply an endless availability of computing resources which can be purchased in any quantity at any
time. Also, cloud computing benefits the service providers by being a self-managed and automated
platform and therefore provide value for money costs on a highly used system[10, 11, 12].

4.5   Measured service provision

The IT department requires several monitoring tools and reporting systems to monitor the network,
server, and application usage of a business. Cloud computing however allows both the service
provider and customer to monitor usage. Since Cloud providers charge the customers according to
their usage of resources, the customers can scale resources up and down for the efficient and
profitable running of their business based on information gathered by the Cloud providers from the
monitoring tools[10, 11, 12].


5.    Advantages of cloud computing

5.1   Reduced hardware costs

Cloud computing do not require users to have high powered computers to access their resources. This
eliminates any direct upgrade costs of new hardware/software and any indirect cost of future
maintenance. Computers running from a cloud network provide better performance by booting and
running faster as all programs reside in the cloud. Also, latest software updates are automatically
available the next time the user accesses the cloud without the need to upgrade or pay[13].

5.2   Unlimited storage and reliability

Cloud computing solves the problem of data storage as data is being stored at the service provider’s
data-centre. The storage capacity within a cloud network is much bigger compared to that of a local
PC. This is also more reliable method of storing data as no data lost would occur if the local PC’s drive
failed[13].

5.3   Reduced cost

Cloud computing resources are charged according to usage similar to utility bills. Monitoring systems
within the cloud ensures users are aware of their usage and can help the users lower their usage
expenses. Expensive software are also not required since most cloud applications are totally free[13].

5.4   Location independence, availability and compatibility

Cloud computing allows users to be completely mobile and still have access to their resources through
any internet enabled devices. Latest revisions of files edited at home are available in the office. The
files and applications in the cloud can be read at another location or by another user and therefore
have no compatibility issues. Cloud computing provides flexibility in accessing data wherever,
whenever and by whoever required[13].

5.5   Easier group collaboration

Cloud computing is an efficient way for group members working at various business locations to jointly
access and develop or share work files to each other in real time. Cloud computing has multi-tenancy
rules which enables multiple users to host/access other users’ documents and projects which are
stored in the cloud. The stored data can also be accessed anywhere an internet connection is
available and can be shared among users, which benefits businesses as projects timescales are
reduces from collaborative efforts[13].

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Cloud Computing paradigm


6.    Disadvantages

6.1   Internet connection

Cloud computing requires a reliable fast internet connection and without it, users would be unable to
access files. Slow connections such as dial-up services will render the Cloud experience difficult and
most likely impossible. Also, even with high speed connection, web-based applications require a lot of
bandwidth for large documents and can be slower than if these files were stored locally[14, 15].

6.2   Data integrity and security

Data accessed from the cloud replicate itself onto the machine being used. If the host data were to
become corrupted due to cloud server faults, users would have no physical or local data backup to
access. It is very risky for a business if the cloud service provider does not have appropriate back-up
facilities onboard. Users would also be at risk if the cloud service was suddenly inaccessible due to the
bankruptcy of its provider[14, 15].

Cloud security is supplied by the providers and relieved their clients of this duty. However, clients are
unaware of security levels in place to safeguard their data within the cloud. Cloud providers also store
multiple client data onto single hardware and without appropriate encryption, data could be wrongly
accessed[14, 15].

6.3   New technology and incompleteness

Cloud computing is still considered as new technology although the idea has existed for half a century.
The uncertainty in its efficiency and reliability will deter businesses from taking risks to store their
critical information on such an infrastructure. Data unavailable for long periods of time will have
devastating effects on businesses. Also, cloud applications are not full-featured compared to desktop
applications and can deter users from switching just for that reason[14, 15].


7.    The technological challenges of cloud 2.0 infrastructure

Cloud 2.0 is the next level in the Cloud computing paradigm and evolves with touch mobile networked
or Wi-Fi enabled devices rather than fixed cable networked computers. It is considered to be a shift
from a fixed 4-walled environment to a mobile real-time environment and to provide a faster and more
responsive service compared to Cloud 1.0. Cloud 2.0 works similarly to the ‘facebook’ application
where messages are instantly updated on touch mobile devices[16].

Application usage on mobile devices is increasing in demand due to the popularity of smart-phones
and tablet devices such as the iPhone/iPad. Consequently, there are some challenges facing Cloud
computing and its nature of relying on internet capable mobile devices which further complicate the
design of the distribution of resources.

7.1   Storage caching

A major problem for Cloud 2.0 providers is supplying their customers with efficient and reliable storage
at a competitive price. Traditional storage technologies have not been designed for the new
requirements of Cloud 2.0 systems and fail to deliver because of the responsiveness required, the
unpredictable workload, the randomness of disk access and serving number of different applications at
once. Disk manufacturers have tried to solve this problem by increasing the RAM caches but that was
still inadequate for caching all customer applications within Cloud 2.0. Solid State Drives (SSD)
technology aims to support Cloud 2.0 computing and solve this issue[18].

7.2   Data transfer speeds

Cloud 2.0 responsiveness means that existing ‘interconnect’ systems in place cannot handle the
transfer speeds required from the data-centre to the customer. Existing Cloud 1.0 providers wishing to
switch to Cloud 2.0 have to undertake major upgrades to meet the needs of the new infrastructure[18].



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Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah



7.3   Battery life and resources in mobile devices

Limited battery life of mobile devices is a challenge for Cloud 2.0 where frequent charging is required
based on level of usage. Battery saving strategies is vital in the design of more sophisticated mobile
applications. With more application execution within the cloud system, the mobile device save battery
but not all cloud execution can be completely transferred to the cloud such as user-facing functions
like data input/display need to be executed on the mobile device[17].

Mobile devices are also not as powerful as PCs and this lack of resources/drivers is a challenge in
Cloud 2.0. For seamless user experiences of advanced mobile applications, resources can be added
to the cloud infrastructure[17].

7.4   Wireless coverage and network delay

Wireless connectivity is intermittent and results in variable data rates due to changing coverage.
Network bandwidth capacity and coverage can vary from factors such as weather, user location and
demands from other users. Mobile broadband networks also generally have longer network delay than
fixed broadband[17].

Accessing data over a mobile broadband network can take time if the service distance to access the
application is long. Application sources are often located far away from end devices due to providers
concentrating data centres at one location and this will result in noticeable network delay when
compared to a fixed network. Also, due to cloud application execution, mobile network delay can
degrade user experience for resource demanding applications[17].

7.5   Transparency

Transparency is an important factor which maintains trust, good provider-customer relationship and
financial stability of both businesses. The end customer must have a quantitative model of the cloud's
behaviour which the cloud provider must provide details of somehow. Details must include the inner
workings of the cloud architecture together with expected performance, security, compatibility and
backup systems among others. Transparency must also form part of the billing process and the
provider must bill for the true cost of computing operations executes and clearly breakdown the usage
into cost. However, today’s hardware and management, monitoring and billing software are not
designed to show this level of information[18].


8.    Cloud technology in developing nations

In most developing nations, small and medium businesses suffer from investment and infrastructure
issues. The high cost of hardware, software and internet connection together with the lack of reliable
infrastructure pose tremendous problems for these businesses to compete globally. This lack of IT
leads to inefficient business processes resulting in major loss of opportunities for affected
businesses[19].

Even though power and broadband are not very reliable in developing nations, mobile technology has
gained increasing popularity for a long time. Most developing nations rely majorly on mobile phones
for telecommunication rather than the internet. In countries like Africa, mobile network operators are
providing an opportunity for banking and commodity exchange at a much lower cost leading to an
increase in mobile data users. Similarly in India, the number of mobile users is four times that of PC
based internet users[19].

8.1   Benefits of cloud computing in developing nations

Cloud computing raises the hope for many developing nations where hardware, software and internet
costs are so high that businesses cannot achieve optimum productivity. Cloud computing can offer a
unique opening for the users in these countries through mobile network devices. This Software-as-a-
Service (SaaS) facility offers developing world businesses a free or low cost alternative to traditional
desktop based software applications. Businesses are not required to have expensive office or software
packages. To date, many SaaS applications exist and can satisfy business needs in developing
nations. By moving data to the clouds, these businesses are not held hostage to frequent power and
                                                   6
Cloud Computing paradigm

broadband disruptions as easy data access is always available via mobile devices. With the
introduction of low cost smart-phones and net-books with mobile internet capabilities, businesses can
now have an IT infrastructure that can compete against some bigger companies in the advanced
nations. These businesses would also have the benefit to use customer relationship management
(CRM) applications which are expensive software packages[19].

The positive impacts of cloud computing in developing nations are productivity gain, ready for
business, green IT, cost effective, and aid the development of a skilled nation. These benefits will
create business growth and help against poverty in developing nations[19].


9.    Conclusion

The cloud vendor has become a vital part of the end customer's business by enabling the latter to gain
all of the benefits of cloud computing without the costs of local IT. However, for the success of Cloud
computing, cloud vendors must be able to provide value to the end customers that convince them out
of their data-centres and local IT departments. Also, end customers must demand a combination of
fast and reliable cloud computing for the services required. As for Cloud 2.0 computing, itshall
encompass new technological inventions together with the internet to deliver an even more exciting
infrastructure to customer.




                                                  7
Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah

10. Bibliography

This report has been compiled by information retrieved from online journals, magazine articles,
corporate websites and IT resource websites such as blogs. The Vancouver style referencing system
has been used in the report and all reference information together with internet hyperlinks of the
webpage which have been referred to are listed below:

[1]      NetworkWorld.com [Magazine homepage]. Article: What is cloud computing? Authors: Steve
                                     th
Taylor and Jim Metzler. Published: 19 May 2009. Accessed on 25/10/2010 at
http://www.networkworld.com/newsletters/frame/2009/051809wan1.html.

[2]      MANJULA KARTHIKEYAN, Department of IT, Kannur University, India. Journal Article: Cloud
Computing – A Paradigm Shift. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, North America.
              th
Published: 10 July 2010. Accessed on 25/10/2010 at
http://computerresearch.org/stpr/index.php/gjcst/article/view/279/252.

[3]     Multicians.org (Online IT history resources homepage). Article: The IBM 7094 and CTSS.
Author: Tom Van Vleck. Accessed on 26/10/2010 at http://www.multicians.org/thvv/7094.html.

[4]      PCMAG.com [online homepage]. Article: Time-Sharing. Accessed on 12/10/2010 at
http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=timesharing&i=52923,00.asp,]

[5]      SearchCloudComputing.com [Corporate website]. Article: Public cloud. Author: TechTarget
Technology Media Company. Accessed on 12/10/2010 at
http://searchcloudcomputing.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid201_gci1356516,00.html.

[6]       thecloudview.com [Corporate website]. Article: Private Cloud: Author: Steve Brobrowski, US
technologist computing consultant, The Cloud View Cloud. Accessed on 12/10/2010 at
http://thecloudview.com/cloud-computing-defined/.

[7]    Datamation Online News and IT Analysis website. Article: Private Cloud. Author: Serdar
Yegulalp, former senior technology editor in Windows Magazine, Windows 2000 Power Users
Newsletter and currently writing technology columns for TechTarget family of websites. Accessed on
10/10/2010 at http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/netsys/article.php/3882516/Private-Cloud.htm.

[8]     Focus Research website (network of world class business and technology experts). Article:
Hybrid Cloud. Accessed on 10/10/2010 at http://www.focus.com/briefs/cloud-computing/cloud-
computing-models-public-vs-private-vs-hybrid/.

[9]     Datamation Online News and IT Analysis website. Article: Community Cloud. Author: Tim
Jones. Accessed on 10/10/2010
http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/netsys/article.php/3905901/Cloud-Computing.htm.

 [10]    National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory. Journal
article: The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing Characteristics of cloud computing. Authors: Peter
Mell and Tim Grance. Published version 15 dated 10-07-09. Accessed on 15/10/2010 at
http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.doc.

[11]     Educause.edu (Online homepage). Magazine article: Cloud computing explained. Author:
Rosalyn Metz. Publication: Volume 33, No.2, 2010. Accessed on 09/10/2010 at
http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/CloudComput
ingExplained/206526.

[12]     ZDNet.com (Online IT community homepage). Article: The five defining characteristics of
cloud computing. Author: Dave Malcolm. Published: April 9, 2009. Accessed on 18/10/2010 at
http://www.zdnet.com/news/the-five-defining-characteristics-of-cloud-computing/287001.

[13]    InformIT.com (Online technology publishers homepage). Journal Article: Advantages of cloud
computing. Author: Michael Miller. Book: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work
and Collaborate Online. ISBN-10: 0-7897-3803-1. Published Aug 11, 2008 by Que. Accessed on
11/10/2010 at http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1324280.

                                                  8
Cloud Computing paradigm

[14]    InformIT.com (Online technology publishers homepage). Journal Article: Disadvantages of
cloud computing. Author: Michael Miller. Book: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You
Work and Collaborate Online. ISBN-10: 0-7897-3803-1. Published Aug 11, 2008 by Que. Accessed on
11/10/2010 at http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1324280&seqNum=2.

[15]     BrightHub.com (Online IT community experts homepage). Article: Disadvantages of cloud
storage security. Author: Karishma Sundaram. Published: May 18, 2010. Accessed on 18/10/2010 at
http://www.brighthub.com/environment/green-computing/articles/71546.aspx.

[16]     ERPandMore.com (Online IT resource homepage), Article: Cloud 2.0 is Here. Entry posted
online on 19/04/2010. Accessed on 12/10/2010 at http://www.erpandmore.com/2010/04/19/cloud-2-0-
is-here/.

[17]     Alcatel-Lucent TechZine (Online Technology and Research Electronic Magazine homepage).
Article: Mobile Cloud Computing Challenges. Author: Kyung Mun, Corporate Technology Strategist for
Alcatel-Lucent and editor at TECHzine. Published: 21/09/2010. Accessed on 13/10/2010 at
http://www2.alcatel-lucent.com/blogs/techzine/2010/mobile-cloud-computing-challenges/.

[18]      Communications of the ACM (Associations for Computing Machinery) (Online Magazine
homepage), Article: Why Cloud computing will never be free. Author: Dave Durkee, founder and
technical director of ENKI, Cloud service provider. Publication: Vol.53, 2010 No.5, Accessed on
14/10/2010 at http://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2010/5/87259-why-cloud-computing-will-never-be-
free/fulltext.

[19]    CloudAve.com (Online IT resources homepage) Article: Cloud Computing and Developing
Countries Part 1 & 2. Author: Krishnan Subramanian, Industry Analyst and Editor of CloudAve.com.
Published on 24/09/2008. Accessed on 15/10/2010 at http://www.cloudave.com/2880/cloud-
computing-and-developing-countries-–-part-1/ for Part 1 and at http://www.cloudave.com/2876/cloud-
computing-and-developing-countries-–-part-2/ for Part 2 of the Article.




                                                 9

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Cloud Computing paradigm

  • 1. Cloud Computing paradigm By Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah 1
  • 2. Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah 1. Abstract This report which is based on the Cloud computing paradigm contains researched information on the types of cloud computing environments available and the associated advantages and disadvantages of such a computing style. It also looks into the how Cloud computing works, where the idea originated and the technological challenges Cloud 2.0 has to face. Cloud 2.0 is the latest release in Cloud computing and supports the new technologies we know of today such as touch mobile devices. The report also makes note of the potential advantages of Cloud computing within developing countries where IT systems are costly and infrastructures the advance world take for granted such as an internet connection and electricity are no luxury. 2. Introduction Cloud computing is basically the technology of accessing files and use virtual applications over the internet. The term ‘Cloud’ is a visual representation of the internet-based environment. Cloud computing is an improved concept of Grid computing and uses web services as a third-party service to perform computing needs. Traditionally, IT users had to spend huge capital for handling their business updates and maintenance. Nowadays the Cloud concept enables users to plug-into the ‘Cloud’ when needed to obtain software services. Therefore, users only pay for the amount of computing services consumed. This makes Cloud computing much easier and cost effective to operate than traditional business hardware-software methods[1, 2]. Since cloud computing utilises many modern models such as the internet, it doesn’t have a sole inventor and neither does the internet. The idea of outsourcing computer hardware has existed since the 1960s with the time-sharing theory of John McCarthy, an American Computer Scientist. Computer hardware and telecommunication systems back then were incapable of handling the technology[3]. Time-sharing is a computer environment that supports multiple user access simultaneously when multiple terminals are connected to a single mainframe. The time-sharing system would provide a complete operating environment, data storage and printing facilities among other resources. Users were charged rent for the terminal, connection time, processor activity time, and storage usage which was an expensive way of delivering computing resources[4]. Cloud computing with modern systems and the internet provide a similar computing model with huge amount of users accessing same servers simultaneously. It is considered to be an evolving paradigm in the computer world with its significant growth in the business world market from small to large size organisations. Cloud has gained popularity such as the recent availability of the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) web service. Yahoo! Mail and Google’s Gmail are examples of cloud computing where the server and e-mail management software are in the cloud operated by the providers. Registered users only require internet access to start emailing. Users and businesses benefit from not requiring individual software licenses, multiple computers and multiple installation of the same software from Cloud based environments[2]. 3. Cloud Types There are several types of Cloud environments and they have similar basic features. The main difference lies in which user is allowed to access which cloud environment. A brief description is given below together with the benefits and flaws associated to each one. 3.1 Public cloud Public cloud is a cloud where a service provider delivers resources to anyone over the internet. Users are free to use the cloud whenever desired and are not tied into a contract for usage. This cloud service may be free or pay-per-usage system such as IBM’s Blue Cloud service[5]. Public clouds are therefore easy and inexpensive to use as applications and bandwidth costs are covered by the service provider and users only pay for what they use. Public cloud do not offer control over resources and security of confidential data. The cloud can also have network performance issues during peak usage times[5]. 2
  • 3. Cloud Computing paradigm 3.2. Private cloud Unlike a public cloud, a private cloud operates from a privately-managed data centre from which only one organisation can have accessed to. The organisation therefore has more control over the cloud service quality and level of security of confidential data. The cloud system can be located on the premises of the organisation and would also benefit from better network performance but the organisation will then require its own hardware, software and IT support to maintain the cloud which is costly[6, 7]. Private clouds can also operate within a private section of a public cloud. Therefore, an organisation can obtain all of the benefits of a public cloud together with a level of security and confidentiality in private mode[6, 7]. 3.3 Hybrid cloud A hybrid Cloud is a combination of both the private and public clouds where an organisation makes the most of both systems. For confidential information, the organisation makes use of the private cloud and the associated benefits that it offers while for less confidential information, the organisation makes use of the public cloud which could be free or pay-per-usage. Also, when the private cloud runs out of resources, the public cloud is used as a reserve to keep performance and service availability to users[8]. 3.4 Community cloud A community cloud was created to resolve the privacy issues within public cloud. The community cloud basically restricts access to a defined set of users which might be direct competitors to an organisation. Also, as one data server can handle multiple cloud networks for many users, resources can unknowingly be shared. The community cloud ensures that unauthorised users cannot see such resources[9]. 4. Essential characteristics of cloud computing 4.1 On-demand self-service approach Cloud computing allows users to interact with easy to use and intuitive user interfaces whenever required which help users to productively manage their business delivery routine. The benefits of self- service are a level of user empowerment, independence and convenience that results in significant business efficiency. These systems require less administrative involvement from the users which saves time and money and allows users to work on other important responsibilities. With cloud, users can directly access a pre-defined state of the application service they need, saving time and improving efficiency[10, 11, 12]. 4.2 Broad network access Traditionally, users had to install, maintain and upgrade software like Microsoft Word or Power-point on computers to use the program, and generated files could not be accessed on a computer without the necessary programs. With Cloud computing, the files can be easily accessed by users through internet enabled computer almost anywhere. Most software or a similar version is available online and can be used to view or edit the files without the need to rely on bloated programs on a desktop PC[10, 11, 12]. 4.3 Dynamic resource pooling With current systems and data centres, users have difficulties in pooling resources from the internet as institutions rarely share their computing resources. The multi-tenancy rules in Cloud computing provide users to pool as much computing resources based on their needs and return those resources back to the shared pool once their needs are met. Therefore, physical and virtual resources are being 3
  • 4. Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah pooled dynamically by the cloud system on the demand of multiple users. Resources can include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines[10, 11, 12]. 4.4 Efficient and dynamic infrastructure Traditionally, IT department had to update computer systems to keep up with technology to be able to meet users’ demand which is a difficult and costly process to undertake. Cloud computing provides ways of rapidly upgrading the existing system to meet new customer demands such as if a business requires more computing resources. To the business, the service provider appears to be able to supply an endless availability of computing resources which can be purchased in any quantity at any time. Also, cloud computing benefits the service providers by being a self-managed and automated platform and therefore provide value for money costs on a highly used system[10, 11, 12]. 4.5 Measured service provision The IT department requires several monitoring tools and reporting systems to monitor the network, server, and application usage of a business. Cloud computing however allows both the service provider and customer to monitor usage. Since Cloud providers charge the customers according to their usage of resources, the customers can scale resources up and down for the efficient and profitable running of their business based on information gathered by the Cloud providers from the monitoring tools[10, 11, 12]. 5. Advantages of cloud computing 5.1 Reduced hardware costs Cloud computing do not require users to have high powered computers to access their resources. This eliminates any direct upgrade costs of new hardware/software and any indirect cost of future maintenance. Computers running from a cloud network provide better performance by booting and running faster as all programs reside in the cloud. Also, latest software updates are automatically available the next time the user accesses the cloud without the need to upgrade or pay[13]. 5.2 Unlimited storage and reliability Cloud computing solves the problem of data storage as data is being stored at the service provider’s data-centre. The storage capacity within a cloud network is much bigger compared to that of a local PC. This is also more reliable method of storing data as no data lost would occur if the local PC’s drive failed[13]. 5.3 Reduced cost Cloud computing resources are charged according to usage similar to utility bills. Monitoring systems within the cloud ensures users are aware of their usage and can help the users lower their usage expenses. Expensive software are also not required since most cloud applications are totally free[13]. 5.4 Location independence, availability and compatibility Cloud computing allows users to be completely mobile and still have access to their resources through any internet enabled devices. Latest revisions of files edited at home are available in the office. The files and applications in the cloud can be read at another location or by another user and therefore have no compatibility issues. Cloud computing provides flexibility in accessing data wherever, whenever and by whoever required[13]. 5.5 Easier group collaboration Cloud computing is an efficient way for group members working at various business locations to jointly access and develop or share work files to each other in real time. Cloud computing has multi-tenancy rules which enables multiple users to host/access other users’ documents and projects which are stored in the cloud. The stored data can also be accessed anywhere an internet connection is available and can be shared among users, which benefits businesses as projects timescales are reduces from collaborative efforts[13]. 4
  • 5. Cloud Computing paradigm 6. Disadvantages 6.1 Internet connection Cloud computing requires a reliable fast internet connection and without it, users would be unable to access files. Slow connections such as dial-up services will render the Cloud experience difficult and most likely impossible. Also, even with high speed connection, web-based applications require a lot of bandwidth for large documents and can be slower than if these files were stored locally[14, 15]. 6.2 Data integrity and security Data accessed from the cloud replicate itself onto the machine being used. If the host data were to become corrupted due to cloud server faults, users would have no physical or local data backup to access. It is very risky for a business if the cloud service provider does not have appropriate back-up facilities onboard. Users would also be at risk if the cloud service was suddenly inaccessible due to the bankruptcy of its provider[14, 15]. Cloud security is supplied by the providers and relieved their clients of this duty. However, clients are unaware of security levels in place to safeguard their data within the cloud. Cloud providers also store multiple client data onto single hardware and without appropriate encryption, data could be wrongly accessed[14, 15]. 6.3 New technology and incompleteness Cloud computing is still considered as new technology although the idea has existed for half a century. The uncertainty in its efficiency and reliability will deter businesses from taking risks to store their critical information on such an infrastructure. Data unavailable for long periods of time will have devastating effects on businesses. Also, cloud applications are not full-featured compared to desktop applications and can deter users from switching just for that reason[14, 15]. 7. The technological challenges of cloud 2.0 infrastructure Cloud 2.0 is the next level in the Cloud computing paradigm and evolves with touch mobile networked or Wi-Fi enabled devices rather than fixed cable networked computers. It is considered to be a shift from a fixed 4-walled environment to a mobile real-time environment and to provide a faster and more responsive service compared to Cloud 1.0. Cloud 2.0 works similarly to the ‘facebook’ application where messages are instantly updated on touch mobile devices[16]. Application usage on mobile devices is increasing in demand due to the popularity of smart-phones and tablet devices such as the iPhone/iPad. Consequently, there are some challenges facing Cloud computing and its nature of relying on internet capable mobile devices which further complicate the design of the distribution of resources. 7.1 Storage caching A major problem for Cloud 2.0 providers is supplying their customers with efficient and reliable storage at a competitive price. Traditional storage technologies have not been designed for the new requirements of Cloud 2.0 systems and fail to deliver because of the responsiveness required, the unpredictable workload, the randomness of disk access and serving number of different applications at once. Disk manufacturers have tried to solve this problem by increasing the RAM caches but that was still inadequate for caching all customer applications within Cloud 2.0. Solid State Drives (SSD) technology aims to support Cloud 2.0 computing and solve this issue[18]. 7.2 Data transfer speeds Cloud 2.0 responsiveness means that existing ‘interconnect’ systems in place cannot handle the transfer speeds required from the data-centre to the customer. Existing Cloud 1.0 providers wishing to switch to Cloud 2.0 have to undertake major upgrades to meet the needs of the new infrastructure[18]. 5
  • 6. Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah 7.3 Battery life and resources in mobile devices Limited battery life of mobile devices is a challenge for Cloud 2.0 where frequent charging is required based on level of usage. Battery saving strategies is vital in the design of more sophisticated mobile applications. With more application execution within the cloud system, the mobile device save battery but not all cloud execution can be completely transferred to the cloud such as user-facing functions like data input/display need to be executed on the mobile device[17]. Mobile devices are also not as powerful as PCs and this lack of resources/drivers is a challenge in Cloud 2.0. For seamless user experiences of advanced mobile applications, resources can be added to the cloud infrastructure[17]. 7.4 Wireless coverage and network delay Wireless connectivity is intermittent and results in variable data rates due to changing coverage. Network bandwidth capacity and coverage can vary from factors such as weather, user location and demands from other users. Mobile broadband networks also generally have longer network delay than fixed broadband[17]. Accessing data over a mobile broadband network can take time if the service distance to access the application is long. Application sources are often located far away from end devices due to providers concentrating data centres at one location and this will result in noticeable network delay when compared to a fixed network. Also, due to cloud application execution, mobile network delay can degrade user experience for resource demanding applications[17]. 7.5 Transparency Transparency is an important factor which maintains trust, good provider-customer relationship and financial stability of both businesses. The end customer must have a quantitative model of the cloud's behaviour which the cloud provider must provide details of somehow. Details must include the inner workings of the cloud architecture together with expected performance, security, compatibility and backup systems among others. Transparency must also form part of the billing process and the provider must bill for the true cost of computing operations executes and clearly breakdown the usage into cost. However, today’s hardware and management, monitoring and billing software are not designed to show this level of information[18]. 8. Cloud technology in developing nations In most developing nations, small and medium businesses suffer from investment and infrastructure issues. The high cost of hardware, software and internet connection together with the lack of reliable infrastructure pose tremendous problems for these businesses to compete globally. This lack of IT leads to inefficient business processes resulting in major loss of opportunities for affected businesses[19]. Even though power and broadband are not very reliable in developing nations, mobile technology has gained increasing popularity for a long time. Most developing nations rely majorly on mobile phones for telecommunication rather than the internet. In countries like Africa, mobile network operators are providing an opportunity for banking and commodity exchange at a much lower cost leading to an increase in mobile data users. Similarly in India, the number of mobile users is four times that of PC based internet users[19]. 8.1 Benefits of cloud computing in developing nations Cloud computing raises the hope for many developing nations where hardware, software and internet costs are so high that businesses cannot achieve optimum productivity. Cloud computing can offer a unique opening for the users in these countries through mobile network devices. This Software-as-a- Service (SaaS) facility offers developing world businesses a free or low cost alternative to traditional desktop based software applications. Businesses are not required to have expensive office or software packages. To date, many SaaS applications exist and can satisfy business needs in developing nations. By moving data to the clouds, these businesses are not held hostage to frequent power and 6
  • 7. Cloud Computing paradigm broadband disruptions as easy data access is always available via mobile devices. With the introduction of low cost smart-phones and net-books with mobile internet capabilities, businesses can now have an IT infrastructure that can compete against some bigger companies in the advanced nations. These businesses would also have the benefit to use customer relationship management (CRM) applications which are expensive software packages[19]. The positive impacts of cloud computing in developing nations are productivity gain, ready for business, green IT, cost effective, and aid the development of a skilled nation. These benefits will create business growth and help against poverty in developing nations[19]. 9. Conclusion The cloud vendor has become a vital part of the end customer's business by enabling the latter to gain all of the benefits of cloud computing without the costs of local IT. However, for the success of Cloud computing, cloud vendors must be able to provide value to the end customers that convince them out of their data-centres and local IT departments. Also, end customers must demand a combination of fast and reliable cloud computing for the services required. As for Cloud 2.0 computing, itshall encompass new technological inventions together with the internet to deliver an even more exciting infrastructure to customer. 7
  • 8. Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah 10. Bibliography This report has been compiled by information retrieved from online journals, magazine articles, corporate websites and IT resource websites such as blogs. The Vancouver style referencing system has been used in the report and all reference information together with internet hyperlinks of the webpage which have been referred to are listed below: [1] NetworkWorld.com [Magazine homepage]. Article: What is cloud computing? Authors: Steve th Taylor and Jim Metzler. Published: 19 May 2009. Accessed on 25/10/2010 at http://www.networkworld.com/newsletters/frame/2009/051809wan1.html. [2] MANJULA KARTHIKEYAN, Department of IT, Kannur University, India. Journal Article: Cloud Computing – A Paradigm Shift. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, North America. th Published: 10 July 2010. Accessed on 25/10/2010 at http://computerresearch.org/stpr/index.php/gjcst/article/view/279/252. [3] Multicians.org (Online IT history resources homepage). Article: The IBM 7094 and CTSS. Author: Tom Van Vleck. Accessed on 26/10/2010 at http://www.multicians.org/thvv/7094.html. [4] PCMAG.com [online homepage]. Article: Time-Sharing. Accessed on 12/10/2010 at http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=timesharing&i=52923,00.asp,] [5] SearchCloudComputing.com [Corporate website]. Article: Public cloud. Author: TechTarget Technology Media Company. Accessed on 12/10/2010 at http://searchcloudcomputing.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid201_gci1356516,00.html. [6] thecloudview.com [Corporate website]. Article: Private Cloud: Author: Steve Brobrowski, US technologist computing consultant, The Cloud View Cloud. Accessed on 12/10/2010 at http://thecloudview.com/cloud-computing-defined/. [7] Datamation Online News and IT Analysis website. Article: Private Cloud. Author: Serdar Yegulalp, former senior technology editor in Windows Magazine, Windows 2000 Power Users Newsletter and currently writing technology columns for TechTarget family of websites. Accessed on 10/10/2010 at http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/netsys/article.php/3882516/Private-Cloud.htm. [8] Focus Research website (network of world class business and technology experts). Article: Hybrid Cloud. Accessed on 10/10/2010 at http://www.focus.com/briefs/cloud-computing/cloud- computing-models-public-vs-private-vs-hybrid/. [9] Datamation Online News and IT Analysis website. Article: Community Cloud. Author: Tim Jones. Accessed on 10/10/2010 http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/netsys/article.php/3905901/Cloud-Computing.htm. [10] National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory. Journal article: The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing Characteristics of cloud computing. Authors: Peter Mell and Tim Grance. Published version 15 dated 10-07-09. Accessed on 15/10/2010 at http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.doc. [11] Educause.edu (Online homepage). Magazine article: Cloud computing explained. Author: Rosalyn Metz. Publication: Volume 33, No.2, 2010. Accessed on 09/10/2010 at http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/CloudComput ingExplained/206526. [12] ZDNet.com (Online IT community homepage). Article: The five defining characteristics of cloud computing. Author: Dave Malcolm. Published: April 9, 2009. Accessed on 18/10/2010 at http://www.zdnet.com/news/the-five-defining-characteristics-of-cloud-computing/287001. [13] InformIT.com (Online technology publishers homepage). Journal Article: Advantages of cloud computing. Author: Michael Miller. Book: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online. ISBN-10: 0-7897-3803-1. Published Aug 11, 2008 by Que. Accessed on 11/10/2010 at http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1324280. 8
  • 9. Cloud Computing paradigm [14] InformIT.com (Online technology publishers homepage). Journal Article: Disadvantages of cloud computing. Author: Michael Miller. Book: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online. ISBN-10: 0-7897-3803-1. Published Aug 11, 2008 by Que. Accessed on 11/10/2010 at http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1324280&seqNum=2. [15] BrightHub.com (Online IT community experts homepage). Article: Disadvantages of cloud storage security. Author: Karishma Sundaram. Published: May 18, 2010. Accessed on 18/10/2010 at http://www.brighthub.com/environment/green-computing/articles/71546.aspx. [16] ERPandMore.com (Online IT resource homepage), Article: Cloud 2.0 is Here. Entry posted online on 19/04/2010. Accessed on 12/10/2010 at http://www.erpandmore.com/2010/04/19/cloud-2-0- is-here/. [17] Alcatel-Lucent TechZine (Online Technology and Research Electronic Magazine homepage). Article: Mobile Cloud Computing Challenges. Author: Kyung Mun, Corporate Technology Strategist for Alcatel-Lucent and editor at TECHzine. Published: 21/09/2010. Accessed on 13/10/2010 at http://www2.alcatel-lucent.com/blogs/techzine/2010/mobile-cloud-computing-challenges/. [18] Communications of the ACM (Associations for Computing Machinery) (Online Magazine homepage), Article: Why Cloud computing will never be free. Author: Dave Durkee, founder and technical director of ENKI, Cloud service provider. Publication: Vol.53, 2010 No.5, Accessed on 14/10/2010 at http://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2010/5/87259-why-cloud-computing-will-never-be- free/fulltext. [19] CloudAve.com (Online IT resources homepage) Article: Cloud Computing and Developing Countries Part 1 & 2. Author: Krishnan Subramanian, Industry Analyst and Editor of CloudAve.com. Published on 24/09/2008. Accessed on 15/10/2010 at http://www.cloudave.com/2880/cloud- computing-and-developing-countries-–-part-1/ for Part 1 and at http://www.cloudave.com/2876/cloud- computing-and-developing-countries-–-part-2/ for Part 2 of the Article. 9