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cloud computing basics

Cloud computing Definition, Types of cloud, Cloud services: Benefits and challenges of cloud computing, Evolution of Cloud Computing, Applications cloud computing, Business models around Cloud, Major Players in Cloud Computing, Issues in Cloud - Eucalyptus - Nimbus - Open Nebula, CloudSim.

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MODULE: 1
CLOUD COMPUTING BASICS
Cloud computing Definition, Types of cloud, Cloud services: Benefits and challenges of cloud
computing, Evolution of Cloud Computing, Applications cloud computing, Businessmodelsaround
Cloud, Major Players in Cloud Computing, Issues in Cloud - Eucalyptus - Nimbus - Open Nebula,
CloudSim.
Cloud Computing provides us means by which we can access the applications as utilities over
the internet. It allows us to create, configure, and customize the business applications online.
What is Cloud Computing
The term cloud refers to a network or the internet. It is a technology that uses remote servers
on the internet to store, manage, and access data online rather than local drives. The data can
be anything such as files, images, documents, audio, video, and more.
There are the following operations that we can do using cloud computing:
o Developing new applications and services
o Storage, back up, and recovery of data
o Hosting blogs and websites
o Delivery of software on demand
o Analysis of data
o Streaming videos and audios
Why Cloud Computing?
Small as well as large IT companies, follow the traditional methods to provide the IT
infrastructure. That means for any IT company, we need a Server Room that is the basic
need of IT companies.
In that server room, there should be a database server, mail server, networking, firewalls,
routers, modem, switches, QPS (Query Per Second means how much queries or load will be
handled by the server), configurable system, high net speed, and the maintenance engineers.
To establish such IT infrastructure, we need to spend lots of money. To overcome all these
problems and to reduce the IT infrastructure cost, Cloud Computing comes into existence.
There are certain services and models working behind the scene making the cloud computing
feasible and accessible to end users. Following are the working models for cloud computing:
 Deployment Models
 Service Models
Deployment Models
Deployment models define the type of access to the cloud, i.e., how the cloud is located?
Cloud can have any of the four types of access: Public, Private, Hybrid, and Community.
Public Cloud
It allows systems and services to be easily accessible to the general public. Public cloud may
be less secure because of its openness. are managed by third parties which provide cloud
services over the internet to public, these services are available as pay-as-you-go billing mode.
They offer solutions for minimizing IT infrastructure costs and act as a good option for
handling peak loads on the local infrastructure. A fundamental characteristic of public clouds
is multitenancy. A public cloud is meant to serve multiple users, not a single customer. A user
requires a virtual computing environment that is separated, and most likely isolated, from
other users.
Private Cloud
It allows systems and services to be accessible within an organization. It is more secured
because of its private nature. It is a distributed systems that work on a private infrastructure
and providing the users with dynamic provisioning of computing resources. Instead of a pay-
as-you-go model as in public clouds, there could be other schemes in that take into account
the usage of the cloud and proportionally billing the different departments or sections of an
enterprise.
 Dedicated Private Cloud (DPC): It is defined as physically isolated, single-tenant
collection of compute, network and sometimes storage resources exclusively
provisioned to just one organization or application. DPCs are scalable, isolated
computing environments that are tailored to fit unique requirements and rightsized for
any of workload or application. DPCs are ideal for mission-critical or legacy
applications. When applications can’t be easily refactored for the cloud, a DPC can be
a viable solution. DPC is also ideal for organizations seeking to reduce time spent
maintaining infrastructure. You do not need to sacrifice control, compliance or
performance with a DPC.
 Dynamic Private Cloud: “It is the ability for software and services to grow with your
business. Sometimes that means automatically adjusting itself to adjust to changes in
demand or workloads.” It business to be more agile in how it responds to changes in
the market. It allows a business to quickly develop through composing new
applications using prebuilt components. Dynamic cloud gives companies what they
need, where they need it and how and when they want it. Dynamic cloud is the
foundation of the composable business; it allows relentless innovation at the speed of
business.
Community Cloud
The community cloud allows systems and services to be accessible by a group of
organizations.
Hybrid Cloud
The hybrid cloud is a mixture of public and private cloud, in which the critical activities are
performed using private cloud while the non-critical activities are performed using public
cloud. It is a heterogeneous distributed system resulted by combining facilities of public cloud
and private cloud. For this reason, it is also known as heterogeneous clouds. A major drawback
of private deployments is the inability to scale on demand and to efficiently address peak
loads. Here public clouds are needed. Hence, a hybrid cloud takes advantages of both public
and private cloud.
Characteristics of Cloud Computing
The characteristics of cloud computing are given below:
1) Agility
The cloud works in a distributed computing environment. It shares resources among users
and works very fast.
2) High availability and reliability
The availability of servers is high and more reliable because the chances of infrastructure
failure are minimum.
3) High Scalability
Cloud offers "on-demand" provisioning of resources on a large scale, without having
engineers for peak loads.
4) Multi-Sharing
With the help of cloud computing, multiple users and applications can work more
efficiently with cost reductions by sharing common infrastructure.
5) Device and Location Independence
Cloud computing enables the users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their
location or what device they use e.g. PC, mobile phone, etc. As infrastructure is off-
site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect
from anywhere.
6) Maintenance
Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, since they do not need to be installed
on each user's computer and can be accessedfrom different places. So, it reduces the cost
also.
7) Low Cost
By using cloud computing, the cost will be reduced because to take the services of cloud
computing, IT company need not to set its own infrastructure and pay-as-per usage of
resources.
8) Services in the pay-per-use mode
Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are provided to the users sothat they can access
services on the cloud by using these APIs and pay the charges as per the usage of services.
Advantages of Cloud Computing
As we all know that Cloud computing is trending technology. Almost every company switched
their services on the cloud to rise the company growth.
Here, we are going to discuss some important advantages of Cloud Computing-
1) Back-up and restore data
Once the data is stored in the cloud, it is easier to get back-up and restore that data using the
cloud.
2) Improved collaboration
Cloud applications improve collaboration by allowing groups of people to quickly and easily
share information in the cloud via shared storage.
3) Excellent accessibility
Cloud allows us to quickly and easily access store information anywhere, anytime in the whole
world, using an internet connection. An internet cloud infrastructure increases organization
productivity and efficiency by ensuring that our data is always accessible.
4) Low maintenance cost
Cloud computing reduces both hardware and software maintenance costs for organizations.
5) Mobility
Cloud computing allows us to easily access all cloud data via mobile.
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cloud computing basics

  • 1. MODULE: 1 CLOUD COMPUTING BASICS Cloud computing Definition, Types of cloud, Cloud services: Benefits and challenges of cloud computing, Evolution of Cloud Computing, Applications cloud computing, Businessmodelsaround Cloud, Major Players in Cloud Computing, Issues in Cloud - Eucalyptus - Nimbus - Open Nebula, CloudSim. Cloud Computing provides us means by which we can access the applications as utilities over the internet. It allows us to create, configure, and customize the business applications online. What is Cloud Computing The term cloud refers to a network or the internet. It is a technology that uses remote servers on the internet to store, manage, and access data online rather than local drives. The data can be anything such as files, images, documents, audio, video, and more. There are the following operations that we can do using cloud computing: o Developing new applications and services o Storage, back up, and recovery of data o Hosting blogs and websites o Delivery of software on demand o Analysis of data o Streaming videos and audios
  • 2. Why Cloud Computing? Small as well as large IT companies, follow the traditional methods to provide the IT infrastructure. That means for any IT company, we need a Server Room that is the basic need of IT companies. In that server room, there should be a database server, mail server, networking, firewalls, routers, modem, switches, QPS (Query Per Second means how much queries or load will be handled by the server), configurable system, high net speed, and the maintenance engineers. To establish such IT infrastructure, we need to spend lots of money. To overcome all these problems and to reduce the IT infrastructure cost, Cloud Computing comes into existence. There are certain services and models working behind the scene making the cloud computing feasible and accessible to end users. Following are the working models for cloud computing:  Deployment Models  Service Models Deployment Models Deployment models define the type of access to the cloud, i.e., how the cloud is located? Cloud can have any of the four types of access: Public, Private, Hybrid, and Community. Public Cloud It allows systems and services to be easily accessible to the general public. Public cloud may be less secure because of its openness. are managed by third parties which provide cloud services over the internet to public, these services are available as pay-as-you-go billing mode. They offer solutions for minimizing IT infrastructure costs and act as a good option for handling peak loads on the local infrastructure. A fundamental characteristic of public clouds is multitenancy. A public cloud is meant to serve multiple users, not a single customer. A user requires a virtual computing environment that is separated, and most likely isolated, from other users.
  • 3. Private Cloud It allows systems and services to be accessible within an organization. It is more secured because of its private nature. It is a distributed systems that work on a private infrastructure and providing the users with dynamic provisioning of computing resources. Instead of a pay- as-you-go model as in public clouds, there could be other schemes in that take into account the usage of the cloud and proportionally billing the different departments or sections of an enterprise.  Dedicated Private Cloud (DPC): It is defined as physically isolated, single-tenant collection of compute, network and sometimes storage resources exclusively provisioned to just one organization or application. DPCs are scalable, isolated computing environments that are tailored to fit unique requirements and rightsized for any of workload or application. DPCs are ideal for mission-critical or legacy applications. When applications can’t be easily refactored for the cloud, a DPC can be a viable solution. DPC is also ideal for organizations seeking to reduce time spent maintaining infrastructure. You do not need to sacrifice control, compliance or performance with a DPC.  Dynamic Private Cloud: “It is the ability for software and services to grow with your business. Sometimes that means automatically adjusting itself to adjust to changes in demand or workloads.” It business to be more agile in how it responds to changes in the market. It allows a business to quickly develop through composing new applications using prebuilt components. Dynamic cloud gives companies what they need, where they need it and how and when they want it. Dynamic cloud is the
  • 4. foundation of the composable business; it allows relentless innovation at the speed of business. Community Cloud The community cloud allows systems and services to be accessible by a group of organizations. Hybrid Cloud The hybrid cloud is a mixture of public and private cloud, in which the critical activities are performed using private cloud while the non-critical activities are performed using public cloud. It is a heterogeneous distributed system resulted by combining facilities of public cloud and private cloud. For this reason, it is also known as heterogeneous clouds. A major drawback of private deployments is the inability to scale on demand and to efficiently address peak loads. Here public clouds are needed. Hence, a hybrid cloud takes advantages of both public and private cloud. Characteristics of Cloud Computing The characteristics of cloud computing are given below: 1) Agility
  • 5. The cloud works in a distributed computing environment. It shares resources among users and works very fast. 2) High availability and reliability The availability of servers is high and more reliable because the chances of infrastructure failure are minimum. 3) High Scalability Cloud offers "on-demand" provisioning of resources on a large scale, without having engineers for peak loads. 4) Multi-Sharing With the help of cloud computing, multiple users and applications can work more efficiently with cost reductions by sharing common infrastructure. 5) Device and Location Independence Cloud computing enables the users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they use e.g. PC, mobile phone, etc. As infrastructure is off- site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere. 6) Maintenance Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, since they do not need to be installed on each user's computer and can be accessedfrom different places. So, it reduces the cost also. 7) Low Cost By using cloud computing, the cost will be reduced because to take the services of cloud computing, IT company need not to set its own infrastructure and pay-as-per usage of resources. 8) Services in the pay-per-use mode Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are provided to the users sothat they can access services on the cloud by using these APIs and pay the charges as per the usage of services. Advantages of Cloud Computing As we all know that Cloud computing is trending technology. Almost every company switched their services on the cloud to rise the company growth. Here, we are going to discuss some important advantages of Cloud Computing-
  • 6. 1) Back-up and restore data Once the data is stored in the cloud, it is easier to get back-up and restore that data using the cloud. 2) Improved collaboration Cloud applications improve collaboration by allowing groups of people to quickly and easily share information in the cloud via shared storage. 3) Excellent accessibility Cloud allows us to quickly and easily access store information anywhere, anytime in the whole world, using an internet connection. An internet cloud infrastructure increases organization productivity and efficiency by ensuring that our data is always accessible. 4) Low maintenance cost Cloud computing reduces both hardware and software maintenance costs for organizations. 5) Mobility Cloud computing allows us to easily access all cloud data via mobile.
  • 7. 6) IServices in the pay-per-use model Cloud computing offers Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to the users for access services on the cloud and pays the charges as per the usage of service. 7) Unlimited storage capacity Cloud offers us a huge amount of storing capacity for storing our important data such as documents, images, audio, video, etc. in one place. 8) Data security Data security is one of the biggest advantages of cloud computing. Cloud offers many advanced features related to security and ensures that data is securely stored and handled. Disadvantages of Cloud Computing A list of the disadvantage of cloud computing is given below - 1) Internet Connectivity As you know, in cloud computing, every data (image, audio, video, etc.) is stored on the cloud, and we access these data through the cloud by using the internet connection. If you do not have good internet connectivity, you cannot access these data. However, we have no any other way to access data from the cloud. 2) Vendor lock-in Vendor lock-in is the biggest disadvantage of cloud computing. Organizations may face problems when transferring their services from one vendor to another. As different vendors provide different platforms, that can cause difficulty moving from one cloud to another. 3) Limited Control As we know, cloud infrastructure is completely owned, managed, and monitored by the service provider, so the cloud users have less control over the function and execution of services within a cloud infrastructure. 4) Security Although cloud service providers implement the best security standards to store important information. But, before adopting cloud technology, you should be aware that you will be sending all your organization's sensitive information to a third party, i.e., a cloud computing service provider. While sending the data on the cloud, there may be a chance that your organization's information is hacked by Hackers.
  • 8. TYPES OF CLOUD SERVICES Most cloud computing services fall into three broad categories: 1. Software as a service (Saas) 2. Platform as a service (PaaS) 3. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) 4. Anything as a service (XaaS) These are sometimes called the cloud computing stack, because they are build on top of one another. Knowing what they are and how they are different, makes it easier to accomplish your goals. 1. SOFTWARE AS A SERVICE Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) is a way of delivering services and applications over the Internet. Instead of installing and maintaining software, we simply access it via the Internet, freeing ourselves from the complex software and hardware management.It removes the need to install and run applications on our own computers or in the data centers eliminating the expenses of hardware as well as software maintenance. SaaS provides a complete software solution which you purchase on a pay-as-you-go basis from a cloud service provider.Most SaaS applications can be run directly from a web browser without any downloads or installations required.The SaaS applications are sometimes called Web-based software, on-demand software, or hosted software. Advantages of SaaS : 1. Cost Effective : Pay only for what you use 2. Reduced time : Users can run most SaaS apps directly from their web browser without needing to download and install any software.This reduces the time spent in installation and configuration, and can reduce the issues that can get in the way of the software deployment. 3. Accessibility : We can Access app data from anywhere. 4. Automatic updates : Rather than purchasing new software, customers rely on a SaaS provider to automatically perform the updates. 5. Scalability : It allows the users to access the services and features on demand. The various companies providing software as a service are Cloud9 Analytics, Salesforce.com, Cloud Switch, Microsoft Office 365, Eloqua, dropBox and Cloud Tran . 2. PLATFORM AS A SERVICE PaaS is a category of cloud computing that provides a platform and environment to allow developers to build applications and services over the internet. PaaS services are hosted in the cloud and accessed by users simply via their web browser. A PaaS provider hosts the hardware and software on its own infrastructure. As a result, PaaS frees users from having to install in-house hardware and software to develop or run a new application.Thus, the development and deployment of the application takes place independent of the hardware. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly configuration settings for the application-hosting environment. Advantages of PaaS : 1. Simple and convenient for users : It provides much of the infrastructure and other IT
  • 9. services, which users can access anywhere via a web browser. 2. Cost Effective : It charges for the services provided on a per-use basis thus eliminating the expenses one may have for on-premises hardware and software. 3. Efficiently managing the lifecycle : It is designed to support the complete web application lifecycle: building, testing, deploying, managing and updating. 4. Efficiency : It allows for higher-level programming with reduced complexity thus, the overall development of the application can be more effective The various companies providing Platform as a service are Amazon Web services, Salesforce, Windows Azure, Google App Engine, cloud Bess and IBM smart cloud. 3. INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) is a service model that delivers computer infrastructure on an outsourced basis to support various operations. Typically IaaS is a service where infrastructure is provided as an outsource to enterprises such as networking equipments, devices, database and web servers. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) is also known as Hardware as a service (HaaS).IaaS customers pay on a per-use basis, typically by the hour, week or month. Some providers also charge customers based on the amount of virtual machine space they use. It simply provides the underlying operating systems, security, networking, and servers for developing such applications, services, and for deploying development tools, databases, etc. Advantages of IaaS : 1. Cost Effective : Eliminates capital expense and reduces ongoing cost and IaaS customers pay on a per use basis, typically by the hour, week or month. 2. Website hosting : Running websites using IaaS can be less expensive than traditional web hosting. 3. Security : The IaaS Cloud Provider may provide better security than your existing software. 4. Maintainence : There is no need to manage the underlying data center or the introduction of new releases of the development or underlying software. This is all handled by the IaaS Cloud Provider. The various companies providing Infrastructure as a service are Amazon web services, Bluestack, IBM, Openstack, Rackspace and Vmware. 4. Anything AS A SERVICE Most of the cloud service providers now a days offer anything as a service that is a compilation of all of the above services including some additional services. Advantages of XaaS : All of the above advantages EVOLUTION OF CLOUD COMPUTING https://silo.tips/download/chapter-1-evolution-of-cloud-computing Cloud computing is all about renting computing services. This idea first came in the 1950s. In making cloud computing what it is today, five technologies played a vital role. These are distributed systems and its peripherals, virtualization, web 2.0, service orientation, and utility computing.
  • 10. EVOLUTION OF CLOUD COMPUTING (1950s to 2007)  Distributed Systems: It is a composition of multiple independent systems but all of them are depicted as a single entity to the users. The purpose of distributed systems is to share resources and also use them effectively and efficiently. Distributed systems possess characteristics such as scalability, concurrency, continuous availability, heterogeneity, and independence in failures. But the main problem with this system was that all the systems were required to be present at the same geographical location. Thus to solve this problem, distributed computing led to three more types of computing and they were-Mainframe computing, cluster computing, and grid computing.  Mainframe computing: Mainframes which first came into existence in 1951 are highly powerful and reliable computing machines. These are responsible for handling large data such as massive input-output operations. Even today these are used for bulk processing tasks such as online transactions etc. These systems have almost no downtime with high fault tolerance. After distributed computing, these increased the processing capabilities of the system. But these were very expensive. To reduce this cost, cluster computing came as an alternative to mainframe technology. Distributed Computing Virtualization Grid Computing Cluster Computing Mainframe Utility Computing Service Orientation Service Orientation Web- 2.0 Cloud Computing
  • 11.  Cluster computing: In 1980s, cluster computing came as an alternative to mainframe computing. Each machine in the cluster was connected to each other by a network with high bandwidth. These were way cheaper than those mainframe systems. These were equally capable of high computations. Also, new nodes could easily be added to the cluster if it was required. Thus, the problem of the cost was solved to some extent but the problem related to geographical restrictions still pertained. To solve this, the concept of grid computing was introduced.  Grid computing: In 1990s, the concept of grid computing was introduced. It means that different systems were placed at entirely different geographical locations and these all were connected via the internet. These systems belonged to different organizations and thus the grid consisted of heterogeneous nodes. Although it solved some problems but new problems emerged as the distance between the nodes increased. The main problem which was encountered was the low availability of high bandwidth connectivity and with it other network associated issues. Thus. cloud computing is often referred to as “Successor of grid computing”.  Virtualization: It was introduced nearly 40 years back. It refers to the process of creating a virtual layer over the hardware which allows the user to run multiple instances simultaneously on the hardware. It is a key technology used in cloud computing. It is the base on which major cloud computing services such as Amazon EC2, VMware vCloud, etc work on. Hardware virtualization is still one of the most common types of virtualization.  Web 2.0: It is the interface through which the cloud computing services interact with the clients. It is because of Web 2.0 that we have interactive and dynamic web pages. It also increases flexibility among web pages. Popular examples of web 2.0 include Google Maps, Facebook, Twitter, etc. Needless to say, social media is possible because of this technology only. In gained major popularity in 2004.  Service orientation: It acts as a reference model for cloud computing. It supports low-cost, flexible, and evolvable applications. Two important concepts were introduced in this computing model. These were Quality of Service (QoS) which also includes the SLA (Service Level Agreement) and Software as a Service (SaaS).  Utility computing: It is a computing model that defines service provisioning techniques for services such as compute services along with other major services such as storage, infrastructure, etc which are provisioned on a pay-per-use basis.
  • 12. ISSUES IN CLOUD COMPUTING It is a new name for an old existing concept. The delivery of computing services from a remote location. Cloud Computing is Internet-based computing, where shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand. These are major issues in Cloud Computing: 1. Privacy: The user data can be accessed by the host company with or without permission. The service provider may access the data that is on the cloud at any point in time. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete information. 2. Compliance: There are many regulations in places related data and hosting. To comply with regulations (Federal Information Security Management Act, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, etc.) the user may have to adopt deployment modes that are expensive. 3. Security: Cloud-based services involve third-party for storage and security. Can one assume that a c3loud-based company will protect and secure one’s data if one is using their services at a very low or for free? They may share user’s information with others. Security presents a real threat to the cloud. 4. Sustainability: This issue refers to minimizing the effect of cloud computing on the environment. Citing the server’s effects on the environmental effects of cloud computing, in areas where climate favours natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available, the countries with favourable conditions, such as Finland, Sweden, and Switzerland are trying to attract cloud computing data centres. But other than nature’s favours, would these countries have enough technical infrastructure to sustain the high-end clouds? 5. Abuse: While providing cloud services, it should be ascertained that the client is not purchasing the services of cloud computing for a nefarious purpose. In 2009, a banking Trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command-and-control channel that issued software updates and malicious instruction to PCs that were infected by the malware So the hosting companies and the servers should have proper measures to address these issues. 6. Higher Cost: If you want to use cloud services uninterruptedly then you need to have a powerful network with higher bandwidth then ordinary internet networks and also if your organization is broad and large so ordinary cloud service subscription won’t suit your organization. Otherwise, you might face hassle in utilizing an ordinary cloud service while working on complex projects and applications. This is a major problem before small organisations, that restricts them from diving into cloud technology for their business. 7. Recovery of lost data in contingency: Before subscribing any cloud service provider goes through all norms and documentations and check whether their services match your requirements and sufficient well-maintained resource infrastructure with proper upkeeping. Once you subscribed the service you almost handover your data into the hands of the third
  • 13. party. If you are able to choose proper cloud service then in future you don’t need to worry about the recovery of lost data in any contingency. 8. Upkeeping(management) of Cloud: Maintaining a cloud is a herculin task because a cloud architecture contains a large resources infrastructure and other challenges and risks as well, user satisfaction etc. As users usually pay for how much they have consumed the resources. So, sometimes it becomes hard to decide how much should be charged in case if the user wants scalability and extend the services. 9. Lack of resources/skilled expertise: One of the major issue that companies and enterprises are going through today is the lack of resources and skilled employees. Every second organization is seeming interested or has already been moved to cloud services. That’s why the workload in the cloud is increasing so the cloud service hosting companies need continuous rapidly advancement. Due to these factors, organizations are having a tough time keeping up to date with the tools. As new tools and technologies are emerging every day so more skilled/trained employees need to grow. These challenges can only be minimized through additional training of IT and development staff. 10. Pay-per-use service charges: Cloud computing services are on-demand services a user can extend or compress the volume of the resource as per needs. so you paid for how much you have consumed the resources. It is difficult to define a certain pre-defined cost for a particular quantity of services. Such types of up and downs and price variations make the implementation of cloud computing very difficult and intricate. It is not easy for a firm’s owner to study consistent demand and fluctuations with the seasons and various events. So it is hard to build a budget for a service that could consume several months of the budget in a few days of heavy use. Eucalyptus - Nimbus & Open Nebula Eucalyptus, Nimbus & Open Nebula are major Open-Source Cloud-Computing Software Platforms • Manage the provisioning of virtual machines for a cloud providing IaaS • Commercial cloud services charge, by the hour, for CPU time • It might be more cost effective for the organization to purchase hardware to create its own private cloud. • These software products are designed to allow an organization to set up a private group of machines as their own cloud. • These three frameworks represent three different points of interest in the design space of this particular type of open- source cloud. EUCALYPTUS CLOUD PLATFORM Eucalyptus stands by Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Programs To Useful Systems. It is mainly based on private cloud and was developed by California University, Santa Barbara. Basically, it is an open-source computing environment framework. By using eucalyptus, users are able to perform many functions like start, control, shut down,
  • 14. cleaning of virtual machines etc. Eucalyptus can be used without requiring resources and further demands minimum modification and maximum extension. It also provides virtual network that isolates network traffic of various users. Figure shows the Eucalyptus architecture. Eucalyptus platform has four basic components namely node controller, cluster controller, storage controller and cloud controller. Node Controller runs on each and every node and is responsible for handling queries requested by other users. It also stores the other information like state of instances of VMs. Cluster Controller controls all the nodes that are interconnected form a virtual cluster and collects the information from VM and schedule its extension. Storage Controller is responsible for storing images stored on virtual machines so that these may be accessed in future. Cloud Controller is basically manager of this cloud. It is responsible for all the queries i.e., making decisions and implementing them. • EUCALYPTUS stands for Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Program to Useful System. • It is an open-source software that was developed by University of California-Santa Barbara for Cloud Computing to implement Infrastructure as a Service. • Eucalyptus provide an EC2 -compatible cloud Computing Platform and S3- compatible Cloud Storage thus its services are available through EC2/S3 compatible APIs. • The Eucalyptus system is composed of 5 main components interacting together; Client, Cloud Controller, Storage Controller (Walrus), Cluster Controller and a Node Controller. NIMBUS CLOUD PLATFORM It is an open-source computing that converts clusters into IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service). It permits the users for leasing remote resources and building environment for computing. For deployment of an application, Nimbus offers a “cloudkit” that further comprises of manager (used for hosting services) and a repository for images. It also provides a solution namely VWS
  • 15. (Virtual Workspace Services) that can do allocation and configuration of remote resources. Like Eucalyptus, Nimbus also works on some components shown in figure. • Nimbus is another open-source IaaS implementation framework which came online September 2005. • Nimbus allows a client to lease remote resources by deploying virtual machines (VMs) on those resources and configuring them to represent an environment desired by the user. • It was formerly known as the "Virtual Workspace Service" (VWS) but the "workspace service" is technically just one the components in the software collection. • Nimbus was designed with the goal of turning clusters into clouds mainly to be used in scientific applications. OPEN NEBULA CLOUD This platform can be used on public, private as well as hybrid cloud. It follows the framework of open-source cloud service. The biggest advantage of using Open Nebula platform is that it can dynamically extend the infrastructure of any user i.e., the data centres or clusters can be set to make them their infrastructure property flexible. Storage, network and virtual techniques can easily by synchronize. It basically includes three technologies i.e., virtualization, storage and network. Open Nebula offers various advantages such as adjustable platform meeting the dynamic requirements of the users, centralized management of virtually and physically distributed infrastructure, efficient energy consumption, cost reduction and so on. The architecture of Open Nebula is shown below in figure.
  • 16. • OpenNebula tends to a greater level of centralization and customizability (especially for end- users). • The idea of OpenNebula is a pure private cloud, in which users actually log into the head node to access cloud functions. • OpenNebula, by default, uses a shared file system, typically NFS, for all disk images files and all files for actually running the OpenNebula functions. • In order to spawn a VM, the user provides a configuration file containing parameters which would be fed into the VMM command line. This allows for memory, processor, network and disk resources to be requested for essentially any configuration. • OpenNebula is also very centralized, especially in its default. CLOUD SIM It is an open-source framework, which is used to simulate cloud computing infrastructure and services. It is developed by the CLOUDS Lab organization and is written entirely in Java. It is used for modelling and simulating a cloud computing environment as a means for evaluating a hypothesis prior to software development in order to reproduce tests and results. For example, if you were to deploy an application or a website on the cloud and wanted to test the services and load that your product can handle and also tune its performance to overcome bottlenecks before risking deployment, then such evaluations could be performed by simply coding a simulation of that environment with the help of various flexible and scalable classes provided by the CloudSim package, free of cost.
  • 17. Benefits of Simulation over the Actual Deployment: Following are the benefits of Cloud-Sim:  No capital investment involved. With a simulation tool like Cloud-Sim there is no installation or maintenance cost.  Easy to use and Scalable. You can change the requirements such as adding or deleting resources by changing just a few lines of code.  Risks can be evaluated at an earlier stage. In Cloud Computing utilization of real testbeds limits the experiments to the scale of the testbed and makes the reproduction of results an extremely difficult undertaking. With simulation, you can test your product against test cases and resolve issues before actual deployment without any limitations.  No need for try-and-error approaches. Instead of relying on theoretical and imprecise evaluations which can lead to inefficient service performance and revenue generation, you can test your services in a repeatable and controlled environment free of cost with Cloud-Sim. CloudSim Architecture: CloudSim Core Simulation Engine provides interfaces for the management of resources such as VM, memory and bandwidth of virtualized Datacenters. CloudSim layer manages the creation and execution of core entities such as VMs, Cloudlets, Hosts etc. It also handles network-related execution along with the provisioning of resources and their execution and management.
  • 18. User Code is the layer controlled by the user. The developer can write the requirements of the hardware specifications in this layer according to the scenario. Some of the most common classes used during simulation are:  Datacenter: used for modelling the foundational hardware equipment of any cloud environment, that is the Datacenter. This class provides methods to specify the functional requirements of the Datacenter as well as methods to set the allocation policies of the VMs etc.  Host: this class executes actions related to management of virtual machines. It also defines policies for provisioning memory and bandwidth to the virtual machines, as well as allocating CPU cores to the virtual machines.  VM: this class represents a virtual machine by providing data members defining a VM’s bandwidth, RAM, mips (million instructions per second), size while also providing setter and getter methods for these parameters.  Cloudlet: a cloudlet class represents any task that is run on a VM, like a processing task, or a memory access task, or a file updating task etc. It stores parameters defining the characteristics of a task such as its length, size, mi (million instructions) and provides methods similarly to VM class while also providing methods that define a task’s execution time, status, cost and history.  DatacenterBroker: is an entity acting on behalf of the user/customer. It is responsible for functioning of VMs, including VM creation, management, destruction and submission of cloudlets to the VM.  CloudSim: this is the class responsible for initializing and starting the simulation environment after all the necessary cloud entities have been defined and later stopping after all the entities have been destroyed. Features of CloudSim: CloudSim provides support for simulation and modelling of: 1. Large scale virtualized Datacenters, servers and hosts. 2. Customizable policies for provisioning host to virtual machines. 3. Energy-aware computational resources. 4. Application containers and federated clouds (joining and management of multiple public clouds). 5. Datacenter network topologies and message-passing applications. 6. Dynamic insertion of simulation entities with stop and resume of simulation. 7. User-defined allocation and provisioning policies. Features of Cloud Sim  Open source and free of cost, so it favours researchers/developers working in the field.  Easy to download and set-up.  It is more generalized and extensible to support modelling and experimentation.  Does not require any high-specs computer to work on.  Provides pre-defined allocation policies and utilization models for managing resources, and allows implementation of user-defined algorithms as well.  The documentation provides pre-coded examples for new developers to get familiar with the basic classes and functions.
  • 19.  Tackle bottlenecks before deployment to reduce risk, lower costs, increase performance, and raise revenue.