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Introduction to Kanban


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In this presentation, Roni explains the basics of Kanban and the principles governing the application of Kanban for process improvement. We also look at a comparison between Scrum and Kanban and visit the basic differences between them.

It includes pointers telling what’s wrong with the current system, history of Kanban, introduction to Kanban, benefits of using Kanban, practices used in Kanban, principles of Kanban, how is Scrum different from Kanban. The tutorial begins with details about the current system and what’s wrong with it. It includes pointers like burnout, low throughput, unidentified bottlenecks, too much work which tell what’s wrong with the current system.

Followed by is a section about the history of Kanban which includes points like how the name originated, who discovered it, design, visual signals, based on which system. Resulting in an introduction section which talks about Kanban, what method it uses, scheduling system, what it consists of, amount of work, identification etc. Next comes the benefits section which includes the benefits of using Kanban like helps in visualizing the system, allows to evaluate, identify bottlenecks, establish trust in process etc.

Afterwards there is a section about Kanban practices. It includes practices used in Kanban like visualize, limit WIP in each phase of development, managing flow by keeping it under monitor, make policies explicit, improve collaboratively through the use of scientific models and some terms like lead time, cycle time, throughput etc. Moreover, it also includes the board for easy visualization, story card for keeping track, charts for measurement, control charts to measure average time taken for each task, cumulative flow diagrams showing relative amount of work.

Then comes the principles of Kanban. It includes principles which should be used in Kanban like agree to pursue incremental, evolutionary change, optimize what already exists, respect the current process, roles, responsibilities, leadership at all levels to empower the workforce to bring about change. The last section of this tutorial is Scrum vs Kanban. It explains how scrum is different from Kanban by giving pointers like Scrum prescribes roles, time boxed iterations, backlog items must fit, limit WIP in a different way. It also includes pointers giving reason why it shouldn’t matter because emphasis should be on the goal and not the tool.

Published in: Technology, Business
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Introduction to Kanban

  1. Introduction to Kanban RoniC. Thomas
  2. 1. What’s wrong with the currentsystem? 2. History of Kanban 3. What isKanban? 4. Why Kanban? 5. Kanban Practices 6. Creating your firstboard 7. Kanban Principles 8. How is Scrum different fromKanban? Agenda
  3. − Burnout − Frequent bugs on production − Complaints about productivity − Low throughput − Leads to vaguesprint planning − Too much work stuffed into one sprint − Unidentified bottlenecks What’s wrong with the current system?
  4. KAN BAN 署名する ボード + + = “signboard”
  5. − Developed by Taichi Ohno at Toyota in 1940's − Designed after the shelf-stocking techniques used by supermarkets − Demand controlled system where replenishment happened based on market conditions − Based on a pull based system rather than a push based one − Use of visual signals was essential to the system History of Kanban
  6. − Scheduling system used in manufacturing to help companies improve their production process − Adopted by software co's for JITdelivery without burdening developers − “The Kanban Method” for software dev pioneered by David J. Anderson − WIP limited pull system which exposes system problemsthrough visualization What is Kanban?
  7. − In its simplest form, a kanban system consists of a big board with story cards − Board represents the state of the project at any point − Different from other visualizations –implements WIPlimits − Tries to limit the amount of work at any stage − Easy identification of bottlenecks in system through visual boards − Aims atminimizing waste states What is Kanban? (contd.)
  8. Fig.One typical Kanban board
  9. … because … − it helps in visualising the system and expose problems − it allows us to evaluate the impacts of process changes − it allows us to identify bottlenecks and alleviate them − it allows us to establish trust in theprocess − it helps us to maintain a sustainable pace with a sustainable throughput − you need to relax and Kanban advocates just that! But why Kanban?
  10. TheKanban Practices
  11. − Workflow is inherently invisible − Visualization is core toKanban − Enables people to take a quick look at the state of the workflow − Use of story cards can be used − Development process is dividedinto columns − Each task is specified on a story card − Essentially cards move along the board to show workflow Visualize
  12. − Apply limits on WIP in each phase of development − Isthe basis for implementing a pull based system − Work is pulled into the next phase once capacity is available − Improves quality by giving greater focus to fewer tasks − Also reduces lead time for work by reducing the number of concerns for the developer Limit WIP
  13. − Because maximum utilization ofresources is not desirable contraryto popular belief − Brings in slack into the system –creates a more conducive work process − Get the most important things done, one by one, with a clear focus − Things get done faster, better than before, leading to lesser rework Limit WIP (contd.)
  14. − Workflow should be closely monitored − Measurements must be made to identify problems in the system − Leads to better understanding of the system and helps inmaking educated improvements − Helps identify the positive and negative impact of changes introduced in thesystem Manage flow
  15. − All policies related to workflow management should be explicit − For eg. WIP limits, basic workflow, rejection/acceptance flow, definition of donenessetc. − Helps in providing a basis for process improvement based on statistics − Allows for a more rational approach to process improvement by logical reasoning Make policies explicit
  16. − Through the use of scientific models − Popular models: Theory ofConstraints (TOC) − Use of models allows a team to make predictions about a change − The expected and actual result can then be used effectively to improve the process − This approach leads to learning both at individual and organizational level Improve Collaboratively
  17. Thingsyou need: − A board − Lots of Post-it notes (preferably of different colors) − And lots of commitment (very important) − The next slides! Getting Started
  18. Importantterms: − Lead Time –time taken from request of feature to its completion − Cycle Time –time taken to finish the task − Throughput –essentially refers to productivity. Defined as the amount of work delivered in a time frame − WIP Limit Value Stream –this refers essentially to yourdevelopment process − Swarm(ing) –collaboration on a problem And some terms...
  19. − Allows easy visualization of the development process − Each columnrepresents one Fig.TheKanban Board phase in yourexisting development process − Numbers on top representWIP limits − The number of tasks in each phase is limited by the WIP limits specified The Board
  20. − Keeps track offeatures/tasks − Ismore of an XP related feature − Includes informationregarding transition of features on board − Post-it notes can be used − Different colored post-it notes can be used for different issue types such as bugs, features, tasks, improvement etc − TIP–Token, Inscription, Placement Fig.StoryCard Story Card
  21. − Measurement tools to measure the effectiveness of the system − Every time card ispushed/pulled on/off the board, charts start changing − Can be used to interpret various important metrics like average time taken for a task to be completed − Can be used to identify the flow of work − Also useful to identify the state of tasks in each phase of development − Control Charts & Cumulative Flow Diagrams Charts
  22. Control Chart
  23. − Are used to measure the average time taken for a task to be processed − Lead time and cycle time is represented on a control chart − Simplest charts that can be drawn − The aim is to keep lead time and cycle time as low as possible Control Chart
  24. Cumulative Flow Diagrams
  25. − Show relative amount of work for each stage − Use of colored areas for each phase for easy identification of bottlenecks − Vertical distance of the chart shows how many tasks are on the board and helps you set right WIP limits − Horizontal distance allows you to monitor Cycle Time − CFD should runsmoothly − Large steps or horizontal lines indicate problems in flow − Variations in gap/band indicate bottlenecks − When the band gets too wide, it indicates problems in work finishing or developers unable to handle amount of work Cumulative Flow Diagrams
  26. − Identifyyourdev process − How are featuresdecided? − What are the various steps involved in materializing it? − Define startand end pointsforthe board − Identify your boundaries − Identify when a task enters the board − Identify the end of its life cycle on the board Let’s get started
  27. − Agree − Initial WIP limits and policies –can change later − Prioritization and selectionpolicies − Policies for different classes of service (expedite, standard, fixed delivery date, intangible) − Process review cycle time Let’s get started (contd.)
  28. Cost Tim e Linear Classes of service vs.Cost of Delay Expedite Tim e Cost Fixed Tim e Cost Intangible Tim e Cost …but before going on…
  29. Let’s get started
  30. TheKanban Principles
  31. − Do not prescribe any new roles or responsibilities to implement the new system − No such thing as “Kanban Software Development Process” − Implement Kanban with existingsystem -David Anderson Start with what you do now!
  32. − Optimize what alreadyexists − Agree to continuous, incremental and evolutionary change to improve the system − Keep experimenting to understand the effects of changes on the system − Make small changes rather than huge process changes -David Anderson Agree to pursue incremental, evolutionary change
  33. − Do not remove existing roles and titles − This will eliminate fears in introducing the new system in the organization − Will help you get broader support in introducing the new system − Kanban was designed to reduce resistance to change -David Anderson Respect the current process, roles, responsibilities
  34. − Empower the workforce to bring about change − Swarm on a bottleneck for faster resolution − Hold frequent discussions and process improvements − Include everyone in these discussions and do not disregard anyone’s viewpoint -David Anderson Leadership at all levels
  35. Scrumina nutshell
  36. Splityour product Splityourorganization Large team spending a long timebuilding a huge thing Smallteam spending a littletimebuilding a small thing … but integrating regularly tosee the whole Optimize yourprocess Order the backlog Splittime
  37. Scrumvs Kanban
  38. Scrum prescribes roles, Kanban doesn’t!
  39. Scrum prescribes time-boxed iterations KanbanTeam ScrumTeam
  40. Scrum Kanban Scrum backlog items must fit in a sprint
  41. ScrumBoard KanbanBoard WIPlimited per unitof time (iteration) WIPlimited per workflow state Both limit WIP in different ways
  42. − Emphasis should be on the goal and not the tool. Becoming/agile lean is not thegoal − Don’t be dogmatic about your process − There is no good or bad tool. Only good or bad decisions − Keep experimenting for understanding and not judgment − Process isnot important, improvingthe process is important Does it matter?
  43. @ronicthomas Feedback
  44. − David J Anderson, Kanban - Successful Evolutionary Change for your Technology Business, 1st ed, Blue Hole Press,2010 − Henrik Kniberg, 2009, “Kanban and Scrum –Making the Most of Both”, Online, Available: − Images from References
  45. Thiswork islicensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0License License
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