Software Quality Management Unit – V G oy to y G Roy Antony Arnold od Asst. Prof. / CSE
and refersto a development model that was createdafter study of d t collected f ft t d f data ll t d fromorganizations that contracted with the , who hfunded the research.
• Th C bilit M t it M d l (CMM) was The Capability Maturity Model originally developed as .• The CMM is based on the first described in the book by .• It was later published in a report in and as a book by the same authors in .
Year Version Published i bli h d1987 Software Process maturity framework (Humphrey)1987 Preliminary maturity questionnaire (Humphrey and Sweet)1987 Characterizing the software process: a maturity framework (Humphrey)1989 Managing the software process (Humphrey)1990 Draft version of CMM (v0.2)1991 Version for discussion (v0.6)1991 v1.0: Capability Maturity Model for Software (Paulk et al.) ‘Key Practices for the Capability Maturity Model’ (Weber et al.) ‘K i f h C bili i d l’ (W b l)1993 v1.1: Capability Maturity Model for software, version 1.1 (Paulk et al.) Key practices for the Capability Maturity Mode, version 1.1 (Paulk et al.) Key practices for the Capability Maturity Mode version 1 1 (Paulk et al )
• Th Though this comes from the field of h thi f th fi ld f , it is used as a general model to aid in improving organizational business aid in improving organizational business processes in diverse areas; Such as,
• A t it A maturity model can be d l b that describe how well the of an organization can . • A t it A maturity model may provide, for example : d l id f l – a place to start – a common language and a shared vision a common language and a shared vision – a framework for prioritizing actions – a way to define what improvement means for your y p y organization.• A maturity model can be used as
: a 5‐level process maturity continuum ‐ the5th level where processes would be systematically managedby a combination of . : a KPA identifies a cluster of relatedactivities that that, . the goals of a key process area summarize the statesthat must exist for that key process area to have been . : There are five types of common ypfeatures: .
Focus on Process ImprovementProcess measured and controlled Process characterized for the organization f g and is proactive. Process characterized for projects and is often reactive.Processes Unpredictable, poorly controlled and reactive
Level Designation Description 1 Initial The organization has undefined processes and controls controls 2 Repeatable The organization has standardized methods facilitating repeatable processes. 3 Defined The organization monitors and improves its processes 4 Managed The organization possesses advanced controls, metrics and feedback. 5 Optimizing The organization uses metrics for optimization p p purposes.
• L k of I t Lack f Integration: ti – CMM has separate models for each function. – Such models often overlap contradict and display overlap, contradict, different levels of maturity. – This lack of standardization leads to confusions and conflicts d i fli t during th i l the implementation phase and t ti h d increase training and appraisal costs.• Limitations of KPA: – The “Key Performance Areas (KPA),” that define CMM levels focus on “policing” activities such as specifications, specifications documentation, documentation audits, audits and inspections, and do not reveal architecturally significant flaws.
• A ti it b d A Activity‐based Approach: h – CMM is an activity‐based approach that considers only the completion of a specific activity and activity, not whether the completed activity achieved the desired results.• Paperwork: – CMM places great importance on paperwork and meetings that take the management’s time and ti th t t k th t’ ti d effort away from actual work processes. – CMM traps the organization in recording and CMM traps the organization in recording and complying with processes, often at the cost of strategic goals.
• A l i multiple models that are not i Applying li l d l h integratedd within and across an organization could be costly in training appraisals and improvement training, appraisals, activities.• The (CMMI) project was formed to sort out the p problem of using multiple CMMs. g p• The Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University developed Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) in 2006 to integrate and standardize the separate models of CMM, and to eradicate other dra backs of CMM drawbacks CMM.
• CMMI b t practices are published i d best ti bli h d in documents t called models, each of which addresses a different area of interest.• The current release of CMMI, version 1.3, (released in November 2010) provides models for three areas of interest: development acquisition and services development, acquisition, services. – CMMI for Development (CMMI‐DEV) addresses product and service development processes. – CMMI f A i iti (CMMI ACQ) addresses supply chain for Acquisition (CMMI‐ACQ) dd l h i management, acquisition, and outsourcing processes in government and industry. – CMMI f S i for Services (CMMI SVC) addresses guidance f (CMMI‐SVC) dd id for delivering services within an organization and to external customers.
Maturity Level 2 ‐ Managed i l d• CM ‐ Configuration Management g g• MA ‐ Measurement and Analysis• PMC ‐ Project Monitoring and Control• PMC Project Monitoring and Control• PP ‐ Project Planning• PPQA ‐ Process and Product Quality Assurance• REQM ‐ Requirements Management• SAM ‐ Supplier Agreement Management• SAM Supplier Agreement Management
Maturity Level 3 ‐ DefinedM t it L l 3 D fi d• DAR ‐ Decision Analysis and Resolution• IPM Integrated Project Management• IPM ‐ Integrated Project Management• OPD ‐ Organizational Process Definition• OPF ‐ Organizational Process Focus g• OT ‐ Organizational Training• PI ‐ Product Integration• RD ‐ Requirements Development• RSKM ‐ Risk Management• TS ‐ T h i l S l ti TS Technical Solution• VAL ‐ Validation• VER • VER ‐ Verification
Maturity Level 4 ‐ Quantitatively Managed• OPP ‐ Organizational Process Performance OPP Organizational Process Performance• QPM ‐ Quantitative Project ManagementMaturity Level 5 ‐ Optimizing• CAR Causal Analysis and Resolution• CAR ‐ Causal Analysis and Resolution• OPM ‐ Organizational Performance Management
• A organization cannot b certified i CMMI i t d an An i ti t be tifi d in CMMI; instead, organization is appraised.• Depending on the type of appraisal, the organization can be awarded a maturity l l rating (1 5) or a capability l l d d t it level ti (1‐5) bilit level achievement profile.• Many organizations find value in measuring their progress by conducting an appraisal. A d ti i l Appraisals are t i ll conducted f i l typically d t d for one or more of the following reasons: – 1. To determine how well the organization’s processes compare to t CMMI b t practices, and t id tif areas where best ti d to identify h improvement can be made – 2. To inform external customers and suppliers of how well the organization s organization’s processes compare to CMMI best practices – 3. To meet the contractual requirements of one or more customers
• C CMMI can be appraised using two different b i d i diff approaches: staged and continuous. • The staged approach yields appraisal results as one of five maturity levels. • The continuous approach yields one of six capability levels. • The differences in these approaches are felt only in the appraisal; the best practices are y pp ; p equivalent and result in equivalent process p improvement results.
• A t it l l i A maturity level is a well‐defined evolutionary plateau ll d fi d l ti l t toward achieving a mature software process. • Each maturity level provides a layer in the foundation y p y for continuous process improvement.• The maturity levels are measured by the achievement of the of the specific and generic goals that apply to each generic goals that apply to each predefined set of process areas. • There are five maturity levels designated by the y g y numbers 1 through 5 – 1) Initial – 2) Managed 2) Managed – 3) Defined – 4) Quantitatively Managed – 5) Optimizing
• A capability l l i a well‐defined evolutionary plateau bilit level is ll d fi d l ti l t describing the organizations capability relative to a process area.• capability levels are cumulative, i.e., a higher capability level includes the attributes of the lower levels.• In CMMI models with a continuous representation representation, there are six capability levels designated by the numbers 0 through 5. – 0 ‐ Incomplete – 1 ‐ Performed – 2 ‐ Managed – 3 ‐ Defined – 4 ‐ Quantitatively Managed – 5 ‐ Optimizing i ii
Level l CMM CMMILevel 1 Both describes an immature organization without any(Initial) (Initial) defined processes, run in an ad‐hoc, uncontrolled, and ad hoc, reactive mannerLevel 2 Organizations repeat Requires management of(Repeatable) some processes to attain organizational requirements( bl ) i i i l i Level 2. through planned, performed, measured, and controlled processes.Level 3 Mandates a set of It is an improvement of CMMI (Defined) documented standard Level 2 and describes the Level 2 and describes the processes to establish organizational processes in consistency across the standards, procedures, tools, organization. i ti and methods. d methods
Level CMM CMMILevel 4 Requires organizations Also identifies sub processes (Managed) to attain control over that significantly contribute to processes by using overall process efficiency. quantitative statistical techniques.Level 5 Mandates use of Focuses on continuously(Optimizing) quantitative tools and improving process objectives to manage performance through process improvement. incremental and innovative technological improvements. t h l i li t CMMI supersede CMM in software development processes, processes but CMM is still relevant and appropriate for sequential, activity‐based management paradigm.
CMM CMMIWhile CMM is a certification tool. CMMI is not certification tool. An An organization is certified.A i ti i tifi d organization is appraised and i ti i i d d awarded a rating from 1 to 5CMM measures the maturity levely CMMI is also an activity based yof an organization by determining approach but the major differenceif an organization completes the is that CMMI takes a more result‐specific activities listed in the Key oriented approach when definingPerformance Areas (KPA), and measuring Key Performanceoblivious to whether the Areas.completion of such activity leadsto the desired result.
CMM CMMICMM KPA concentrates on the CMMI has an iterative lifecyclecompletion of specific tasks or that integrates the latest bestprocesses and does not motivate practices from the industry andthe organization to focus on attacks risks in processprocess architecture architecture. architecture at an early stage stage.Paper work in CMM is concerned CMMI documentation andat recording processes. meetings focus on strategic goals of the organizations.Simply, CMM has focused CMMI goes a step further andattention on processes processes. focus attention on result‐oriented processes.