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AGILE PROCESS
INTRODUCTION
Author: Nguyen Phuc Hai
Created date: 1/7/2008
Agenda
 Introduction
 Software Development Process
   Software Development Life Cycle
   Waterfall model
   Iterative model
    Rational Unified Process (RUP)
    Agile Development Process (ADP)
 Scrum process
Software Development Process
 Software Development Life Cycle
 Waterfall model
 Iterative model
    Rational Unified Process (RUP)
    Agile Development Process (ADP)
Why we need process
Software Development Life Cycle
Software Development Process
 Software Development Life Cycle

 Waterfall model
 Iterative model
    Rational Unified Process (RUP)
    Agile Development Process (ADP)
Introduction
Definitions
 The waterfall model is a sequential software
 development model (a process for the creation of
 software) in which development is seen as flowing
 steadily downwards through the phases of
 requirements, analysis, design, implementation,
 testing and maintenance.
Waterfall usage
 Advantages
  High reliable product
  Reduce risk
  Clear scope and contract
 Disadvantages
  Much over cost, resource and schedule
  Lack of product can apply Waterfall (except small and
  short-duration projects)
  Specific skill sets are required for each phase
Software Development Process
 Software Development Life Cycle
 Waterfall Model

 Iterative Model
    Rational Unified Process (RUP)
    Agile Development Process (ADP)
Introduction
Definitions
 Iterative and Incremental development is a cyclical
 software development process developed in
 response to the weaknesses of the waterfall model.
 Iterative development slices the deliverable
 business value (system functionality) into
 iterations. In each iteration a slice of functionality is
 delivered through cross-discipline work, starting
 from the model/requirements through to the
 testing/deployment
Usage
 Advantages:
  Optimize cost, schedule and resource than waterfall
  model
  Incrementally delivery business value
  Continuously improve product quality (requirements,
  design, code, test) via regularly feedback and learning
  knowledge
Software Development Process
 Software Development Life Cycle
 Waterfall Model

 Iterative Model
    Rational Unified Process (RUP)
    Agile Development Process (ADP)
Iterative Model Graph
Phases and Iterations
 RUP life cycle organizes the tasks via phases and
 iterations.
 RUP has four phases:
   Inception
   Elaboration
   Construction
   Transition
Static Structure of the Process
 The process describes who is doing what, when and
 how. RUP uses the 4 modeling elements:
   Workers, the ‘who’
   Artifacts, the ‘what’
   Activities, the ‘how’
   Workflows, the ‘when’
Software Development Process
 Software Development Life Cycle
 Waterfall Model

 Iterative Model
    Rational Unified Process (RUP)
    Agile Development Process (ADP)
         Agile Manifesto
         Agile Principles
Manifesto of ADP

 Individuals and interactions over processes
 and tools
 Working software over comprehensive
 documentation
 Customer collaboration over contract
 negotiation
 Responding to change over following a plan
Principles of Agile
     Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer
 through early and continuous delivery
 of valuable software.
       Welcome changing requirements, even
 late in development. Agile processes harness
 change for the customer's competitive advantage.
      Deliver working software frequently,
 from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with
 a preference to the shorter timescale.
Principles of Agile (continue)
    Business people and developers must
 work together daily throughout the project.
    Build projects around motivated
 individuals. Give them the environment and
 support they need, and trust them to get the job
 done.
    The most efficient and effective method of
 conveying information to and within a development
 team is face-to-face conversation.
Principles of Agile
    Working software is the primary measure of
 progress.
    Agile processes promote sustainable
 development. The sponsors, developers, and users
 should be able to maintain a constant pace
 indefinitely.
     Continuous attention to technical excellence
 and good design enhances agility.
Principles of Agile
     Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount
 of work not done--is essential.
      The best architectures, requirements, and
 designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
      At regular intervals, the team reflects on how
 to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts
 its behavior accordingly.
Sequence of iterations
Scrum Process
 What is Scrum
    Introduction
    Applying Scrum
 Preconditions to Scrum
 Scrum roles
 How to scrum
What is Scrum
Applying Scrum
 Scrum is not silver bullet
Applying Scrum
 Adopt all Scrum practices
Applying Scrum
 Top-Bottom or Bottom-Up? Combine both
 approaches properly
Scrum Process
 What is Scrum

 Preconditions to Scrum
 Scrum roles
 Scrum ceremonies
Transparency
Ethics
Team work
Freedom
Open communication
Stakeholder engagement
Maturity
Scrum Process
 What is Scrum
 Preconditions to Scrum

 Scrum roles
    Product Owner
    Scrum Master
    Team
 Scrum ceremonies
 Scrum artifacts
Product Owner
 Product owner has the following responsibilities:
   Define the features of the product;
   Decide on release date and content;
   Be responsible for the profitability of the product (ROI);
   Prioritize features according to market value;
   Adjust features and priority every 30 days, as needed;
   Accept or reject work results.
Scrum Master
 The Scrum Master is a facilitative team leader
 working closing with the Product Owner. He must:
   Ensure that the team is fully functional and productive;
   Enable close cooperation across all roles and functions;
   Remove barriers;
   Shield the team from external interferences; and
   Ensure that the process is followed, including issuing
   invitations to Daily Scrum, Sprint Review and Sprint
   Planning meetings.
Scrum Master (continue)
 The Scrum Master has three primary responsibilities
 in addition to leading the Daily Scrum meeting:
   Needs to know what tasks have been completed, what
   tasks have started, any new tasks that have been
   discovered, and any estimates that may have changed.
   The Scrum Master must also look carefully at the
   number of open tasks in progress.
   Needs to surface dependencies and blocks which are
   impediments to the Scrum. They need to be prioritized
   and tracked.
Scrum Master (continue)
  Last but not least, the Scrum Master may notice
  personal problems or conflicts within the Scrum that
  need resolution. These need to be clarified by the Scrum
  Master and be resolved by dialogue within the team, or
  the Scrum Master may need help from management or
  the Human Resources.
Team
 Is cross-functional, with seven (plus/minus two)
 members;
 Selects the Sprint goal and specifies work results;
 Has the right to do everything within the
 boundaries of the project guidelines to reach the
 Sprint goal; Organizes itself and its work; and
 Demos work results to the Product Owner
Scrum Process
 What is Scrum
 Preconditions to Scrum
 Scrum roles

 Scrum ceremonies
    Sprint Planning Meeting
    Daily Scrum Meeting
    Sprint Review Meeting
 Scrum artifacts
Sprint Planning Meeting
 Preparation for a Scrum sprint begins when the
 Product Owner develops a plan for a product or a
 project.
 The team reviews the estimates for features on the
 Product Backlog and confirms that they are as
 accurate as possible
 Be used to develop a detailed plan for the iteration
 Be time-boxed to a maximum of four hours.
Daily Scrum Meeting
 Be the fifteen-minute meeting designed to clarify the
 state of the Scrum.
 Each team member speaks to three questions:
   What did I do yesterday
   What did I do today, and
   What impediments got in my way?
 Only team members who have committed to deliver
 work to the Scrum are allowed to speak. The goal is
 to get a global snapshot of the project, discover any
 new dependencies, address any personal needs of
 committed individuals, and adjust the work plan in real
 time to the needs of the day.
Daily Scrum Meeting
 Pig and chicken issue in Scrum
Sprint Review Meeting
 Be held at the end of each Sprint.
 Product Owner determines which items on the
 Product Backlog have been completed in the Sprint,
 and discusses with the Scrum team and stakeholders
 how best to reprioritize the Product Backlog for the
 next sprint
 Be time-boxed to a maximum of four hours.
Scrum Process
 What is Scrum
 Preconditions to Scrum
 Scrum roles
 Scrum ceremonies

 Scrum artifacts
    Product Backlog
    Sprint Backlog
    Burn-down Chart
Product Backlog
 A single list of features prioritized by value
 delivered to the customer.
 The Product Backlog includes business and
 technical requirements needed to build the
 product. The highest priority items in the Product
 Backlog need to be broken down into small enough
 chunks to be estimable and testable. Features that
 will be implemented further out in time can be less
 detailed.
Product Backlog
 Sprint Backlog may change for several reasons:
   The development team gains a better understanding of
   work to be done as time progresses and may find that
   they need to add new tasks to the Sprint Backlog.
   Defects may be identified and logged as additional
   tasks.
   The Product Owner may work with the team during the
   Sprint to help refine team understanding of the Sprint
   goal. The Scrum Master and Team may decide that
   minor adjustments that do not lengthen the Sprint are
   appropriate to optimize customer value.
Product Backlog
 Example
Sprint Backlog
 The list of tasks that the Scrum team is
 committing that they will complete in the current
 sprint. Items on the sprint backlog are drawn from
 the Product Backlog, by the team based on the
 priorities set by the Product Owner and the team's
 perception of the time it will take to complete the
 various features.
Sprint Backlog
 Example
Burn-down Chart
 The Burn-down Chart is used as a tool to guide the
 development team to successful completion of a Sprint
 on time.
 Shows the cumulative work remaining in a Sprint, day-
 by-day.
 The total of all Sprint Backlog estimates of work
 remaining to be completed is the cumulative backlog.
 When tasks are completed as the Sprint proceeds, the
 Scrum Master recalculates the remaining work to be
 done and the Sprint Backlog decreases, or burns down
 over time. It the cumulative Sprint Backlog is zero at the
 end of the Sprint, the Sprint is successful.
Burn-down Chart
 Example
References
References
 Software Development Process,
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_developme
 nt_process
 Waterfall Model,
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterfall_model
 RUP, Best Practices for Software Development Team,
 http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/rational/libr
 ary/content/03July/1000/1251/1251_bestpracti
 ces_TP026B.pdf
 Agile Manifesto, http://agilemanifesto.org/
References
 Darrel Norton, Scrum overview
 http://codebetter.com/blogs/darrell.norton/pages
 /50339.aspx
 ScrumAlliance, http://www.scrumalliance.org/
 Implementing Scrum,
 http://www.implementingscrum.com
References
 Pictures are gotten from:
   http://www.agileadvice.com/archives/2006/09/yet_
   another_big.html
   http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileModeling
   RUP.htm
   http://www.notetech.com/images/software_lifecycle.jp
   g
Agile Process Introduction

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Agile Process Introduction

  • 1. AGILE PROCESS INTRODUCTION Author: Nguyen Phuc Hai Created date: 1/7/2008
  • 2. Agenda Introduction Software Development Process Software Development Life Cycle Waterfall model Iterative model Rational Unified Process (RUP) Agile Development Process (ADP) Scrum process
  • 3. Software Development Process Software Development Life Cycle Waterfall model Iterative model Rational Unified Process (RUP) Agile Development Process (ADP)
  • 4. Why we need process
  • 6. Software Development Process Software Development Life Cycle Waterfall model Iterative model Rational Unified Process (RUP) Agile Development Process (ADP)
  • 8. Definitions The waterfall model is a sequential software development model (a process for the creation of software) in which development is seen as flowing steadily downwards through the phases of requirements, analysis, design, implementation, testing and maintenance.
  • 9. Waterfall usage Advantages High reliable product Reduce risk Clear scope and contract Disadvantages Much over cost, resource and schedule Lack of product can apply Waterfall (except small and short-duration projects) Specific skill sets are required for each phase
  • 10. Software Development Process Software Development Life Cycle Waterfall Model Iterative Model Rational Unified Process (RUP) Agile Development Process (ADP)
  • 12. Definitions Iterative and Incremental development is a cyclical software development process developed in response to the weaknesses of the waterfall model. Iterative development slices the deliverable business value (system functionality) into iterations. In each iteration a slice of functionality is delivered through cross-discipline work, starting from the model/requirements through to the testing/deployment
  • 13. Usage Advantages: Optimize cost, schedule and resource than waterfall model Incrementally delivery business value Continuously improve product quality (requirements, design, code, test) via regularly feedback and learning knowledge
  • 14. Software Development Process Software Development Life Cycle Waterfall Model Iterative Model Rational Unified Process (RUP) Agile Development Process (ADP)
  • 16. Phases and Iterations RUP life cycle organizes the tasks via phases and iterations. RUP has four phases: Inception Elaboration Construction Transition
  • 17. Static Structure of the Process The process describes who is doing what, when and how. RUP uses the 4 modeling elements: Workers, the ‘who’ Artifacts, the ‘what’ Activities, the ‘how’ Workflows, the ‘when’
  • 18. Software Development Process Software Development Life Cycle Waterfall Model Iterative Model Rational Unified Process (RUP) Agile Development Process (ADP) Agile Manifesto Agile Principles
  • 19. Manifesto of ADP Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan
  • 20. Principles of Agile Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.
  • 21. Principles of Agile (continue) Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
  • 22. Principles of Agile Working software is the primary measure of progress. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.
  • 23. Principles of Agile Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
  • 25. Scrum Process What is Scrum Introduction Applying Scrum Preconditions to Scrum Scrum roles How to scrum
  • 27. Applying Scrum Scrum is not silver bullet
  • 28. Applying Scrum Adopt all Scrum practices
  • 29. Applying Scrum Top-Bottom or Bottom-Up? Combine both approaches properly
  • 30. Scrum Process What is Scrum Preconditions to Scrum Scrum roles Scrum ceremonies
  • 38. Scrum Process What is Scrum Preconditions to Scrum Scrum roles Product Owner Scrum Master Team Scrum ceremonies Scrum artifacts
  • 39. Product Owner Product owner has the following responsibilities: Define the features of the product; Decide on release date and content; Be responsible for the profitability of the product (ROI); Prioritize features according to market value; Adjust features and priority every 30 days, as needed; Accept or reject work results.
  • 40. Scrum Master The Scrum Master is a facilitative team leader working closing with the Product Owner. He must: Ensure that the team is fully functional and productive; Enable close cooperation across all roles and functions; Remove barriers; Shield the team from external interferences; and Ensure that the process is followed, including issuing invitations to Daily Scrum, Sprint Review and Sprint Planning meetings.
  • 41. Scrum Master (continue) The Scrum Master has three primary responsibilities in addition to leading the Daily Scrum meeting: Needs to know what tasks have been completed, what tasks have started, any new tasks that have been discovered, and any estimates that may have changed. The Scrum Master must also look carefully at the number of open tasks in progress. Needs to surface dependencies and blocks which are impediments to the Scrum. They need to be prioritized and tracked.
  • 42. Scrum Master (continue) Last but not least, the Scrum Master may notice personal problems or conflicts within the Scrum that need resolution. These need to be clarified by the Scrum Master and be resolved by dialogue within the team, or the Scrum Master may need help from management or the Human Resources.
  • 43. Team Is cross-functional, with seven (plus/minus two) members; Selects the Sprint goal and specifies work results; Has the right to do everything within the boundaries of the project guidelines to reach the Sprint goal; Organizes itself and its work; and Demos work results to the Product Owner
  • 44. Scrum Process What is Scrum Preconditions to Scrum Scrum roles Scrum ceremonies Sprint Planning Meeting Daily Scrum Meeting Sprint Review Meeting Scrum artifacts
  • 45. Sprint Planning Meeting Preparation for a Scrum sprint begins when the Product Owner develops a plan for a product or a project. The team reviews the estimates for features on the Product Backlog and confirms that they are as accurate as possible Be used to develop a detailed plan for the iteration Be time-boxed to a maximum of four hours.
  • 46. Daily Scrum Meeting Be the fifteen-minute meeting designed to clarify the state of the Scrum. Each team member speaks to three questions: What did I do yesterday What did I do today, and What impediments got in my way? Only team members who have committed to deliver work to the Scrum are allowed to speak. The goal is to get a global snapshot of the project, discover any new dependencies, address any personal needs of committed individuals, and adjust the work plan in real time to the needs of the day.
  • 47. Daily Scrum Meeting Pig and chicken issue in Scrum
  • 48. Sprint Review Meeting Be held at the end of each Sprint. Product Owner determines which items on the Product Backlog have been completed in the Sprint, and discusses with the Scrum team and stakeholders how best to reprioritize the Product Backlog for the next sprint Be time-boxed to a maximum of four hours.
  • 49. Scrum Process What is Scrum Preconditions to Scrum Scrum roles Scrum ceremonies Scrum artifacts Product Backlog Sprint Backlog Burn-down Chart
  • 50. Product Backlog A single list of features prioritized by value delivered to the customer. The Product Backlog includes business and technical requirements needed to build the product. The highest priority items in the Product Backlog need to be broken down into small enough chunks to be estimable and testable. Features that will be implemented further out in time can be less detailed.
  • 51. Product Backlog Sprint Backlog may change for several reasons: The development team gains a better understanding of work to be done as time progresses and may find that they need to add new tasks to the Sprint Backlog. Defects may be identified and logged as additional tasks. The Product Owner may work with the team during the Sprint to help refine team understanding of the Sprint goal. The Scrum Master and Team may decide that minor adjustments that do not lengthen the Sprint are appropriate to optimize customer value.
  • 53. Sprint Backlog The list of tasks that the Scrum team is committing that they will complete in the current sprint. Items on the sprint backlog are drawn from the Product Backlog, by the team based on the priorities set by the Product Owner and the team's perception of the time it will take to complete the various features.
  • 55. Burn-down Chart The Burn-down Chart is used as a tool to guide the development team to successful completion of a Sprint on time. Shows the cumulative work remaining in a Sprint, day- by-day. The total of all Sprint Backlog estimates of work remaining to be completed is the cumulative backlog. When tasks are completed as the Sprint proceeds, the Scrum Master recalculates the remaining work to be done and the Sprint Backlog decreases, or burns down over time. It the cumulative Sprint Backlog is zero at the end of the Sprint, the Sprint is successful.
  • 58. References Software Development Process, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_developme nt_process Waterfall Model, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterfall_model RUP, Best Practices for Software Development Team, http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/rational/libr ary/content/03July/1000/1251/1251_bestpracti ces_TP026B.pdf Agile Manifesto, http://agilemanifesto.org/
  • 59. References Darrel Norton, Scrum overview http://codebetter.com/blogs/darrell.norton/pages /50339.aspx ScrumAlliance, http://www.scrumalliance.org/ Implementing Scrum, http://www.implementingscrum.com
  • 60. References Pictures are gotten from: http://www.agileadvice.com/archives/2006/09/yet_ another_big.html http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileModeling RUP.htm http://www.notetech.com/images/software_lifecycle.jp g