Psh 2012 origins cold war revision pack

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Psh 2012 origins cold war revision pack

  1. 1. HISTORYREVISION PACK:ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR. PAPER 1(Distributed March 2012)
  2. 2. Origins of the Cold War Flashcards: Yalta and PotsdamWhich leaders met at Yalta Roosevelt (USA), Churchill (GB), and Stalin (USSR)Conference, Feb 1945?What was agreed at Yalta? Germany and Berlin would be divided into zones of occupation under control of USA, USSR, GB and FR USSR would join the war against JAP United Nations to be set up after WWII Eastern European countries could hold free elections after the end of the warWhat did the Allied leaders Stalin wanted to move the border of Poland westwardsdisagree on at Yalta? into German territory – Roosevelt was unhappy but agreed since Stalin promised not to help Communist rebels in GreeceHow many USSR civilian Over 21 million, including over 13 million soldiers (theand military deaths were USA lost only 0.5million soldiers)there in WWII?Which leaders met at Truman (USA), Churchill (GB), and Stalin (USSR) – butPotsdam Conference, July Churchill was replaced by Atlee1945?What was agreed at Germany and Berlin would be divided asPotsdam? agreed at Yalta Poland’s eastern border moved west – this would give the USSR more territory Nazi leaders to be tried as war criminalsWhat were the Truman blocked Stalin’s demands for cripplingdisagreements at Potsdam? reparations (fines) to be placed on GMY Truman refused to allow the USSR to occupy JAP once it was defeated Truman and Atlee opposed Stalin’s demand that he set up pro-Soviet governments in Eastern Europe?Why was Potsdam less Stalin’s troops remained in Eastern Europe –successful? hopes of free elections seemed very distant now Truman informed Stalin that the USA now possessed the atom bomb – Stalin feared that the USA might use this weapon in the future against the USSR Truman adopted a far more hardline approach to Stalin than Roosevelt had GB and USA were suspicious of Stalin who had now set up a pro-Communist government in Poland Stalin was suspicious as to why USA wanted GMY to ‘recover’ economically
  3. 3. Origins of the Cold War Flashcards: Soviet occupation of Eastern EuropeWhy did Stalin ensure that Stalin wanted to create a buffer zone between eastevery government in Eastern and west. The USSR had suffered two invasions inEurope was pro-communist? the last thirty years – if Eastern Europe was under his control, this would make any future invasion less likelyHow did the USA interpret this The USA believed that this was part of Stalin’s aimmove by Stalin? to spread communism throughout the world – in particular they thought countries in Western Europe were under threatWhat was the Iron Curtain In March 1946 Churchill visited the USA where hespeech? made a speech in which he declared that Europe was being divided by Soviet policy. In the West were free and democratic states, but in the East countries were living under the domination of communism and the USSR – an ‘iron curtain’ separated the twoHow did Stalin set up pro- Although Stalin did hold elections, these wereCommunist governments? rigged to ensure Communists won. Politicians from other parties were beaten, intimidated or even murdered (e.g. Jan Masaryk). Even after the war, six million Soviet troops remained in Eastern Europe to stamp out oppositionHow did Stalin ensure these He set up COMINFORM in 1947, an alliance ofstates relied on the USSR? Communist countries, which restricted their contact with the West. This was done in response to the Marshall Plan. Later on he set up COMECON to coordinate trade between these countriesOrigins of the Cold War Flashcards: The USA’s reaction to Soviet expansionWhy did events in Greece Truman was informed in 1947 that GB could nochange US policy? longer afford to keep troops in Greece & Turkey. If GB withdrew these countries could well come under the influence of Stalin. Truman therefore paid for the troops to be kept there and gave financial backing to the two countries. This was the beginning of the US policy of CONTAINMENTWhat was the Truman Truman announced this change of policy to theDoctrine? world in a speech in March 1947 – he made it clear that the USA was prepared to assist any country under the threat of communism. The Cold War had begun!
  4. 4. What was Marshall Aid? Truman believed poverty and hardship were the breeding grounds for communism, and he therefore provided billions of dollars for the wrecked economies of Europe. He also wanted these economies to recover so that they could provide a market for US produced goods. This aid was accepted by Western European governments, but those in eastern Europe were banned from accepting it on the strict orders of StalinOrigins of the Cold War Flashcards: The Berlin Blockade 1948-1949How did the USA’s actions West Germany (and West Berlin) werehelp to cause this crisis? benefitting from Marshall Aid GB and USA had combined their parts of West Germany to form BIZONIA They introduced a new currency called the Deutschmark TheseHow did Stalin interpret these The USSR believed that this was part of the USA’sactions? to rebuild Germany into a strong nation once more – this could result in the USSR being invaded once moreWhy did Stalin decide to By blockading road and rail links from Westimpose a blockade on Berlin? Germany into West Berlin, Stalin hoped to test the strength of the USA and to force them into surrendering West Berlin where two million people lived free from Soviet ruleWhy did the USA and GB They could not break the road and rail blockadedecide to fly in supplies to with force as this might be seen as an act of war;West Berlin? nonstop flights (a total of 275,000!) ensured that 5000 tons of food and other necessities came to West Berlin each dayWhy did Stalin not shoot down This would be seen as an aggressive act of war –the planes? furthermore the US had also stationed B29 bombers in GB, capable of dropping the atom bomb n the SovietsWhat were the consequences The USA, GB and FR combined their zonesof the Blockade? to form WEST GERMANY NATO, a military alliance of western nations, was set up to ensure that any future attack by Stalin would be met with force Stalin set up the WARSAW PACT – a similar alliance of Eastern European countries; by 1949 Soviet scientists had also developed the atom bomb
  5. 5. Pupil Activities:Working with a partner, try to determine who was responsible for the Cold War byhighlighting the events below: e.g. the Berlin Blockade of 1948 should be highlightedto indicate that the USSR was responsibleKey: USA was responsible USSR was responsible1945 Yalta Conference Truman becomes president Potsdam Conference Dropping of atom bombs on Japan Communist-dominated Polish government set up by Stalin1946 Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech1947 Bizonia formed in western Germany Truman Doctrine / Greek Civil War Marshall Plan / Communist governments imposed in E. Europe1948 New currency introduced in western Germany Berlin Blockade begins1949 Formation of NATO USSR lifts Berlin Blockade FRG (West Germany) & GDR (East Germany) established USSR develops atom bombWhich side gained the most from Yalta and Potsdam?Evidence for USA: Evidence for USSR:
  6. 6. Cold War Exam Practice: Cartoon Based QuestionsJanuary 2011 (a) Study source A: what is the message of this cartoon? Use details of the cartoon and your own knowledge to explain your answer (7) (b) Explain why the Soviet Union blockaded West Berlin in 1948? (8) TOP TIP! For these style of cartoon questions you can earn 6/7 for a well explained answer that refers to only the cartoon or your own knowledge; the final mark is gained by doing both! TOP TIP! For the (b) type questions you must explain TWO reasons to earn your full 8 marks; if you explain just one reason you will earn 5-6 marks. Look at the answers below – what marks would they be awarded? ‘The message the cartoonist wanted to give is that Marshall can see Europe’s need for American aid but America does not seem too interested. Marshall had been to assess the economic state of Europe in late 1947. Here he found a ruined economy. Marshall suggested that about $17 billion would be needed to rebuild Europe’s prosperity. At first the American Congress refused to grant this money. They were concerned about Truman’s involvement in Europe. They changed their attitude when the Communists took over Czechoslovakia.’ ‘The Soviet Union wanted to force the Western Allies to pull out of Berlin by starving them into surrender by making Berlin dependent on the USSR. The Soviet Union did this because they were afraid of Germany recovering to be strong again and therefore becoming a threat to them. The USSR believed the Western Allies had no right to be in Berlin. They saw them as a threat as they were able to show off their capitalist way of life. The Allies had combined their zones into Bizonia and introduced a new currency, called the Deutschmark.’
  7. 7. Cold War Exam Practice: Cartoon Based QuestionsJune 2010 (a) Study source A: what is the message of this cartoon? Use details of the cartoon and your own knowledge to explain your answer (7) (b) Explain why the USA was hostile towards the Soviet Union in the years 1945 to 1949? (8) TOP TIP! For these style of cartoon questions you can earn 6/7 for a well explained answer that refers to only the cartoon or your own knowledge; the final mark is gained by doing both! TOP TIP! For the (b) type questions you must explain TWO reasons to earn your full 8 marks; if you explain just one reason you will earn 5-6 marks. Look at the answers below – what marks would they be awarded? ‘The message the cartoonist wanted to give is that Stalin has cut off eastern Europe from the West. The cartoon shows this by a large barrier on which are written the words ‘No Admittance – By Order Joe’. This is a clear reference to Josef Stalin, the leader of the USSR at this time. His control of Eastern Europe is further shown by the Soviet flag flying behind the barrier, referred to by Churchill as the Iron Curtain. It is Churchill peering under this curtain in the cartoon. ‘Truman was far more suspicious of Stalin than FDR had been. In particular he did not trust Stalin who had kept over 6 million soldiers in Eastern Europe, even though the war was over, and used them to intimidate his political opponents in this area. Despite an agreement made at Yalta, Stalin had refused to allow free elections in these countries which effectively became satellite states of the Soviet Union. Stalin used intimidation, threats, and even murder to ensure his supporters won political power. Furthermore Truman did not trust Stalin due to his actions over Berlin. The Soviet leader blockaded western access to West Berlin in response to western attempts to support Germany’s ailing economy.’
  8. 8. Cartoons for you to interpret:
  9. 9. Cold War Exam Practice: Essay Based Questions January 2012 (a) What decisions about Germany were taken at Yalta and Potsdam? (4) (b) Explain why the wartime allies disagreed about Poland in 1945. (6) (c) The following were equally to blame for increasing Cold War tensions before 1950: Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe, the Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan, the Berlin Blockade How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer by referring only to the three factors above (10)TOP TIP for (c) above!These questions often prove difficult for students to answer successfully – it iseasier if you use the following structure: Explain what Soviet expansionism was and how it increased tensions Explain what the Truman Doctrine was and how it increased tensions Explain what the Berlin Blockade was and how it increased tensions In your final paragraph, explain whether you think they were equally to blame, or if one was more important than the others in increasing tension June 2011 (a) Describe what happened at the Potsdam Conference. (4)
  10. 10. (b) Explain why the USA-USSR alliance had broken down by 1947 (6)TOP TIP!Focus your key reasons on two of the following before writing a proper response: thePotsdam Conference, the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe, and the Marshall Plan (c) Which country had the more successful policies in Europe between 1945 and 1949: the USA or the USSR? Explain your answer (10)Plan an answer to the following with your partner using the table below:Policy USA / USSR Success Failure
  11. 11. Complete the following question for homework or under timedconditions in class:January 2010 (a) What was decided at the Yalta Conference in February 1945? (4) (b) Explain why there was a breakdown in relations between the USSR and the West from 1945 to 1946(6) (c) ‘The Berlin Blockade was more to blame than the Marshall Plan for increasing Cold War tension.’ How far do you agree with this statement? (10)

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