3 c presentatieactivecitizenship_def

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3 c presentatieactivecitizenship_def

  1. 1. Active citizenship - an international European perspective. Findings from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) Saskia De Groof en Eva Franck Department of Sociology – Free University of Brussels (VUB) Educational policy department - City of Antwerp 08/02/12 | pag.
  2. 2. Focus presentation <ul><li>ICCS: What, when, how? </li></ul><ul><li>International comparison students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explanatory analyses expected active citizenship participation </li></ul><ul><li>Policy choices to stimulate student participation at school: case of the city of Antwerp </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  3. 3. Part I ICCS : What, when, how? 08/02/12 | pag.
  4. 4. What is ICCS? <ul><li>Third study of the “International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement” (IEA) on citizenship (education) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1971: 9 countries or regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1999/2000: 28/16 countries or regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2008/9: 38 countries or regions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 2006 – September 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Are young people prepared for their role as citizen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes, perceptions and behaviours </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  5. 5. Participating countries ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  6. 6. Respondents <ul><li>Target population = students in grade 8 (appr. 14 years of age) </li></ul><ul><li>More than 140,000 students, more than 62,000 teachers and about 5,100 school principals from more than 5,300 schools </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  7. 7. International instruments: students <ul><li>Cognitive test: 80 items measuring civic and citizenship knowledge, analysis and reasoning (exactly 45’) </li></ul><ul><li>Student questionnaire: student background, in- and out-of-school participation, citizenship attitudes (+/- 40’) </li></ul><ul><li>Regional instruments: Asia, Europe and Latin-America (+/- 30’) </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  8. 8. International instruments: other <ul><li>Teacher questionnaire: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions of civic and citizenship education in their school, school organization and culture, teaching assignments (+/- 30’) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School questionnaire: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of civic and citizenship education in their school, school characteristics, school climate and culture (+/- 30’) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Context Survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of the education system, civic and citizenship education in the national curricula, recent developments in civic and citizenship education </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  9. 9. ICCS output <ul><li>International report (2010) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive international comparisons (students, teachers and principals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanatory analyses per country for knowledge, expected electoral participation, expected political participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International technical report (2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Regional reports (2010, 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>See: http://www.iea.nl/iccs_2009.html </li></ul><ul><li>National reports </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  10. 10. Part II International comparisons 08/02/12 | pag.
  11. 11. Dimensions of citizenship <ul><li>Civic knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International mean of 500 and standard deviation of 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skills and willingness to participate in political system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democratic values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10 </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  12. 12. Skills and willingness to participate in political system <ul><li>Political discussion with family/friends </li></ul><ul><li>Out-of-school civic participation </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in political and social issues </li></ul><ul><li>Internal political efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Trust in institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes towards country </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. <ul><li>Importance conventional citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Importance social-movement-related citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Expected informal political participation as a young person </li></ul><ul><li>Expected adult participation in political activities </li></ul><ul><li>Expected electoral participation </li></ul><ul><li>Expected participation in legal protest activities </li></ul>
  13. 13. Democratic values <ul><li>Attitudes toward gender inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Endorsement of basic democratic values </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes toward equal rights for all ethnic or racial groups </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes toward equal rights for immigrants </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  14. 14. Citizenship as… <ul><li>Achievement or practice? </li></ul><ul><li>Role student participation and school climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of the value of student participation at school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in civic related activities at school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of students’ influence on decisions about school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of openness in classroom discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of student-teacher relationship </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  15. 15. Today focus on … <ul><li>Skills and willingness to participate in political system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civic knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student participation and perception school climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in civic related activities at school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of students’ influence on decisions about school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of openness in classroom discussions </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  16. 16. Good citizenship? <ul><li>Norms and expectations about what good citizens are expected to do in a democratic society </li></ul><ul><li>Distinction between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social movement-related citizenship </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  17. 17. Importance conventional citizenship <ul><li>How important are the following behaviours for being a good adult citizen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting in every national election </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showing respect for government representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following political issues in the newspaper, on the radio, on TV or on the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning about the country's history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging in political discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joining a political party </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  18. 18. Importance conventional citizenship <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. International mean = 50 Below international mean
  19. 19. Importance conventional citizenship <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>54,4 Italy </li></ul><ul><li>53,2 Cyprus </li></ul><ul><li>51,2 Norway </li></ul><ul><li>50,8 Poland </li></ul><ul><li>50,6 Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>50,1 Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>50,0 Latvia </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. Malta 49,6 Greece 49,4 Spain 48,9 Luxembourg 48,8 W-Europe 48,8 Bulgaria 48,7 Europe 48,4 England 48,4 Austria 48,1 Switzerland 47,9 Below international mean Liechtenstein 47,8 Denmark 47,6 Estonia 47,1 Netherlands 46,8 Slovenia 46,4 Sweden 45,5 Slovakia 45,4 Finland 45,0 Czech Rep. 44,0 International mean = 50
  20. 20. Importance conventional citizenship <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>54,4 Italy  </li></ul><ul><li>53,2 Cyprus  </li></ul><ul><li>51,2 Norway  </li></ul><ul><li>50,8 Poland  </li></ul><ul><li>50,6 Lithuania  </li></ul><ul><li>50,1 Ireland  </li></ul><ul><li>50,0 Latvia  </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.  Malta 49,6  Greece 49,4  Spain 48,9  Luxembourg 48,8  W-Europe 48,8  Bulgaria 48,7  Europe 48,4  England 48,4  Austria 48,1  Switzerland 47,9 Below international mean  Liechtenstein 47,8  Denmark 47,6  Estonia 47,1  Netherlands 46,8  Slovenia 46,4 Belgium/Flanders 45,5 Sweden 45,5 Slovakia 45,4 Finland 45,0  Czech Rep. 44,0 International mean = 50
  21. 21. Importance social movement-related citizenship <ul><li>How important are the following behaviours for being a good adult citizen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking part in activities to protect the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking part in activities promoting human rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participating in activities to benefit people in the local community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participating in peaceful protests against laws believed to be unjust </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  22. 22. Importance social movement-related citizenship <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. International mean = 50 Below international mean
  23. 23. Importance social movement-related citizenship <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>53,7 Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>53,1 Greece </li></ul><ul><li>52,2 Cyprus </li></ul><ul><li>52,2 Spain </li></ul><ul><li>51,9 Italy </li></ul><ul><li>51,2 Norway </li></ul><ul><li>50,3 Ireland </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. Latvia 49,4 Malta 49,2 Poland 48,8 Lithuania 48,7 Europe 48,6 W-Europe 48,4 Slovenia 48,2 Slovakia 48,0 Estonia 48,0 Czech Rep. 47,7 International mean = 50 Below international mean Sweden 47,6 England 47,5 Austria 47,3 Luxembourg 46,9 Finland 45,8 Switzerland 45,3 Liechtenstein 45,1 Netherlands 44,9 Denmark 44,1
  24. 24. Importance social movement-related citizenship <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>53,7 Bulgaria  </li></ul><ul><li>53,1 Greece  </li></ul><ul><li>52,2 Cyprus  </li></ul><ul><li>52,2 Spain  </li></ul><ul><li>51,9 Italy  </li></ul><ul><li>51,2 Norway  </li></ul><ul><li>50,3 Ireland  </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.  Latvia 49,4  Malta 49,2  Poland 48,8  Lithuania 48,7  Europe 48,6  W-Europe 48,4  Slovenia 48,2  Slovakia 48,0  Estonia 48,0  Czech Rep. 47,7 International mean = 50 Below international mean  Sweden 47,6  England 47,5  Austria 47,3 Luxembourg 46,9 Belgium/Flanders 46,4 Finland 45,8  Switzerland 45,3  Liechtenstein 45,1  Netherlands 44,9  Denmark 44,1
  25. 25. Civic knowledge <ul><li>Cognitive test: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In total 74 multiple choice and 6 open questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotated design: 7 different tests </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  26. 26. Civic knowledge ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. <ul><ul><li>Thomas buys new school shoes. Thomas then learns that his new shoes were made by a company that employs young children to make the shoes in a factory and pays them very little money for their work. Thomas says he will not wear his new shoes again. . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why would Thomas refuse to wear his new shoes ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He thinks that shoes made by children will not last very long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He does not want to show support for the company that made them * </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He does not want to support the children that made them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He is angry that he paid more for the shoes than they are actually worth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finland: 92% correct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denmark: 91% correct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flanders: 81% correct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slovakia: 61% correct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyprus: 52% correct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul>
  27. 27. Civic knowledge <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. International mean = 500 Below international mean
  28. 28. Civic knowledge <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>576 Finland / Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>537 Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>536 Poland </li></ul><ul><li>534 Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>531 Switzerland/Liechtenstein/Italy </li></ul><ul><li>529 Slovakia </li></ul><ul><li>525 Estonia </li></ul><ul><li>519 England </li></ul><ul><li>518 W-Europe </li></ul><ul><li>516 Slovenia </li></ul><ul><li>515 Europe / Norway </li></ul><ul><li>510 Czech Rep. </li></ul><ul><li>505 Lithuania / Spain </li></ul><ul><li>503 Austria </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. Below international mean Netherlands 494 Malta 490 Latvia 482 Greece 476 Luxembourg 473 Bulgaria 466 Cyprus 453 International mean = 500
  29. 29. Civic knowledge <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>576 Finland / Denmark  </li></ul><ul><li>537 Sweden  </li></ul><ul><li>536 Poland  </li></ul><ul><li>534 Ireland  </li></ul><ul><li>531 Switzerland/Liechtenstein/Italy  </li></ul><ul><li>529 Slovakia  </li></ul><ul><li>525 Estonia  </li></ul><ul><li>519 England </li></ul><ul><li>518 W-Europe </li></ul><ul><li>516 Slovenia </li></ul><ul><li>515 Europe / Norway </li></ul><ul><li>514 Belgium/Flanders </li></ul><ul><li>510 Czech Rep. </li></ul><ul><li>505 Lithuania / Spain  </li></ul><ul><li>503 Austria  </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. Below international mean  Netherlands 494  Malta 490  Latvia 482  Greece 476  Luxembourg 473  Bulgaria 466  Cyprus 453 International mean = 500
  30. 30. Expected electoral participation <ul><ul><li>Vote in local elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vote in national elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get information about candidates before voting in an election </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  31. 31. Expected electoral participation <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. International mean = 50 Below international mean
  32. 32. Expected electoral participation <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>54,1 Italy </li></ul><ul><li>52,2 Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>51,8 Norway </li></ul><ul><li>51,8 Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>51,1 Spain </li></ul><ul><li>50,6 Austria </li></ul><ul><li>50,2 Latvia </li></ul><ul><li>50,0 Greece </li></ul><ul><li>50,0 Liechtenstein </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. Slovenia 49,6 W-Europe 49,5 Malta 49,3 Finland 49,2 Denmark 49,1 Europe 49,0 Sweden 49,0 Cyprus 48,5 Poland 48,2 International mean = 50 Below international mean Slovakia 48,0 Switzerland 47,7 Bulgaria 47,7 England 47,5 Luxembourg 47,4 Estonia 46,6 Netherlands 46,6 Czech Rep. 43,7
  33. 33. Expected electoral participation <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>54,1 Italy  </li></ul><ul><li>52,2 Ireland  </li></ul><ul><li>51,8 Norway  </li></ul><ul><li>51,8 Lithuania  </li></ul><ul><li>51,1 Spain  </li></ul><ul><li>50,6 Austria  </li></ul><ul><li>50,2 Latvia  </li></ul><ul><li>50,0 Greece  </li></ul><ul><li>50,0 Liechtenstein  </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.  Slovenia 49,6  W-Europe 49,5  Malta 49,3  Finland 49,2  Denmark 49,1  Europe 49,0  Sweden 49,0  Cyprus 48,5  Poland 48,2 International mean = 50 Below international mean  Slovakia 48,0  Switzerland 47,7  Bulgaria 47,7  England 47,5  Luxembourg 47,4  Estonia 46,6  Netherlands 46,6 Belgium/Flanders 45,5  Czech Rep. 43,7
  34. 34. Expected participation in legal protest activities <ul><ul><li>Writing a letter to a newspaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearing a badge or t-shirt expressing your opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contacting an elected representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking part in a peaceful march or rally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting signatures for a petition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing not to buy certain products </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  35. 35. Expected participation in legal protest activities <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. International mean = 50 Below international mean
  36. 36. Expected participation in legal protest activities <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>52,7 Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>51,6 Greence </li></ul><ul><li>51,4 Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>51,3 Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>51,3 Cyprus </li></ul><ul><li>50,5 Slovakia </li></ul><ul><li>50,5 Austria </li></ul><ul><li>50,4 Latvia </li></ul><ul><li>50,1 England </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. Spain 49,8 Finland 49,5 Luxembourg 49,4 Slovenia 49,3 Czech rep. 49,3 Europe 49,3 W-Europe 49,1 Italy 48,5 Estonia 48,5 International mean = 50 Below international mean Liechtenstein 48,5 Malta 48,3 Switzerland 48,0 Sweden 47,9 Norway 47,8 Denmark 47,4 Poland 46,4 Netherlands 45,6
  37. 37. Expected participation in legal protest activities <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>52,7 Lithuania  </li></ul><ul><li>51,6 Greence  </li></ul><ul><li>51,4 Ireland  </li></ul><ul><li>51,3 Bulgaria  </li></ul><ul><li>51,3 Cyprus  </li></ul><ul><li>50,5 Slovakia  </li></ul><ul><li>50,5 Austria  </li></ul><ul><li>50,4 Latvia  </li></ul><ul><li>50,1 England  </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.  Spain 49,8  Finland 49,5  Luxembourg 49,4  Slovenia 49,3  Czech rep. 49,3  Europe 49,3  W-Europe 49,1  Italy 48,5  Estonia 48,5 International mean = 50 Below international mean  Liechtenstein 48,5  Malta 48,3  Switzerland 48,0  Sweden 47,9  Norway 47,8 Denmark 47,4 Belgium/Flanders 46,8 Poland 46,4  Netherlands 45,6
  38. 38. Participation in civic related activities at school <ul><ul><li>Voluntary participation in school-based music or drama activities outside of regular lessons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active participation in a debate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting for class representative or school parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking part in decision-making about how the school is run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking part in discussions at a student assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming a candidate for class representative or school parliament </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  39. 39. Participation in civic related activities at school <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. International mean = 50 Below international mean
  40. 40. Participation in civic related activities at school <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>55,0 Greece </li></ul><ul><li>54,1 Poland </li></ul><ul><li>54,0 Norway </li></ul><ul><li>52,3 Spain </li></ul><ul><li>51,9 Cyprus/Slovakia </li></ul><ul><li>50,8 Slovenia </li></ul><ul><li>50,4 Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>50,2 England </li></ul><ul><li>50,1 Ireland </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. Below international mean Austria / Europe 49,2 Latvia / W-Europe 49,1 Liechtenstein 48,8 Lithuania 48,6 Denmark 48,5 Finland 48,3 Czech Rep. / Bulgaria 47,7 Switzerland 47,5 Italy / Estlonia 47,2 Malta 46,6 Luxembourg 44,8 Netherlands 42,7 International mean = 50
  41. 41. Participation in civic related activities at school <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>55,0 Greece  </li></ul><ul><li>54,1 Poland  </li></ul><ul><li>54,0 Norway  </li></ul><ul><li>52,3 Spain  </li></ul><ul><li>51,9 Cyprus/Slovakia  </li></ul><ul><li>50,8 Slovenia  </li></ul><ul><li>50,4 Sweden  </li></ul><ul><li>50,2 England  </li></ul><ul><li>50,1 Ireland  </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. Below international mean  Austria / Europe 49,2  Latvia / W-Europe 49,1  Liechtenstein 48,8  Lithuania 48,6  Denmark 48,5  Finland 48,3  Czech Rep. / Bulgaria 47,7  Switzerland 47,5  Italy / Estlonia 47,2 Malta 46,6 Belgium/Flanders 45,8  Luxembourg 44,8  Netherlands 42,7 International mean = 50
  42. 42. Perception of students’ influence on decisions about school <ul><ul><li>The way classes are taught </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is taught in classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching/learning materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The timetable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School rules </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  43. 43. Perception of students’ influence on decisions about school <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. International mean = 50 Below international mean
  44. 44. Perception of students’ influence on decisions about school <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>52,0 Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>51,9 Norway </li></ul><ul><li>51,2 Italy </li></ul><ul><li>50,5 Malta </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. Luxembourg 49,6 Bulgaria 49,6 Sweden 49,4 Netherlands 49,1 Slovakia 49,1 Latvia 49,0 Cyprus 48,9 W-Europe 47,9 Europe 47,9 Spain 47,9 Estonia 47,4 International mean = 50 Below international mean Austria 47,3 Greece 47,2 Slovenia 46,6 Finland 46,1 Czech Rep. 45,9 England 45,8 Switzerland 45,8 Liechtenstein 45,6 Denmark 45,5 Poland 44,6 Ireland 44,3
  45. 45. Perception of students’ influence on decisions about school <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>52,0 Lithuania  </li></ul><ul><li>51,9 Norway  </li></ul><ul><li>51,2 Italy  </li></ul><ul><li>50,5 Malta  </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. <ul><li>Luxembourg 49,6 </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria 49,6 </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden 49,4 </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands 49,1 </li></ul><ul><li>Slovakia 49,1 </li></ul><ul><li>Latvia 49,0 </li></ul><ul><li>Cyprus 48,9 </li></ul><ul><li>W-Europe 47,9 </li></ul><ul><li>Europe 47,9 </li></ul><ul><li>Spain 47,9 </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium/Flanders 47,6 </li></ul><ul><li>Estonia 47,4 </li></ul>International mean = 50 Below international mean Austria 47,3 Greece 47,2  Slovenia 46,6  Finland 46,1  Czech Rep. 45,9  England 45,8  Switzerland 45,8  Liechtenstein 45,6  Denmark 45,5  Poland 44,6  Ireland 44,3
  46. 46. Perception of openness in classroom discussions <ul><ul><li>Teachers encourage students to make up their own minds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers encourage students to express their opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students bring up current political events for discussion in class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students express opinions in class even when their opinions are different from most of the other students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers encourage students to discuss the issues with people having different opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers present several sides of the issues when explaining them in class </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  47. 47. Perception of openness in classroom discussions <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. International mean = 50 Below international mean
  48. 48. Perception of openness in classroom discussions <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>54,7 Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>54,3 Italy </li></ul><ul><li>53,1 England </li></ul><ul><li>52,2 Ireland / Norway </li></ul><ul><li>51,0 Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>50,9 Poland / Greece </li></ul><ul><li>50,6 Cyprus </li></ul><ul><li>50,5 Latvia </li></ul><ul><li>50,4 W-Europe / Estonia </li></ul><ul><li>50,1 Europe </li></ul><ul><li>50,0 Slovakia </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. Below international mean Slovenia 49,9 Lithuania 49,6 Finland 49,4 Czech Rep. 48,9 Netherlands 48,5 Liechtenstein 48,2 Switzerland / Luxembourg 48,0 Spain 47,9 Bulgaria 47,8 Austria 47,7 Malta 45,8 International mean = 50
  49. 49. Perception of openness in classroom discussions <ul><li>Above international mean </li></ul><ul><li>54,7 Denmark  </li></ul><ul><li>54,3 Italy  </li></ul><ul><li>53,1 England  </li></ul><ul><li>52,2 Ireland / Norway  </li></ul><ul><li>51,0 Sweden  </li></ul><ul><li>50,9 Poland / Greece  </li></ul><ul><li>50,6 Cyprus  </li></ul><ul><li>50,5 Latvia  </li></ul><ul><li>50,4 W-Europe / Estonia  </li></ul><ul><li>50,1 Europe  </li></ul><ul><li>50,0 Slovakia  </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. Below international mean Slovenia 49,9 Lithuania 49,6 Finland 49,4 Belgium/Flanders 49,1 Czech Rep. 48,9 Netherlands 48,5 Liechtenstein 48,2  Switzerland / Luxembourg 48,0  Spain 47,9  Bulgaria 47,8  Austria 47,7  Malta 45,8 International mean = 50
  50. 50. Part III Explanatory analyses 08/02/12 | pag.
  51. 51. Two in-depth papers <ul><li>Decline or shift in the political and civic engagement of young people? An empirical, comparative analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative strength of teaching versus experiencing democracy in school </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  52. 52. First paper <ul><li>Decline or shift in the political and civic engagement of young people? An empirical, comparative analysis. </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  53. 53. Context <ul><li>Concern about increase in cynicism, apathy, disengagement from politics and the democratic system </li></ul><ul><li>Especially young people seem to be less participating in elections, less involved in parties, less knowledgeable … than older contemporaries </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  54. 54. Context <ul><li>Shift in engagement </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal of civic life ? </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  55. 55. Shift in engagement? <ul><li>Process of modernization has not lowered but altered participation of young people </li></ul><ul><li> Youngsters still interested in politics, but in a different way </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shift from the politics of loyalties towards the politics of choice” (Norris 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>(less organized, one-off engagements) </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  56. 56. Implications <ul><li>H1: Engagement in “conventional” and “alternative” politics are negatively interrelated </li></ul><ul><li>H2: In individualized societies  Less engagement in traditional politics but more alternative participation </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. C A - I C A - +
  57. 57. Decline of engagement? <ul><li>Process of modernization, welfare state, democratization, … weakened old clashes and left-right divide </li></ul><ul><li> Need for engagement withers away </li></ul><ul><li>“ The end of ideology” </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  58. 58. Implications <ul><li>H3: In Welfare states  Less engagement in civic life, both traditional and alternative </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. W C A + - -
  59. 59. Method <ul><li>Multivariate multilevel models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 dependent variables: expected conventional and alternative participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 levels (Pupil – School – Country) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection of 34 countries </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  60. 60. Expected Conventional Participation ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. 1 Join a political party 2 Help a candidate / party during an election campaign 3 Join a trade union 4 Stand as a candidate in local elections 5 Vote in local elections 6 Join an organization for a political or social cause 7 Vote in national elections 8 Get information about candidates before voting (PCA: α = 0.83; e = 3.7; R 2 = 46.3%)
  61. 61. Actual & Expected Alternative Participation: ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. “ Have you…”(participated in) 1 A voluntary group doing something to help the community 2 Human Rights organisation 3 An organisation collecting money for a social cause 4 Environmental organisation “ Would You… ”(in the future) 5 Volunteer time to help people in the local community 6 Taking part in a peaceful march or rally 7 Collecting signatures for a petition 8 Choosing not to buy certain products “ What Should …” (a good adult citizen do) 9 Participating in peaceful protests against laws believed to be unjust 10 Taking part in activities promoting human rights 11 Participating in activities to benefit people in the local community 12 Taking part in activities to protect the environment (Cat-PCA: α = 0.77; e = 3.3; R 2 = 27.1%)
  62. 62. Core variable 1: Development WFS ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. <ul><li>Possible variables: </li></ul><ul><li>Development of welfare state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GINI index for income inequality (UN, Human Development Report, 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government expenditures in health care (World Bank, 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(PCA; e = 1.6; R 2 = 82%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Degree of democratization: FHI </li></ul>Highly correlated (r=.81) Selected: Development of welfare state
  63. 63. Core variable 2: Individualization ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. <ul><li>Possible variable: </li></ul><ul><li>3 items from WVS (wave 3 & 4) concerning traits desired in children: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obedience (-) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(PCA; e = 1.3; R 2 = 44%) </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Modelling Strategy - MLA 2 dependent variables <ul><li>H1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covariances of C & A on individual & country level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control for individual background: gender, age, SCES, immigrant status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H2 & H3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background model + macro-indicator for individualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background model + macro-indicator for development welfare state </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  65. 65. Results H1: Negative correlation C & A ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag. Correlation between the two dependent variables: Conventional and alternative political engagement At the country level 0.81 At the individual level 0.41 % Variation on level of country ( r ) Conventional Political engagement 13.2% Alternative Political engagement 22.1%
  66. 66. Results H2: Individualization (- C / + A) ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.   Conventional   Alternative     Gender (0 = boy) - .03 *** .09 *** Age .02 *** .02 *** Immigration status (0 = native) .00 - .02 *** Cultural capital .11 *** .10 *** Level of individualization - .08   - .23 *** % of explained variance on level 3 5.3%   25.8%  
  67. 67. Results H3: Welfare State (-C / -A) ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.   Conventional   Alternative     Gender (0 = boy) - .03 *** .09 *** Age .02 *** .02 *** Immigration status (0 = native) .00 - .02 *** Cultural capital .11 *** .10 *** Degree of WF-state development - .27   *** - .41 *** % of explained variance on level 3 50.4%   71.0%  
  68. 68. Graphic presentation ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  69. 69. Conclusion <ul><li>No evidence for hypothesis 1 & 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No negative correlation between conventional & alternative participation, but a strong positive correlation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No shift in engagement as countries modernize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualization: negative effect on conventional (but not sign.) AND on alternative participation (sign.) </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  70. 70. Conclusion <ul><li>More evidence for hypothesis 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As countries modernize, lesser ‘need’ for engagement, whether conventional or alternative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even stronger negative effect of welfare state on alternative engagements </li></ul></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  71. 71. Limitation <ul><li>Mostly data on expected participation and not effective participation </li></ul><ul><li>But: expected <> actual alternative participation are positively correlated (r = .89 country level; r = .66 individual level) </li></ul><ul><li>Other alternative forms of participation (new technologies) </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  72. 72. Second paper <ul><li>The relative strength of teaching versus experiencing democracy in school. </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  73. 73. Context ICCS-Project 07-12-2011 | pag. <ul><li>Concern about increase in cynicism, apathy, disengagement from politics and the democratic system </li></ul><ul><li>Renewed interest in ‘citizenship education’ </li></ul><ul><li> Schools are expected to ‘form’ future citizens </li></ul>
  74. 74. Disagreement about implementation ICCS-Project 07-12-2011 | pag. <ul><li>Learning politics and democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Versus </li></ul><ul><li>Experiencing politics and democracy </li></ul>
  75. 75. ICCS-Project 07-12-2011 | pag. KNOWLEDGE ( Institutions, persons, procedures ) INSIGHT ( comprehension ) ATTITUDES/BEHAVIOUR (‘Civic attitude’) “ Ignorance is the father of fear, knowledge is the mother of trust” Learning Politics & Democracy
  76. 76. ICCS-Project 07-12-2011 | pag. Experiencing Politics & Democracy EXPERIENCE ( Democratic school climate ) ATTITUDES/BEHAVIOUR (‘Civic attitude’) “ It is how we run our schools, rather than what we teach in them, that will determine levels of active citizenship ”
  77. 77. ICCS-Project 07-12-2011 | pag. Question (PASSIVE) KNOWLEDGE (ACTIVE) EXPERIENCE ? POLITICALLY RELEVANT (EXPECTED) BEHAVIOUR
  78. 78. Data and Dependent variables <ul><li>Same as first paper: </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Selection f 34 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Multilevel analysis (3 levels) </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variables: </li></ul><ul><li>Expected conventional participation </li></ul><ul><li>Actual and expected alternative participation </li></ul>ICCS-Project 07-12-2011 | pag.
  79. 79. Independent Variables <ul><li>Proxy for ‘Learning Politics’: ‘Civic literacy’ = Scale for Civic knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Experiencing democracy’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of Openness in classroom discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(6 items, a= .76) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ civic participation at school (6 items , a= .66) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ perception of influence on decisions about school (6 items , a= .88) </li></ul></ul>ICCS-Project 07-12-2011 | pag.
  80. 80. Results Teaching ICCS-Project 07-12-2011 | pag.   Conventional   Alternative     b   b   Age .02 ** .03 ** Gender (0=boy) -.04 ** .08 ** Immigration status (0=native) -.00 -.03 ** Cultural capital .09 ** .06 ** Civicknowledge and skills .06 ** .11 ** Variance Country level (Rho) 13.5% 23.5% Explained variance Country level (R 2 ) -7.7% -13.4% Explained variance Ind. level (R 2 ) .3%   .9%  
  81. 81. Results Learning ICCS-Project 07-12-2011 | pag.   Conventional   Alternative     b   b   Civic participation at school .19 ** .25 ** Openness Classroom Discussions .10 ** .12 ** Perception of influence on decisions .09 ** .11 ** Variance Country level (Rho) 9.1% 16.3% Explained variance Country level (R 2 ) 35.9% 36.3% Explained variance Ind. level (R 2 ) 6.1%   10.8%  
  82. 82. Results Teaching + Learning ICCS-Project 07-12-2011 | pag.   Conventional   Alternative     b   b   Civic knowledge and skills .03 ** .07 ** Civic participation at school .18 ** .24 ** Openness Classroom Discussions .09 ** .11 ** Perception of influence on decisions .10 ** .13 ** Variance Country level (Rho) 9.4% 17.7% Explained variance Country level (R 2 ) 33.5% 30.0% Explained variance Ind. level (R 2 ) 6.2%   11.3%  
  83. 83. Conclusion ICCS-Project 07-12-2011 | pag. <ul><li>Knowledge or experience? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both, … but… Experience exceeds the impact of civic knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially civic participation at school </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity of civic knowledge scale to test political literacy (biased by general knowledge & IQ?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected participation= general attitude rather than predictive for future participation (but correlation between items ‘have you been involved’ <> ‘would you take part r = .89 country level; r = .66 individual level) . </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Part IV Policy initiatives: “Stimulating Student Participation at school” City of Antwerp 08/02/12 | pag.
  85. 85. Origin ICCS-Project 07-12-2011 | pag. <ul><li>Literature ‘importance of pupils’ participation at school’ </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidies for school projects: ‘pupils’ participation’ </li></ul><ul><li>Broader stimulation through workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Platform ‘pupils’ participation’ </li></ul>
  86. 86. Conclusion <ul><li>With modernization young people appear to attach less importance to active participation and have lower internal political efficacy (but higher civic knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences? For schools, society, …? </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  87. 87. More information <ul><li>International Organization and Study Centre </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.iea.nl/iccs_2009.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://iccs.acer.edu.au/ </li></ul><ul><li>Flanders </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/obpwo/links/iccs/ </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Saskia.De.Groof @ vub.ac.be </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.
  88. 88. Discussion <ul><li>What are the most relevant/striking conclusions/implications of this ICCS study? </li></ul><ul><li>What would be your policy recommendation? Local – National – Europe? </li></ul>ICCS-project 08/02/12 | pag.

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