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3 c doorbrekenvan.stadantwerpen

  1. 1. Active citizenship - an international European perspective. Findings from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) Saskia De Groof en Eva Franck Department of Sociology – Free University of Brussels (VUB) Educational policy department - City of Antwerp8/02/2012 | pag. 1
  2. 2. Focus presentation  ICCS: What, when, how?  International comparison students  Citizenship  Student participation  Explanatory analyses expected active citizenship participation  Policy choices to stimulate student participation at school: case of the city of AntwerpICCS-project08/02/2012 | pag. 2
  3. 3. Part I ICCS: What, when, how?8/02/2012 | pag. 3
  4. 4. What is ICCS?  Third study of the “International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement” (IEA) on citizenship (education)  1971: 9 countries or regions  1999/2000: 28/16 countries or regions  2008/9: 38 countries or regions  May 2006 – September 2010  Are young people prepared for their role as citizen?  Knowledge and understanding  Attitudes, perceptions and behavioursICCS-project08/02/2012 | pag. 4
  5. 5. Participating countriesICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 5
  6. 6. Respondents  Target population = students in grade 8 (appr. 14 years of age)  More than 140,000 students, more than 62,000 teachers and about 5,100 school principals from more than 5,300 schoolsICCS-project08/02/2012 | pag. 6
  7. 7. International instruments: students  Cognitive test: 80 items measuring civic and citizenship knowledge, analysis and reasoning (exactly 45’)  Student questionnaire: student background, in- and out-of- school participation, citizenship attitudes (+/- 40’)  Regional instruments: Asia, Europe and Latin-America (+/- 30’)ICCS-project08/02/2012 | pag. 7
  8. 8. International instruments: other  Teacher questionnaire:  Perceptions of civic and citizenship education in their school, school organization and culture, teaching assignments (+/- 30’)  School questionnaire:  Provision of civic and citizenship education in their school, school characteristics, school climate and culture (+/- 30’)  National Context Survey  Structure of the education system, civic and citizenship education in the national curricula, recent developments in civic and citizenship educationICCS-project08/02/2012 | pag. 8
  9. 9. ICCS output  International report (2010)  Descriptive international comparisons (students, teachers and principals)  Explanatory analyses per country for knowledge, expected electoral participation, expected political participation  International technical report (2011)  Regional reports (2010, 2011)  See: http://www.iea.nl/iccs_2009.html  National reportsICCS-project08/02/2012 | pag. 9
  10. 10. Part II International comparisons8/02/2012 | pag. 10
  11. 11. Dimensions of citizenship  Civic knowledge  International mean of 500 and standard deviation of 100  Skills and willingness to participate in political system  International mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10  Democratic values  International mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10ICCS-project08/02/2012 | pag. 11
  12. 12. Skills and willingness to participate in political system  Political discussion with  Importance conventional family/friends citizenship  Out-of-school civic participation  Importance social-movement- related citizenship  Interest in political and social issues  Expected informal political participation as a young person  Internal political efficacy  Expected adult participation in  Trust in institutions political activities  Citizenship self-efficacy  Expected electoral participation  Attitudes towards country  Expected participation in legal protest activitiesICCS-project08/02/2012 | pag. 12
  13. 13. Democratic values  Attitudes toward gender inequality  Endorsement of basic democratic values  Attitudes toward equal rights for all ethnic or racial groups  Attitudes toward equal rights for immigrantsICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 13
  14. 14. Citizenship as…  Achievement or practice?  Role student participation and school climate  Perception of the value of student participation at school  Participation in civic related activities at school  Perception of students’ influence on decisions about school  Perception of openness in classroom discussions  Perception of student-teacher relationshipICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 14
  15. 15. Today focus on …  Skills and willingness to participate in political system  Good citizenship  Civic knowledge  Expected participation  Student participation and perception school climate  Participation in civic related activities at school  Perception of students’ influence on decisions about school  Perception of openness in classroom discussionsICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 15
  16. 16. Good citizenship?  Norms and expectations about what good citizens are expected to do in a democratic society  Distinction between  Conventional citizenship  Social movement-related citizenshipICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 16
  17. 17. Importance conventional citizenship  How important are the following behaviours for being a good adult citizen?  Voting in every national election  Showing respect for government representatives  Following political issues in the newspaper, on the radio, on TV or on the internet  Learning about the countrys history  Engaging in political discussions  Joining a political partyICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 17
  18. 18. Importance conventional citizenship Above international mean Below international mean International mean = 50ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 18
  19. 19. Importance conventional citizenship Above international mean Below international mean Malta 49,6 Liechtenstein 47,8 International mean = 50 54,4 Italy Greece 49,4 Denmark 47,6 53,2 Cyprus Spain 48,9 Estonia 47,1 51,2 Norway Luxembourg 48,8 Netherlands 46,8 50,8 Poland W-Europe 48,8 Slovenia 46,4 50,6 Lithuania Bulgaria 48,7 Sweden 45,5 50,1 Ireland Europe 48,4 Slovakia 45,4 50,0 Latvia England 48,4 Finland 45,0 Austria 48,1 Czech Rep. 44,0 Switzerland 47,9ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 19
  20. 20. Importance conventional citizenship Above international mean Below international mean  Malta 49,6  Liechtenstein 47,8 International mean = 50 54,4 Italy   Greece 49,4  Denmark 47,6 53,2 Cyprus   Spain 48,9  Estonia 47,1 51,2 Norway   Luxembourg 48,8  Netherlands 46,8 50,8 Poland   W-Europe 48,8  Slovenia 46,4 50,6 Lithuania   Bulgaria 48,7 Belgium/Flanders 45,5 50,1 Ireland   Europe 48,4 Sweden 45,5 50,0 Latvia   England 48,4 Slovakia 45,4  Austria 48,1 Finland 45,0  Switzerland 47,9  Czech Rep. 44,0ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 20
  21. 21. Importance social movement- related citizenship  How important are the following behaviours for being a good adult citizen?  Taking part in activities to protect the environment  Taking part in activities promoting human rights  Participating in activities to benefit people in the local community  Participating in peaceful protests against laws believed to be unjustICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 21
  22. 22. Importance social movement- related citizenship Above international mean Below international mean International mean = 50ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 22
  23. 23. Importance social movement- related citizenship Above international mean Below international mean Latvia 49,4 Sweden 47,6 53,7 Bulgaria Malta 49,2 England 47,5 International mean = 50 53,1 Greece Poland 48,8 Austria 47,3 52,2 Cyprus Lithuania 48,7 Luxembourg 46,9 52,2 Spain Europe 48,6 Finland 45,8 51,9 Italy W-Europe 48,4 Switzerland 45,3 51,2 Norway Slovenia 48,2 Liechtenstein 45,1 50,3 Ireland Slovakia 48,0 Netherlands 44,9 Estonia 48,0 Denmark 44,1 Czech Rep. 47,7ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 23
  24. 24. Importance social movement- related citizenship Above international mean Below international mean  Latvia 49,4  Sweden 47,6 53,7 Bulgaria   Malta 49,2  England 47,5 International mean = 50 53,1 Greece   Poland 48,8  Austria 47,3 52,2 Cyprus   Lithuania 48,7 Luxembourg 46,9 52,2 Spain   Europe 48,6 Belgium/Flanders 46,4 51,9 Italy   W-Europe 48,4 Finland 45,8 51,2 Norway   Slovenia 48,2  Switzerland 45,3 50,3 Ireland   Slovakia 48,0  Liechtenstein 45,1  Estonia 48,0  Netherlands 44,9  Czech Rep. 47,7  Denmark 44,1ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 24
  25. 25. Civic knowledge  Cognitive test:  In total 74 multiple choice and 6 open questions  Rotated design: 7 different testsICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 25
  26. 26. Civic knowledge  Example: Thomas buys new school shoes. Thomas then learns that his new shoes were made by a company that employs young children to make the shoes in a factory and pays them very little money for their work. Thomas says he will not wear his new shoes again.. Why would Thomas refuse to wear his new shoes?  He thinks that shoes made by children will not last very long  Finland: 92% correct  He does not want to show support for  Denmark: 91% correct the company that made them *  …  He does not want to support the  Flanders: 81% correct children that made them  …  He is angry that he paid more for the  Slovakia: 61% correct shoes than they are actually worth  Cyprus: 52% correctICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 26
  27. 27. Civic knowledge Above international mean Below international mean International mean = 500ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 27
  28. 28. Civic knowledge Above international mean Below international mean 576 Finland / Denmark 537 Sweden 536 Poland Netherlands 494 International mean = 500 534 Ireland 531 Switzerland/Liechtenstein/Italy Malta 490 529 Slovakia Latvia 482 525 Estonia Greece 476 519 England Luxembourg 473 518 W-Europe Bulgaria 466 516 Slovenia 515 Europe / Norway Cyprus 453 510 Czech Rep. 505 Lithuania / Spain 503 AustriaICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 28
  29. 29. Civic knowledge Above international mean Below international mean 576 Finland / Denmark  537 Sweden  536 Poland   Netherlands 494 International mean = 500 534 Ireland  531 Switzerland/Liechtenstein/Italy   Malta 490 529 Slovakia   Latvia 482 525 Estonia   Greece 476 519 England  Luxembourg 473 518 W-Europe 516 Slovenia  Bulgaria 466 515 Europe / Norway  Cyprus 453 514 Belgium/Flanders 510 Czech Rep. 505 Lithuania / Spain  503 Austria ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 29
  30. 30. Expected electoral participation  Vote in local elections  Vote in national elections  Get information about candidates before voting in an electionICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 30
  31. 31. Expected electoral participation Above international mean Below international mean International mean = 50ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 31
  32. 32. Expected electoral participation Above international mean Below international mean 54,1 Italy Slovenia 49,6 Slovakia 48,0 52,2 Ireland W-Europe 49,5 Switzerland 47,7 International mean = 50 51,8 Norway Malta 49,3 Bulgaria 47,7 51,8 Lithuania Finland 49,2 England 47,5 51,1 Spain Denmark 49,1 Luxembourg 47,4 50,6 Austria Europe 49,0 Estonia 46,6 50,2 Latvia Sweden 49,0 Netherlands 46,6 50,0 Greece Cyprus 48,5 Czech Rep. 43,7 50,0 Liechtenstein Poland 48,2ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 32
  33. 33. Expected electoral participation Above international mean Below international mean 54,1 Italy   Slovenia 49,6  Slovakia 48,0 52,2 Ireland   W-Europe 49,5  Switzerland 47,7 International mean = 50 51,8 Norway   Malta 49,3  Bulgaria 47,7 51,8 Lithuania   Finland 49,2  England 47,5 51,1 Spain   Denmark 49,1  Luxembourg 47,4 50,6 Austria   Europe 49,0  Estonia 46,6 50,2 Latvia   Sweden 49,0  Netherlands 46,6 50,0 Greece   Cyprus 48,5 Belgium/Flanders 45,5 50,0 Liechtenstein   Poland 48,2  Czech Rep. 43,7ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 33
  34. 34. Expected participation in legal protest activities  Writing a letter to a newspaper  Wearing a badge or t-shirt expressing your opinion  Contacting an elected representative  Taking part in a peaceful march or rally  Collecting signatures for a petition  Choosing not to buy certain productsICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 34
  35. 35. Expected participation in legal protest activities Above international mean Below international mean International mean = 50ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 35
  36. 36. Expected participation in legal protest activities Above international mean Below international mean 52,7 Lithuania Spain 49,8 Liechtenstein 48,5 51,6 Greence Finland 49,5 Malta 48,3 International mean = 50 51,4 Ireland Luxembourg 49,4 Switzerland 48,0 51,3 Bulgaria Slovenia 49,3 Sweden 47,9 51,3 Cyprus Czech rep. 49,3 Norway 47,8 50,5 Slovakia Europe 49,3 Denmark 47,4 50,5 Austria W-Europe 49,1 Poland 46,4 50,4 Latvia Italy 48,5 Netherlands 45,6 50,1 England Estonia 48,5ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 36
  37. 37. Expected participation in legal protest activities Above international mean Below international mean 52,7 Lithuania   Spain 49,8  Liechtenstein 48,5 51,6 Greece   Finland 49,5  Malta 48,3 International mean = 50 51,4 Ireland   Luxembourg 49,4  Switzerland 48,0 51,3 Bulgaria   Slovenia 49,3  Sweden 47,9 51,3 Cyprus   Czech rep. 49,3  Norway 47,8 50,5 Slovakia   Europe 49,3 Denmark 47,4 50,5 Austria   W-Europe 49,1 Belgium/Flanders 46,8 50,4 Latvia   Italy 48,5 Poland 46,4 50,1 England   Estonia 48,5  Netherlands 45,6ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 37
  38. 38. Participation in civic related activities at school  Voluntary participation in school-based music or drama activities outside of regular lessons  Active participation in a debate  Voting for class representative or school parliament  Taking part in decision-making about how the school is run  Taking part in discussions at a student assembly  Becoming a candidate for class representative or school parliamentICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 38
  39. 39. Participation in civic related activities at school Above international mean Below international mean International mean = 50ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 39
  40. 40. Participation in civic related activities at school Above international mean Below international mean Austria / Europe 49,2 55,0 Greece Latvia / W-Europe 49,1 54,1 Poland Liechtenstein 48,8 International mean = 50 54,0 Norway Lithuania 48,6 52,3 Spain Denmark 48,5 51,9 Cyprus/Slovakia Finland 48,3 50,8 Slovenia Czech Rep. / Bulgaria 47,7 50,4 Sweden Switzerland 47,5 50,2 England Italy / Estlonia 47,2 50,1 Ireland Malta 46,6 Luxembourg 44,8 Netherlands 42,7ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 40
  41. 41. Participation in civic related activities at school Above international mean Below international mean  Austria / Europe 49,2 55,0 Greece   Latvia / W-Europe 49,1 54,1 Poland   Liechtenstein 48,8 International mean = 50 54,0 Norway   Lithuania 48,6 52,3 Spain   Denmark 48,5 51,9 Cyprus/Slovakia   Finland 48,3 50,8 Slovenia   Czech Rep. / Bulgaria 47,7 50,4 Sweden   Switzerland 47,5 50,2 England   Italy / Estlonia 47,2 50,1 Ireland  Malta 46,6 Belgium/Flanders 45,8  Luxembourg 44,8  Netherlands 42,7ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 41
  42. 42. Perception of students’ influence on decisions about school  The way classes are taught  What is taught in classes  Teaching/learning materials  The timetable  Classroom rules  School rulesICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 42
  43. 43. Perception of students’ influence on decisions about school Above international mean Below international mean International mean = 50ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 43
  44. 44. Perception of students’ influence on decisions about school Above international mean Below international mean Luxembourg 49,6 Austria 47,3 52,0 Lithuania Bulgaria 49,6 Greece 47,2 International mean = 50 51,9 Norway Sweden 49,4 Slovenia 46,6 51,2 Italy Netherlands 49,1 Finland 46,1 50,5 Malta Slovakia 49,1 Czech Rep. 45,9 Latvia 49,0 England 45,8 Cyprus 48,9 Switzerland 45,8 W-Europe 47,9 Liechtenstein 45,6 Europe 47,9 Denmark 45,5 Spain 47,9 Poland 44,6 Estonia 47,4 Ireland 44,3ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 44
  45. 45. Perception of students’ influence on decisions about school Above international mean Below international mean  Luxembourg 49,6 Austria 47,3 52,0 Lithuania   Bulgaria 49,6 Greece 47,2 International mean = 50 51,9 Norway   Sweden 49,4  Slovenia 46,6 51,2 Italy   Netherlands 49,1  Finland 46,1 50,5 Malta   Slovakia 49,1  Czech Rep. 45,9  Latvia 49,0  England 45,8  Cyprus 48,9  Switzerland 45,8 W-Europe 47,9  Liechtenstein 45,6 Europe 47,9  Denmark 45,5 Spain 47,9  Poland 44,6 Belgium/Flanders 47,6  Ireland 44,3 Estonia 47,4ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 45
  46. 46. Perception of openness in classroom discussions  Teachers encourage students to make up their own minds  Teachers encourage students to express their opinions  Students bring up current political events for discussion in class  Students express opinions in class even when their opinions are different from most of the other students  Teachers encourage students to discuss the issues with people having different opinions  Teachers present several sides of the issues when explaining them in classICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 46
  47. 47. Perception of openness in classroom discussions Above international mean Below international mean International mean = 50ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 47
  48. 48. Perception of openness in classroom discussions Above international mean Below international mean 54,7 Denmark Slovenia 49,9 54,3 Italy Lithuania 49,6 53,1 England Finland 49,4 International mean = 50 52,2 Ireland / Norway Czech Rep. 48,9 51,0 Sweden Netherlands 48,5 50,9 Poland / Greece Liechtenstein 48,2 50,6 Cyprus Switzerland / Luxembourg 48,0 50,5 Latvia Spain 47,9 50,4 W-Europe / Estonia Bulgaria 47,8 50,1 Europe Austria 47,7 50,0 Slovakia Malta 45,8ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 48
  49. 49. Perception of openness in classroom discussions Above international mean Below international mean 54,7 Denmark  Slovenia 49,9 54,3 Italy  Lithuania 49,6 53,1 England  Finland 49,4 International mean = 50 52,2 Ireland / Norway  Belgium/Flanders 49,1 51,0 Sweden  Czech Rep. 48,9 50,9 Poland / Greece  Netherlands 48,5 50,6 Cyprus  Liechtenstein 48,2 50,5 Latvia   Switzerland / Luxembourg 48,0 50,4 W-Europe / Estonia   Spain 47,9 50,1 Europe   Bulgaria 47,8 50,0 Slovakia   Austria 47,7  Malta 45,8ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 49
  50. 50. Part III Explanatory analyses8/02/2012 | pag. 50
  51. 51. Two in-depth papers  Decline or shift in the political and civic engagement of young people? An empirical, comparative analysis.  The relative strength of teaching versus experiencing democracy in schoolICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 51
  52. 52. First paper  Decline or shift in the political and civic engagement of young people? An empirical, comparative analysis.ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 52
  53. 53. Context  Concern about increase in cynicism, apathy, disengagement from politics and the democratic system  Especially young people seem to be less participating in elections, less involved in parties, less knowledgeable … than older contemporariesICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 53
  54. 54. Context Shift in engagement or Withdrawal of civic life ?ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 54
  55. 55. Shift in engagement?  Process of modernization has not lowered but altered participation of young people  Youngsters still interested in politics, but in a different way  “Shift from the politics of loyalties towards the politics of choice” (Norris 2004) (less organized, one-off engagements)ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 55
  56. 56. Implications  H1: Engagement in C “conventional” and “alternative” - A politics are negatively interrelated  H2: In individualized societies Less engagement in traditional - C politics but more alternative I A participation +ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 56
  57. 57. Decline of engagement?  Process of modernization, welfare state, democratization, … weakened old clashes and left- right divide  Need for engagement withers away  “The end of ideology”ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 57
  58. 58. Implications  H3: In Welfare states  Less engagement in civic life, both traditional and alternative - C W + - AICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 58
  59. 59. Method  Multivariate multilevel models  2 dependent variables: expected conventional and alternative participation  3 levels (Pupil – School – Country)  Selection of 34 countriesICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 59
  60. 60. Expected Conventional Participation 1 Join a political party 2 Help a candidate / party during an election campaign 3 Join a trade union 4 Stand as a candidate in local elections 5 Vote in local elections 6 Join an organization for a political or social cause 7 Vote in national elections 8 Get information about candidates before voting (PCA: α = 0.83; e= 3.7; R2 = 46.3%)ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 60
  61. 61. Actual & Expected Alternative Participation: “Have you…”(participated in) 1 A voluntary group doing something to help the community 2 Human Rights organisation 3 An organisation collecting money for a social cause 4 Environmental organisation “Would You… ”(in the future) 5 Volunteer time to help people in the local community 6 Taking part in a peaceful march or rally 7 Collecting signatures for a petition 8 Choosing not to buy certain products “What Should …” (a good adult citizen do) 9 Participating in peaceful protests against laws believed to be unjust 10 Taking part in activities promoting human rights 11 Participating in activities to benefit people in the local community 12 Taking part in activities to protect the environment (Cat-PCA: α = 0.77; e= 3.3; R2 = 27.1%)ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 61
  62. 62. Core variable 1: Development WFS Possible variables: • Development of welfare state - GINI index for income inequality (UN, Human Development Report, 2010) - Government expenditures in health care (World Bank, 2010) (PCA; e = 1.6; R2 = 82%) • Degree of democratization: FHI Highly correlated (r=.81) Selected: Development of welfare stateICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 62
  63. 63. Core variable 2: Individualization Possible variable: • 3 items from WVS (wave 3 & 4) concerning traits desired in children: – Independence – Imagination – Obedience (-) (PCA; e = 1.3; R2 = 44%)ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 63
  64. 64. Modelling Strategy - MLA 2 dependent variables  H1  Covariances of C & A on individual & country level  Control for individual background: gender, age, SCES, immigrant status  H2 & H3  Background model + macro-indicator for individualization  Background model + macro-indicator for development welfare stateICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 64
  65. 65. Results H1: Negative correlation C & A Correlation between the two dependent variables: Conventional and alternative political engagement At the country level 0.81 At the individual level 0.41 % Variation on level of country (r) Conventional Political engagement 13.2% Alternative Political engagement 22.1%ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 65
  66. 66. Results H2: Individualization (- C / + A) Conventional Alternative b b Gender (0 = boy) - .03 *** .09 *** Age .02 *** .02 *** Immigration status (0 = native) .00 - .02 *** Cultural capital .11 *** .10 *** Level of individualization - .08 - .23 *** % of explained variance on level 3 5.3% 25.8%ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 66
  67. 67. Results H3: Welfare State (-C / -A) Conventional Alternative b b Gender (0 = boy) - .03 *** .09 *** Age .02 *** .02 *** Immigration status (0 = native) .00 - .02 *** Cultural capital .11 *** .10 *** Degree of WF-state development - .27 *** - .41 *** % of explained variance on level 3 50.4% 71.0%ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 67
  68. 68. Graphic presentationICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 68
  69. 69. Conclusion  No evidence for hypothesis 1 & 2  No negative correlation between conventional & alternative participation, but a strong positive correlation  No shift in engagement as countries modernize  Individualization: negative effect on conventional (but not sign.) AND on alternative participation (sign.)ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 69
  70. 70. Conclusion  More evidence for hypothesis 3  As countries modernize, lesser ‘need’ for engagement, whether conventional or alternative  Even stronger negative effect of welfare state on alternative engagementsICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 70
  71. 71. Limitation  Mostly data on expected participation and not effective participation  But: expected <> actual alternative participation are positively correlated (r = .89 country level; r = .66 individual level)  Other alternative forms of participation (new technologies)ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 71
  72. 72. Second paper  The relative strength of teaching versus experiencing democracy in school.ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 72
  73. 73. Context  Concern about increase in cynicism, apathy, disengagement from politics and the democratic system  Renewed interest in ‘citizenship education’  Schools are expected to ‘form’ future citizensICCS-Project07-12-2011 | pag. 73
  74. 74. Disagreement about implementation  Learning politics and democracy Versus  Experiencing politics and democracyICCS-Project07-12-2011 | pag. 74
  75. 75. Learning Politics & Democracy “Ignorance is the father of fear, knowledge is the mother of trust” KNOWLEDGE (Institutions, persons, procedures) INSIGHT (comprehension) ATTITUDES/BEHAVIOUR (‘Civic attitude’)ICCS-Project07-12-2011 | pag. 75
  76. 76. Experiencing Politics & Democracy “It is how we run our schools, rather than what we teach in them, that will determine levels of active citizenship” EXPERIENCE (Democratic school climate) ATTITUDES/BEHAVIOUR (‘Civic attitude’)ICCS-Project07-12-2011 | pag. 76
  77. 77. Question (PASSIVE) KNOWLEDGE POLITICALLY ? RELEVANT (EXPECTED) BEHAVIOUR (ACTIVE) EXPERIENCEICCS-Project07-12-2011 | pag. 77
  78. 78. Data and Dependent variables Same as first paper: Data  Selection f 34 countries  Multilevel analysis (3 levels) Dependent variables:  Expected conventional participation  Actual and expected alternative participationICCS-Project07-12-2011 | pag. 78
  79. 79. Independent Variables  Proxy for ‘Learning Politics’: ‘Civic literacy’ = Scale for Civic knowledge  ‘Experiencing democracy’  Perception of Openness in classroom discussions (6 items, a= .76)  Students’ civic participation at school (6 items , a= .66)  Students’ perception of influence on decisions about school (6 items , a= .88)ICCS-Project07-12-2011 | pag. 79
  80. 80. Results Teaching Conventional Alternative b b Age .02 ** .03 ** Gender (0=boy) -.04 ** .08 ** Immigration status (0=native) -.00 -.03 ** Cultural capital .09 ** .06 ** Civic knowledge and skills .06 ** .11 ** Variance Country level (Rho) 13.5% 23.5% Explained variance Country level (R2) -7.7% -13.4% Explained variance Ind. level (R2) .3% .9%ICCS-Project07-12-2011 | pag. 80
  81. 81. Results Learning Conventional Alternative b b Civic participation at school .19 ** .25 ** Openness Classroom Discussions .10 ** .12 ** Perception of influence on decisions .09 ** .11 ** Variance Country level (Rho) 9.1% 16.3% Explained variance Country level (R2) 35.9% 36.3% Explained variance Ind. level (R2) 6.1% 10.8%ICCS-Project07-12-2011 | pag. 81
  82. 82. Results Teaching + Learning Conventional Alternative b b Civic knowledge and skills .03 ** .07 ** Civic participation at school .18 ** .24 ** Openness Classroom Discussions .09 ** .11 ** Perception of influence on decisions .10 ** .13 ** Variance Country level (Rho) 9.4% 17.7% Explained variance Country level (R2) 33.5% 30.0% Explained variance Ind. level (R2) 6.2% 11.3%ICCS-Project07-12-2011 | pag. 82
  83. 83. Conclusion  Knowledge or experience?  Both, … but… Experience exceeds the impact of civic knowledge  Especially civic participation at school  Limitations?  Validity of civic knowledge scale to test political literacy (biased by general knowledge & IQ?)  Expected participation= general attitude rather than predictive for future participation (but correlation between items ‘have you been involved’ <> ‘would you take part’ r = .89 country level; r = .66 individual level).ICCS-Project07-12-2011 | pag. 83
  84. 84. Part IV Policy initiatives: “Stimulating Student Participation at school” City of Antwerp8/02/2012 | pag. 84
  85. 85. Origin  Literature ‘importance of pupils’ participation at school’  Subsidies for school projects: ‘pupils’ participation’  Broader stimulation through workshops  Platform ‘pupils’ participation’ICCS-Project07-12-2011 | pag. 85
  86. 86. Conclusion  With modernization young people appear to attach less importance to active participation and have lower internal political efficacy (but higher civic knowledge)  Consequences? For schools, society, …?ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 86
  87. 87. More information  International Organization and Study Centre http://www.iea.nl/iccs_2009.html http://iccs.acer.edu.au/  Flanders http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/obpwo/links/iccs/ Eva.Franck@stad.Antwerpen.be Saskia.De.Groof@vub.ac.beICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 87
  88. 88. Discussion  What are the most relevant/striking conclusions/implications of this ICCS study?  What would be your policy recommendation? Local – National – Europe?ICCS-project8/02/2012 | pag. 88

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