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PISA 2018 Results Volume VI - Are Students Ready to Thrive in an Interconnected World?

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Today’s students live in an interconnected, diverse and rapidly changing world. In this complex environment, a student’s ability to understand the world and appreciate the multiple different perspectives they are likely to encounter is key to their success.

In 2018, the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) conducted its first evaluation of students’ capacity to live in an interconnected world. The assessment focused on students’ knowledge of issues of local and global significance, including public health, economic and environmental issues, as well as their intercultural knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Andreas Schleicher, OECD Director for Education and Skills, presents the findings from this latest PISA report.

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PISA 2018 Results Volume VI - Are Students Ready to Thrive in an Interconnected World?

  1. 1. PISA 2018 Results Programme for International Student Assessment Are students ready to thrive in an interconnected world? Results from the first assessment of Global Competence
  2. 2. PISA’s definition of global competence Effectively combining knowledge and critical reasoning to establish an informed opinion
  3. 3. PISA’s definition of global competence Recognising that perspectives and behaviours – including one’s own – are inherently shaped by various influences and concepts of reality
  4. 4. PISA’s definition of global competence Understanding the cultural norms of different contexts and adapting behaviour and communication accordingly
  5. 5. PISA’s definition of global competence Being ready and willing to take informed, reflective action to improve living conditions in one’s own communities and beyond.
  6. 6. PISA’s definition of global competence • Knowledge and cognitive skills directly tested • Social skills and attitudes surveyed through self-reports • Background data from – School leaders – Teachers – Parents
  7. 7. Country participation 27 Full assessment 39 Student self-reports only
  8. 8. Performance on the global competence test [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 Score points -25-20-15-10-50510152025 Korea 509 Russia 480 Kazakhstan 408 Brunei Darussalam 429 Albania 427 Lithuania 489 Thailand 423 Philippines 371 Latvia 497 Chile 466 Serbia 463 Indonesia 408 Overall average 474 Chinese Taipei 527 Hong Kong (China) 542 Slovak Republic 486 Malta 479 Morocco 402 Costa Rica 456 Croatia 506 Greece 488 Panama 413 Singapore 576 Israel 496 Spain 512 Scotland (United Kingdom) 534 Canada 554 Colombia 457 Score-point difference between actual and expected performance in global competence (based on reading, math and science) Score-pointMean Score
  9. 9. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Respect for people from other cultures Attitudes towards immigrants Cognitive adaptability Self-efficacy regarding global issues Awareness of global issues Perspective taking Interest in learning about other cultures Agency regarding global issues Awareness of intercultural communication Score-pointdifference Score-point difference associated with a one-unit increase in the indices of students' attitudes and dispositions Students’ attitudes and dispositions predict performance in global competence Fig VI.6.10 Before accounting for gender, immigrant background, and students' and schools' socio-demographic profile After accounting for gender, immigrant background, and students' and schools' socio-demographic profile Overall average
  10. 10. Examining local, global and intercultural issues
  11. 11. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Singapore Canada HongKong(China) Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Korea ChineseTaipei Israel Spain Croatia Latvia SlovakRepublic Russia Malta Lithuania Overallaverage Greece Serbia Chile Colombia CostaRica BruneiDarussalam Albania Thailand Indonesia Morocco Panama Kazakhstan Philippines % Percentage of correct answers: Examining issues of local and global significance Examining issues of local and global significance Fig VI.2.12 Examining issues of local and global significance was assessed using 37 items in the cognitive test
  12. 12. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Global health (e.g. epidemics) International conflicts Hunger or malnutrition in different parts of the world Causes of poverty Climate change and global warming Migration (movement of people) Equality between men and women in different parts of the world Percentage of students who responded they know about the following topics or are very familiar with them: Singapore OECD average Students' awareness of global issues Fig VI.2.1a
  13. 13. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 HongKong(China) Lithuania Russia Ukraine Albania ChineseTaipei France Portugal Greece Kazakhstan Peru Montenegro VietNam Belarus Serbia Moldova Thailand Poland Spain Canada Kosovo Mexico Turkey Croatia Panama Slovenia Bulgaria Malaysia Philippines Romania Malta DominicanRepublic Macao(China) Italy UnitedArabEmirates Baku(Azerbaijan) CostaRica OECDaverage Australia Israel Colombia Singapore BosniaandHerzegovina Hungary Uruguay Estonia Jordan NorthMacedonia Latvia Chile Brazil Iceland Switzerland Morocco Scotland(UnitedKingdom) NewZealand Germany Ireland SlovakRepublic Austria Korea Lebanon BruneiDarussalam Argentina Indonesia SaudiArabia Percentage of students who are aware of public health issues% Students’ awareness of public health issues such as pandemics Fig VI.2.3
  14. 14. -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Korea Singapore ChineseTaipei Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Israel HongKong(China) Iceland Austria VietNam Macao(China) Australia BruneiDarussalam France NewZealand Canada Hungary Germany Poland Switzerland Baku(Azerbaijan) CostaRica Indonesia Ireland Portugal Malaysia Estonia OECDaverage Malta Colombia Peru Chile Russia Mexico Slovenia Romania Brazil Croatia Spain SlovakRepublic Italy Belarus Thailand Latvia Morocco Panama Serbia Uruguay Greece Argentina Turkey Moldova Bulgaria BosniaandHerzegovina DominicanRepublic Ukraine Philippines Lebanon Lithuania UnitedArabEmirates Montenegro Kazakhstan Kosovo NorthMacedonia SaudiArabia Albania Jordan Meanindexdifference Girls’ and boys' awareness of global issues Fig VI.2.1 Girls - Boys Girls have higher awareness of global issues Boys have higher awareness of global issues
  15. 15. 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 HongKong(China) Israel Italy VietNam Thailand Turkey Macao(China) Spain Peru Greece Colombia Mexico ChineseTaipei Montenegro Croatia Kazakhstan Malaysia Chile Latvia Slovenia Albania Kosovo Ireland France Switzerland OECDaverage Uruguay Estonia CostaRica DominicanRepublic Serbia Canada Baku(Azerbaijan) Germany Indonesia Morocco Portugal Russia Argentina BosniaandHerzegovina Poland Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Singapore Hungary Romania NewZealand Belarus Ukraine Korea Australia Jordan Lebanon Austria SaudiArabia Lithuania UnitedArabEmirates Moldova SlovakRepublic Panama Iceland Malta Philippines Brazil Bulgaria NorthMacedonia BruneiDarussalam Meanindexdifference Students' awareness of global issues: differences between students in the top and bottom quarter of ESCS Fig VI.2.1 Top – Bottom quarter of ESCS Students in the top quarter of ESCS have higher awareness of global issues
  16. 16. -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Lebanon Montenegro Panama Baku(Azerbaijan) Slovenia Portugal Greece Italy Iceland Kazakhstan Israel Jordan Estonia Croatia OECDaverage Spain Malta NewZealand Russia Macao(China) CostaRica HongKong(China) Singapore Germany Serbia Australia Switzerland France Austria Canada Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Ireland BruneiDarussalam SaudiArabia UnitedArabEmirates Meanindexdifference Immigrant students' awareness of global issues Fig VI.2.1 Immigrant - non-immigrant students Immigrant students have higher awareness of global issues Non-immigrant students have higher awareness of global issues Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant students are only presented for countries and economies where more than 5% of students have an immigrant background. After accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile
  17. 17. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 Brazil(-0.32) Portugal(0.19) Chile(-0.2) DominicanRepublic(-0.1) Korea(-0.49) Mexico(-0.34) Croatia(0.4) Italy(0.25) Overallaverage(-0.07) Malta(-0.07) Macao(China)(-0.4) HongKong(China)(-0.43) Germany(0.48) Ireland(0.31) Panama(-0.25) Meanindexchange Change in students’ awareness of global issues associated with a one-unit increase in the index of parents’ awareness of global issues Students’ and parents' awareness of global issues Fig VI.2.5 Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile Parents' awareness of global issues index
  18. 18. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Establish a connection between prices of textiles and working conditions in the countries of production Explain how economic crises in single countries affect the global economy Explain how carbon-dioxide emissions affect global climate change Discuss the consequences of economic development on the environment Explain why some countries suffer more from global climate change than others Discuss the different reasons why people become refugees Students who reported doing these tasks easily or with some effort Singapore OECD average Students' self-efficacy regarding global issues Fig VI.2.7
  19. 19. -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Hungary NewZealand Malta Canada Singapore Switzerland Austria France Ireland Germany Iceland Russia Australia Slovenia SlovakRepublic Estonia Baku(Azerbaijan) OECDaverage Latvia Korea Morocco Italy Poland Chile Indonesia Belarus ChineseTaipei Lithuania Israel Kazakhstan Kosovo Spain Bulgaria Ukraine Romania Colombia Serbia Portugal Croatia HongKong(China) BruneiDarussalam Macao(China) Lebanon CostaRica Uruguay Mexico Malaysia BosniaandHerzegovina Philippines UnitedArabEmirates Brazil Peru Thailand Greece Moldova Panama Montenegro Argentina NorthMacedonia DominicanRepublic VietNam Turkey Jordan SaudiArabia Albania Meanindexdifference Girls’ and boys' self-efficacy regarding global issues Fig VI.2.6 Girls - Boys Girls have higher self-efficacy regarding global issues Boys have higher self-efficacy regarding global issues
  20. 20. Understanding and appreciating the perspectives and worldviews of others
  21. 21. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 "I can adapt easily to a new culture" "I can adapt to different situations even when under stress or pressure" "I am capable of overcoming my difficulties in interacting with people from other cultures" "When encountering difficult situations with other people, I can think of a way to resolve the… "I can deal with unusual situations" "I can change my behaviour to meet the needs of new situations" Percentage of students who reported the following statements describe them well or very well: OECD average Singapore Cognitive adaptability Fig VI.3.7a
  22. 22. -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 BosniaandHerzegovina1,14 NorthMacedonia0,98 Spain0,99 Mexico1,09 Turkey0,99 Canada1,00 Moldova0,92 Jordan1,12 Belarus1,04 Montenegro1,07 Albania1,01 Romania0,88 Ukraine1,05 Australia1,01 UnitedArabEmirates1,17 Iceland1,12 Ireland0,95 Estonia0,97 Russia1,12 NewZealand0,97 Malta0,99 Germany0,88 Poland1,00 CostaRica1,05 Serbia1,08 Kosovo0,99 DominicanRepublic1,23 Lithuania1,11 Switzerland0,88 Slovenia0,89 OECDaverage0,99 Israel1,11 Croatia1,06 Baku(Azerbaijan)1,30 Kazakhstan1,10 Singapore0,93 Latvia0,98 Scotland(UnitedKingdom)0,97 Peru1,02 Panama1,09 Bulgaria1,18 Lebanon0,96 Hungary0,93 SaudiArabia1,05 Uruguay1,04 Chile1,04 Austria0,93 Korea1,02 Brazil1,10 Philippines0,89 Argentina1,03 Indonesia0,79 France0,99 Colombia0,99 Portugal0,89 ChineseTaipei0,92 Morocco1,02 SlovakRepublic0,98 HongKong(China)0,92 Greece1,00 Thailand0,89 Malaysia0,91 Italy0,92 BruneiDarussalam0,87 VietNam0,82 Macao(China)0,84 Meanindex Standard Deviation Students’ cognitive adaptability Fig VI.3.7 Higher values in the index indicate higher cognitive adabtability
  23. 23. -0.30 -0.25 -0.20 -0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 Korea Greece Iceland France CostaRica Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Macao(China) Portugal Argentina Singapore SaudiArabia Israel VietNam Italy Chile Slovenia Malaysia HongKong(China) ChineseTaipei Uruguay Lebanon Hungary NorthMacedonia Ireland OECDaverage Latvia Moldova Germany Switzerland Malta Colombia Austria Kosovo Peru BruneiDarussalam Canada Brazil SlovakRepublic Indonesia Croatia Belarus Philippines Ukraine Panama Spain Turkey DominicanRepublic Australia Montenegro Mexico Kazakhstan Poland Albania NewZealand Romania Russia Thailand Morocco Estonia Serbia Lithuania UnitedArabEmirates Bulgaria BosniaandHerzegovina Jordan Baku(Azerbaijan) Meanindexdifference Girls’ and boys' cognitive adaptability Fig VI.3.7 Girls - Boys Girls have higher cognitive adaptability Boys have higher cognitive adaptability
  24. 24. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 "When I’m upset at someone, I try to take the perspective of that person for a while" "Before criticising somebody, I try to imagine how I would feel if I were in their place" "I try to look at everybody's side of a disagreement before I make a decision" "I believe that there are two sides to every question and try to look at them both" "I sometimes try to understand my friends better by imagining how things look from their perspective" Percentage of students who reported the following statements describe them well or very well: OECD average Singapore Students’ ability to understand the perspectives of others Fig VI.3.1a
  25. 25. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Singapore Canada Scotland(UnitedKingdom) ChineseTaipei HongKong(China) Korea Croatia Spain Lithuania Greece Israel Latvia Malta SlovakRepublic Russia Overallaverage Serbia Colombia Chile CostaRica BruneiDarussalam Indonesia Panama Albania Thailand Kazakhstan Morocco Philippines % Percentage of correct answers: Understanding the perspectives of others Understanding the perspectives of others Fig VI.3.15 Examining issues of local and global significance was assessed using 37 items in the cognitive test Only the 27 countries and economies that conducted the cognitive test are shown
  26. 26. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 DominicanRepublic SaudiArabia Israel Macao(China) Indonesia Argentina Hungary CostaRica Colombia HongKong(China) Malaysia France Italy Lebanon Moldova Iceland Singapore SlovakRepublic VietNam Chile Morocco Korea Jordan Uruguay Switzerland Latvia Kazakhstan ChineseTaipei Malta OECDaverage Peru Turkey Canada Ukraine Greece Slovenia Spain NewZealand Philippines Germany Australia Thailand BruneiDarussalam Belarus Mexico Panama Estonia Montenegro NorthMacedonia Portugal Poland Romania Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Austria Baku(Azerbaijan) Lithuania Russia BosniaandHerzegovina Brazil Serbia Croatia Ireland Kosovo Albania Bulgaria UnitedArabEmirates Meanindexdifference Girls’ and boys' ability to understand the perspectives of others Fig VI.3.1 Girls - Boys Girls have higher ability to understand the perspectives of others
  27. 27. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 "I want to learn more about the religions of the world" "I am interested in finding out about the traditions of other cultures" "I am interested in how people from various cultures see the world" "I want to learn how people live in different countries" Percentage of students who reported the following statements describe them well or very well: OECD average Singapore Students’ interest in learning about other cultures Fig VI.3.3a
  28. 28. -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Turkey0,88 Albania0,82 Kosovo0,81 DominicanRepublic1,02 Philippines0,85 Jordan0,94 BosniaandHerzegovina1,04 Montenegro0,99 Panama1,00 CostaRica0,99 Kazakhstan0,99 Mexico1,01 Moldova0,86 Peru0,91 BruneiDarussalam0,87 Brazil1,03 Baku(Azerbaijan)1,08 Singapore0,94 Spain1,02 Malaysia0,86 Morocco0,98 Uruguay1,02 SaudiArabia0,93 Portugal0,93 NorthMacedonia0,91 Colombia0,88 Belarus1,01 Romania0,87 Lithuania1,03 Chile0,97 Argentina1,00 Serbia1,02 ChineseTaipei0,86 France1,01 Indonesia0,73 Poland0,96 Malta0,98 Canada1,03 NewZealand0,99 Estonia0,96 Latvia0,96 Macao(China)0,85 Croatia1,03 OECDaverage0,98 Bulgaria1,05 Russia1,06 Australia1,01 Greece1,01 Iceland1,07 Slovenia0,95 VietNam0,79 Israel1,06 Ireland0,98 Switzerland0,97 HongKong(China)0,87 Thailand0,73 Ukraine0,95 Korea0,92 Austria1,02 Scotland(UnitedKingdom)1,01 Germany0,98 Hungary0,92 Italy0,93 SlovakRepublic0,98 Meanindex Standard Deviation Students’ interest in learning about other cultures Fig VI.3.3 Higher values in the index indicate higher interest in learning about other cultures
  29. 29. 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Korea Indonesia SaudiArabia Thailand Israel ChineseTaipei Colombia DominicanRepublic Philippines VietNam Ukraine HongKong(China) Macao(China) CostaRica Mexico Kosovo Malaysia Jordan Albania Panama Peru Argentina Malta Hungary Brazil Moldova SlovakRepublic Morocco Uruguay Baku(Azerbaijan) Turkey BruneiDarussalam Romania Italy NorthMacedonia Chile BosniaandHerzegovina France OECDaverage Croatia Kazakhstan Serbia Russia Singapore Greece Belarus Portugal Spain Ireland Poland Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Latvia Montenegro Bulgaria Austria Slovenia Switzerland Germany Lithuania Canada Australia Iceland Estonia NewZealand Meanindexdifference Girls’ and boys' interest in learning about other cultures Fig VI.3.3 Girls - Boys Girls have higher interest in learning about other cultures
  30. 30. -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Panama Montenegro BruneiDarussalam Baku(Azerbaijan) Serbia Estonia Kazakhstan Israel CostaRica Jordan Portugal Croatia SaudiArabia Malta Singapore Greece Macao(China) HongKong(China) Russia OECDaverage Iceland France Italy NewZealand Australia Canada Switzerland Ireland Spain Germany Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Slovenia Austria Meanindexdifference Immigrant students’ interest in learning about other cultures Fig VI.3.3 Immigrant - non-immigrant students Immigrant students have higher interest in learning about other cultures Non-immigrant students have higher interest in learning about other cultures Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant students are only presented for countries and economies where more than 5% of students have an immigrant background. After accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile
  31. 31. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 Germany(0.18) Ireland(0.07) Portugal(0.01) Malta(0.05) Brazil(-0.03) HongKong(China)(-0.32) Korea(0.00) Italy(-0.15) Overallaverage(0.02) Mexico(-0.07) Chile(0.05) DominicanRepublic(0.33) Macao(China)(-0.22) Croatia(0.25) Panama(0.1) Indexchange Change in students’ interest in learning about other cultures associated with a one-unit increase in the index of parents’ interest in learning about other cultures Students’ and parents’ interest in learning about other cultures Fig VI.3.4 Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile Mean index of parents’ interest in learning about other cultures
  32. 32. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 "I value the opinions of people from different cultures" "I give space to people from other cultures to express themselves" "I respect the values of people from different cultures" "I treat all people with respect regardless of their cultural background" "I respect people from other cultures as equal human beings" Percentage of students who reported the following statements describe them well or very well: OECD average Singapore Students’ respect for people from other cultures Fig VI.3.5a
  33. 33. 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Indonesia VietNam Colombia Korea Macao(China) Thailand Lebanon DominicanRepublic Malaysia BruneiDarussalam SaudiArabia ChineseTaipei Hungary Philippines CostaRica Kosovo Peru Romania Singapore Chile HongKong(China) Panama Mexico Moldova Albania Ukraine Spain France Germany Argentina Kazakhstan Uruguay NorthMacedonia Morocco Jordan Switzerland Baku(Azerbaijan) Belarus Austria Portugal OECDaverage Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Brazil SlovakRepublic Bulgaria Australia Canada NewZealand Latvia BosniaandHerzegovina Malta Turkey Montenegro Slovenia Italy Serbia UnitedArabEmirates Ireland Iceland Russia Greece Croatia Lithuania Estonia Poland Meanindexdifference Girls’ and boys' respect for people from other cultures Fig VI.3.5 Girls - Boys Girls have more respect for people from other cultures
  34. 34. -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Montenegro Lebanon Baku(Azerbaijan) Estonia Panama Kazakhstan Serbia Iceland Canada Portugal CostaRica Croatia NewZealand BruneiDarussalam Jordan OECDaverage Singapore Spain SaudiArabia Greece Italy Australia Macao(China) Russia HongKong(China) Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Ireland Germany Switzerland Malta France UnitedArabEmirates Slovenia Austria Meanindexdifference Immigrant students’ respect for people from other cultures Fig VI.3.5 Immigrant - non-immigrant students Immigrant students have more respect for people from other cultures Non-immigrant students have more respect for people from other cultures Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant students are only presented for countries and economies where more than 5% of students have an immigrant background. After accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile
  35. 35. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Immigrants who live in a country for several years should have the opportunity to vote in elections Immigrants should have the opportunity to continue their own customs and lifestyle Immigrants should have all the same rights that everyone else in the country has Immigrant children should have the same opportunities for education that other children in the country have Percentage of students who reported they agree or strongly agree with the following statements about immigrants: OECD average Canada Students’ attitudes towards immigrants Fig VI.3.10a
  36. 36. -1.0 -0.9 -0.8 -0.7 -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Portugal0,85 Canada0,98 Korea0,86 Albania0,92 Spain0,99 ChineseTaipei0,90 Scotland(UnitedKingdom)0,96 Ireland0,96 NewZealand0,94 Australia0,97 Iceland1,05 Mexico1,00 Chile1,06 CostaRica0,98 Uruguay1,03 Germany0,96 Kosovo0,91 Brazil0,97 Argentina1,02 Croatia0,94 Colombia0,86 Lithuania1,00 NorthMacedonia0,95 HongKong(China)0,79 OECDaverage0,93 BruneiDarussalam0,82 Switzerland1,00 Moldova0,8 Macao(China)0,76 Panama0,99 Montenegro0,98 Slovenia0,92 Malta0,93 Greece0,93 Jordan0,99 BosniaandHerzegovina0,99 Baku(Azerbaijan)1,01 Austria1,00 Ukraine0,86 Philippines0,81 Thailand0,73 Morocco0,91 Romania0,85 DominicanRepublic0,99 Belarus0,78 Italy0,91 Kazakhstan0,91 VietNam0,69 Lebanon0,88 Estonia0,81 Serbia0,96 Indonesia0,73 Russia0,87 SaudiArabia0,93 Turkey0,93 Bulgaria0,92 Latvia0,81 Poland0,84 SlovakRepublic0,82 Hungary0,81 Meanindex Standard Deviation Students’ attitudes towards immigrants Fig VI.3.10 Higher values in the index indicate more positive attitudes towards immigrants
  37. 37. -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Estonia Baku(Azerbaijan) Montenegro Lebanon Iceland Serbia Kazakhstan Croatia Russia HongKong(China) Macao(China) Portugal NewZealand BruneiDarussalam OECDaverage Canada Panama Germany CostaRica Jordan Australia Greece Switzerland Italy Malta Ireland Spain Slovenia Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Austria SaudiArabia Meanindexdifference Immigrant students’ attitudes towards immigrants Fig VI.3.10 Immigrant - non-immigrant students Immigrant students have more positive attitudes towards immigrants Non-immigrant students have more positive attitudes towards immigrants Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant students are only presented for countries and economies where more than 5% of students have an immigrant background. After accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile
  38. 38. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 Germany(-0.33) Malta(-0.74) Italy(-0.43) Ireland(0.08) Brazil(0.03) Croatia(-0.46) Overallaverage(-0.19) Portugal(0.33) Chile(0.01) HongKong(China)(-0.22) DominicanRepublic(-0.53) Macao(China)(-0.11) Korea(-0.13) Mexico(0.27) Panama(-0.4) Indexchange Change in students’ attitudes towards immigrants associated with a one-unit increase in the index of parents’ attitudes towards immigrants Students’ and parents’ attitudes towards immigrants Fig VI.3.13 Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile Index of parents' attitudes towards immigrants Based on parents’ reports
  39. 39. Correlations between students' intercultural attitudes and dispositions Perspective taking Cognitive adaptability Attitudes towards immigrants Interest in learning about other cultures Respect for people from other cultures 0.32 0.37 0.31 0.44 0.45 0.38 Correlation coefficient between 0.4 and 0.45 Correlation coefficient between 0.3 and 0.4 Fig VI.3.14 OECD average Based on students’ reports
  40. 40. Ability to engage in open, appropriate and effective communication across cultures
  41. 41. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 "I explain things very carefully" "I choose my words carefully" "I give concrete examples to explain my ideas" "I carefully observe their reactions" "I frequently check that we are understanding each other correctly" "If there is a problem with communication, I find ways around it (e.g. by using gestures, re-explaining, writing… "I listen carefully to what they say" Percentage of students who agreed or strongly agreed that, when talking to people whose native language is different from theirs, they do the following: OECD average Singapore Students' awareness of intercultural communication Fig VI.4.1a
  42. 42. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 Indonesia Colombia Hungary VietNam Baku(Azerbaijan) DominicanRepublic Thailand Belarus Peru Mexico Brazil Uruguay Chile Russia Singapore Korea CostaRica Panama Kazakhstan SlovakRepublic Macao(China) ChineseTaipei Philippines HongKong(China) Iceland Germany Bulgaria Greece Croatia Scotland(UnitedKingdom) NewZealand BosniaandHerzegovina Montenegro France Serbia OECDaverage Argentina Estonia Poland Australia Slovenia Israel Latvia Ukraine Romania Portugal BruneiDarussalam Switzerland Moldova Canada Malaysia Morocco UnitedArabEmirates Kosovo Italy Malta Spain Austria Ireland Lebanon Lithuania Turkey SaudiArabia Albania Jordan Meanindexdifference Girls’ and boys' awareness of intercultural communication Fig VI.4.1 Girls - Boys Girls have higher awareness of intercultural communication
  43. 43. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 In their circle of friends In their family At school In their neighbourhood % Students who reported having contact with people from other countries Fig VI.4.4 OECD average
  44. 44. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Switzerland ChineseTaipei Panama NewZealand Singapore Greece Germany Albania Italy UnitedArabEmirates Canada Spain Austria Kosovo Ireland HongKong(China) CostaRica Australia Thailand Philippines Montenegro BosniaandHerzegovina Malta Slovenia DominicanRepublic Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Iceland BruneiDarussalam Macao(China) Portugal Chile Lebanon OECDaverage France Kazakhstan SaudiArabia Serbia Morocco Estonia Jordan Bulgaria Romania Baku(Azerbaijan) Malaysia Croatia Latvia SlovakRepublic Moldova NorthMacedonia Ukraine Colombia Belarus Korea Russia Israel Peru Hungary Indonesia Uruguay Lithuania Poland Mexico Argentina Turkey Brazil VietNam % Students who reported having contact with people from other countries at school Fig VI.4.5
  45. 45. -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Iceland Australia Germany NewZealand Canada Switzerland Ireland Scotland(UnitedKingdom) ChineseTaipei Hungary France Belarus Malta Austria SlovakRepublic Bulgaria OECDaverage Spain Korea Slovenia Portugal Russia Thailand Latvia SaudiArabia Moldova Romania Singapore Uruguay Estonia Israel Mexico Panama NorthMacedonia Montenegro Greece Argentina Chile Croatia CostaRica Serbia Kosovo Italy HongKong(China) Kazakhstan Indonesia Albania Macao(China) BosniaandHerzegovina VietNam BruneiDarussalam Peru Jordan Ukraine Poland Lithuania Baku(Azerbaijan) Colombia Brazil Turkey Malaysia DominicanRepublic Philippines Morocco Meanindexdifference Difference in the index of interest in learning about other cultures between students who reported that they have contact with people from other countries and those who reported that they do not have such contact Contact with people from other countries and interest in learning about other cultures Fig VI.4.7 Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile Socio-demographic status includes gender, immigrant status and student's and school's index of economic, social and cultural status
  46. 46. -0.20 -0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 Switzerland Germany Ireland Australia NewZealand Canada Austria Iceland Scotland(UnitedKingdom) ChineseTaipei Thailand Panama Greece Hungary OECDaverage Spain Malta BruneiDarussalam Belarus Italy Slovenia Macao(China) SaudiArabia CostaRica VietNam Estonia Russia Portugal Croatia Korea SlovakRepublic Montenegro Turkey Uruguay Poland Albania HongKong(China) Latvia Kazakhstan Moldova BosniaandHerzegovina Baku(Azerbaijan) Romania Ukraine Serbia Colombia Bulgaria Lebanon Jordan Indonesia DominicanRepublic Argentina NorthMacedonia Chile Lithuania Mexico Kosovo Morocco Philippines Brazil Meanindexdifference Difference in the index of student's attitudes towards immigrants between students who reported that they have contact with people from other countries and those who reported that they do not have such contact Contact with people from other countries and student's attitudes towards immigrants Fig VI.4.7 Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile Socio-demographic status includes gender, immigrant status and student's and school's index of economic, social and cultural status
  47. 47. Speaking foreign languages
  48. 48. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Latvia HongKong(China) Singapore Macao(China) Croatia Malta Estonia Lithuania Slovenia Austria Switzerland SlovakRepublic BruneiDarussalam Germany Greece Moldova ChineseTaipei Spain UnitedArabEmirates Montenegro Ukraine Kazakhstan Iceland Poland Portugal Belarus Hungary France BosniaandHerzegovina Serbia Israel Albania Italy Baku(Azerbaijan) Bulgaria Philippines OECDaverage Morocco Kosovo Romania Indonesia Canada Malaysia Ireland Thailand Russia Uruguay Turkey CostaRica Jordan Argentina Panama SaudiArabia NewZealand DominicanRepublic Peru Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Chile Australia Brazil VietNam Colombia Mexico Korea % Student Student's mother Student's father Students who speak two or more languages Fig VI.4.9
  49. 49. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Lithuania Poland Bulgaria Latvia Croatia Italy Hungary Estonia Romania BosniaandHerzegovina Slovenia Montenegro SlovakRepublic Serbia Ukraine Belarus VietNam NorthMacedonia Portugal Germany Russia Moldova Greece Austria France Spain Iceland Kazakhstan Albania Korea Kosovo Malta Morocco CostaRica Singapore DominicanRepublic Baku(Azerbaijan) Israel Switzerland Turkey Argentina Thailand ChineseTaipei Uruguay Colombia Panama Macao(China) Indonesia Lebanon OECDaverage Ireland Chile Brazil Peru Mexico UnitedArabEmirates Jordan HongKong(China) Philippines BruneiDarussalam SaudiArabia Malaysia Canada NewZealand Australia Scotland(UnitedKingdom) % None One language Two or more languages Students who learn multiple foreign languages at school Fig VI.4.10
  50. 50. -0.10 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 Estonia Switzerland Austria Germany HongKong(China) Malta Latvia Greece Lithuania BruneiDarussalam Montenegro Ukraine ChineseTaipei Belarus Philippines Poland Croatia Portugal Hungary Macao(China) BosniaandHerzegovina OECDaverage France Jordan Slovenia Romania Iceland Kazakhstan Serbia UnitedArabEmirates Uruguay SlovakRepublic Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Chile Moldova Italy Thailand Malaysia Peru Russia Morocco Kosovo Ireland Indonesia Argentina Albania Mexico Turkey NewZealand Baku(Azerbaijan) Colombia Canada Panama Spain VietNam Bulgaria Australia SaudiArabia CostaRica Singapore Korea Brazil DominicanRepublic Meanindexdifference Difference in the index of respect for people from other cultures between students who reported to speak two or more languages and those who do not Speaking two or more languages and respect for people from other cultures Fig VI.4.12 Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile Socio-demographic status includes gender, immigrant status and student's and school's index of economic, social and cultural status
  51. 51. Taking action for collective well-being and sustainable development
  52. 52. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 "I think my behaviour can impact people in other countries" "I can do something about the problems of the world" "It is right to boycott companies that are known to provide poor workplace conditions for their employees" "When I see the poor conditions that some people in the world live under, I feel a responsibility to do… "I think of myself as a citizen of the world" "Looking after the global environment is important to me" Percentage of students who agreed or strongly agreed with the following statements: OECD average Singapore Students’ agency regarding global issues Fig VI.5.1a
  53. 53. 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 Belarus Thailand BosniaandHerzegovina VietNam HongKong(China) Baku(Azerbaijan) Montenegro Russia Kazakhstan Hungary ChineseTaipei Indonesia Croatia Kosovo Romania Peru Korea Panama Malaysia Serbia Brazil Macao(China) Colombia CostaRica Uruguay Chile Philippines SlovakRepublic France Moldova Latvia Slovenia DominicanRepublic Morocco Mexico Singapore BruneiDarussalam Bulgaria Austria Ukraine SaudiArabia Switzerland Iceland Portugal OECDaverage Albania Greece Italy Poland Spain Estonia Germany Lebanon NorthMacedonia Argentina Turkey Malta Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Canada Australia Lithuania NewZealand Ireland Jordan Meanindexdifference Girls’ and boys' agency regarding global issues Fig VI.5.1 Girls - Boys Girls have higher agency regarding global issues
  54. 54. Engagement with global issues and other student attitudes Interest in learning about other cultures Respect for people from other cultures Cognitive adaptability Attitudes towards immigrants Self-efficacy regarding global issues 0.30 0.24 Fig VI.5.3 OECD average Based on students’ reports Index of students' agency regarding global issues Awareness of global issues Perspective taking 0.20 0.26 0.240.36 0.31 Awareness of intercultural communication 0.18 Correlation coefficient between 0.3 and 0.4 Correlation coefficient below 0.3
  55. 55. Taking action
  56. 56. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 I reduce the energy I use at home to protect the environment I keep myself informed about world events via <Twitter> or <Facebook> I regularly read websites on international social issues (e.g. poverty, human rights) I choose certain products for ethical or environmental reasons, even if they are a bit more expensive I participate in activities in favour of environmental protection I participate in activities promoting equality between men and women I boycott products or companies for political, ethical or environmental reasons I sign environmental or social petitions on line % Students who reported that they take the following actions: Students taking action Fig VI.5.4
  57. 57. 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 I reduce the energy I use at home to protect the environment I choose certain products for ethical or environmental reasons, even if they are a bit more expensive I boycott products or companies for political, ethical or environmental reasons I participate in activities promoting equality between men and women I participate in activities in favour of environmental protection I sign environmental or social petitions on line I keep myself informed about world events via <Twitter> or <Facebook> I regularly read websites on international social issues (e.g. poverty, human rights) Oddsratio Association between students' capacity to take action and that of their parents Students and parents who take action for collective well-being and sustainable development Fig VI.5.9 Based on parents’ reports Overall average
  58. 58. 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Sudents' interest in learning about other cultures Students’ agency regarding global issues Students' awareness of global issues Student's self-efficacy regarding global issues Students' awareness of intercultural communication Students' perspective-taking Students' respect for people from other cultures Students' cognitive flexibility/adaptability Students' attitudes towards immigrants Mean index difference Change in the number of actions taken by students associated with a one-unit increase in the following indices Change in students' attitudes and in number of actions taken Fig VI.5.7 Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile Socio-demographic status includes gender, immigrant status and student's and school's index of economic, social and cultural status OECD average
  59. 59. Education for living in an interconnected world
  60. 60. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Climate change and global warming Equality between men and women in different parts of the world International conflicts Causes of poverty Migration (movement of people) Hunger or malnutrition in different parts of the world Global health (e.g. epidemics) % Principals who reported that there is a formal curriculum for the following topics: Global issues covered in the curriculum Fig VI.7.8 OECD average Based on principals' reports
  61. 61. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Poland Thailand Russia Lithuania HongKong(China) DominicanRepublic BruneiDarussalam Morocco Ukraine Latvia Turkey Korea ChineseTaipei France VietNam CostaRica UnitedArabEmirates Peru Malaysia Philippines SlovakRepublic Estonia Spain Slovenia Macao(China) Romania NewZealand Uruguay Argentina Ireland SaudiArabia Albania Panama Brazil Australia Singapore Jordan Malta Germany Hungary Greece OECDaverage Portugal Canada Austria Kosovo Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Lebanon Indonesia Iceland Mexico Chile Montenegro Switzerland Croatia BosniaandHerzegovina Serbia Bulgaria Belarus Kazakhstan Moldova Colombia Baku(Azerbaijan) Italy Israel % Percentage of students in schools whose principal reported that public health issues are covered in the curriculum Public health issues covered in the curriculum Fig VI.7.9 Based on principals' reports
  62. 62. Learning about other cultures at school
  63. 63. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 In our school, students learn about different cultural perspectives on historical and social events In our school, students learn about the cultures (e.g. beliefs, norms, values, customs or arts) of diverse cultural groups that live in <country of test> Our school supports activities that encourage students’ expression of diverse identities (e.g. national, religious, ethnic or social identities) In our school, students learn about the histories of diverse cultural groups that live in <country of test> In our school, students learn about the histories of diverse cultural groups that live in other countries Our school adopts different approaches to educate students about cultural differences (e.g. teamwork, peer-to-peer learning, simulations, problem-based… Our school organises multicultural events (e.g. cultural diversity day) In our school, students are encouraged to communicate with people from other cultures via web/Internet/social media Our school offers an exchange programme with schools in other countries In our school, we celebrate festivities from other cultures % Percentage of students whose school principal reported that the following statements reflect teachers’ practices for multicultural learning in their school: Multicultural learning at school Fig VI.7.5 OECD average Based on principals' reports
  64. 64. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Panama Singapore CostaRica Philippines Brazil Albania Lithuania Germany NewZealand DominicanRepublic BosniaandHerzegovina NorthMacedonia Indonesia Colombia Iceland SlovakRepublic Estonia Thailand Peru ChineseTaipei Australia Canada Montenegro Ireland Croatia Austria Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Serbia Argentina Malaysia Latvia Russia Slovenia Mexico Kazakhstan BruneiDarussalam Poland Jordan VietNam OECDaverage Switzerland Macao(China) Chile Spain Baku(Azerbaijan) Morocco Turkey Kosovo HongKong(China) Hungary Moldova Portugal SaudiArabia Lebanon Bulgaria Israel Ukraine Malta Belarus Romania Uruguay Korea Italy Greece % In our school, students learn about the cultures (e.g. beliefs, norms, values, customs or arts) of diverse cultural groups that live in <country of test> Learning about different cultural groups Fig VI.7.6 Based on principals' reports
  65. 65. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Singapore Slovenia ChineseTaipei Italy NewZealand Germany Romania Portugal NorthMacedonia Montenegro Spain Australia Serbia Croatia Lithuania Hungary Canada Estonia BruneiDarussalam SlovakRepublic Thailand Albania Kosovo Bulgaria OECDaverage Latvia BosniaandHerzegovina Ireland Austria Macao(China) Poland Malta Israel CostaRica HongKong(China) Greece Panama Moldova Switzerland Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Kazakhstan Ukraine Lebanon Korea Malaysia Indonesia Uruguay Jordan DominicanRepublic Baku(Azerbaijan) SaudiArabia Chile Russia Philippines Turkey Brazil Belarus Iceland Morocco Mexico VietNam Argentina Peru Colombia % Our school offers an exchange programme with schools in other countries Student exchanges Fig VI.7.7 Based on principals' reports
  66. 66. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Singapore Panama Brazil Moldova Malaysia Thailand Romania Kosovo Macao(China) Albania Philippines NewZealand NorthMacedonia Kazakhstan DominicanRepublic Australia Ukraine ChineseTaipei HongKong(China) Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Canada Montenegro Latvia Portugal Russia Baku(Azerbaijan) Poland BosniaandHerzegovina Lithuania Lebanon Chile Bulgaria Estonia Belarus Jordan Serbia Colombia Indonesia BruneiDarussalam Morocco Spain CostaRica OECDaverage Israel Mexico Ireland Peru Uruguay SlovakRepublic VietNam Croatia Austria Malta Hungary Slovenia Germany Greece Turkey Argentina Korea Iceland SaudiArabia Switzerland Italy % In our school, we celebrate festivities from other cultures Celebrations of cultural festivities Fig VI.7.7 Based on principals' reports
  67. 67. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Conflict-resolution strategies Teaching about equity and diversity (included in teacher education programme) Intercultural communication Teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting (included in teacher education programme) Second-language teaching (included in teacher education programme) % Percentage of students whose teachers received professional development in the following areas Teachers’ professional development in teaching in multicultural settings Fig VI.7.13 Overall average Based on teachers’ reports
  68. 68. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UnitedArabEmirates Baku(Azerbaijan) HongKong(China) Albania Macao(China) Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Spain Germany Overallaverage ChineseTaipei Portugal Panama Morocco DominicanRepublic Malaysia Peru Korea Chile Brazil % Percentage of students whose teachers reported needing professional development in teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting Teachers’ need for professional development in teaching culturally diverse students Fig VI.7.14 Based on teachers’ reports
  69. 69. -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Baku(Azerbaijan)1,12 SaudiArabia0,98 Philippines0,94 Morocco0,96 Thailand1,00 DominicanRepublic1,11 Jordan1,07 Bulgaria1,12 Turkey1,03 Greece1,00 SlovakRepublic0,97 Panama1,03 Malta1,02 BruneiDarussalam0,93 Malaysia0,93 Slovenia0,96 Indonesia1,08 Kosovo1,00 BosniaandHerzegovina1,07 ChineseTaipei0,95 Lithuania1,04 Montenegro1,15 NorthMacedonia1,01 Hungary1,00 Serbia1,09 Kazakhstan1,10 Brazil1,02 Colombia0,98 Argentina0,95 Mexico1,00 Poland0,97 Romania0,91 Russia1,08 Uruguay0,99 Peru0,87 Moldova0,88 Latvia0,96 Croatia1,01 Estonia0,96 Switzerland1,03 NewZealand0,95 OECDaverage0,97 Ukraine0,95 HongKong(China)1,01 Germany0,94 Chile0,99 Albania1,16 Spain0,99 Australia0,99 Italy1,00 Belarus1,02 Macao(China)0,84 Portugal0,94 Iceland0,99 CostaRica0,91 Scotland(UnitedKingdom)0,92 Ireland0,87 VietNam0,88 Korea0,90 Meanindex Standard Deviation Students’ perception of discrimination at school Fig VI.8.9 Higher values in the index indicate higher perception of discrimination in schools “They have misconceptions about the history of some cultural groups”; “They say negative things about people of some cultural groups”; “They blame people of some cultural groups for problems faced by [the country of test]”; “They have lower academic expectations for students of some cultural groups”.
  70. 70. -0.35 -0.30 -0.25 -0.20 -0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 SaudiArabia Turkey Philippines Thailand Indonesia NorthMacedonia BruneiDarussalam Greece ChineseTaipei Malaysia Hungary Macao(China) VietNam Moldova HongKong(China) NewZealand Ireland Belarus Albania Argentina Colombia Slovenia CostaRica Korea Kazakhstan Panama Malta OECDaverage Latvia Kosovo Poland Baku(Azerbaijan) Jordan Romania Mexico Uruguay Morocco Germany Lithuania Australia Spain Peru Italy Ukraine DominicanRepublic Chile Estonia Portugal Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Switzerland BosniaandHerzegovina SlovakRepublic Bulgaria Russia Serbia Croatia Montenegro Brazil Iceland Indexchange Change in the index of students' respect for people from other cultures associated with a one-unit increase in the index of discriminatory school climate Perception of discrimination at school and students’ respect for people from other cultures Fig VI.8.10 Before accounting for gender, immigrant background, and students' and schools' socio-demographic profile After accounting for gender, immigrant background, and students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
  71. 71. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 I learn about different cultures I learn how to solve conflicts with other people in our classrooms I learn how people from different cultures can have different perspectives on some issues I learn how to communicate with people from different backgrounds I participate in classroom discussions about world events as part of the regular instruction I learn about the interconnectedness of countries’ economies I analyse global issues together with my classmates in small groups during class I am often invited by my teachers to give my personal opinion about international news We read newspapers, look for news on the Internet or watch the news together during classes I participate in events celebrating cultural diversity throughout the school year % Students engaged in learning opportunities at school Fig VI.7.1 OECD average
  72. 72. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Philippines DominicanRepublic Singapore Indonesia Thailand Albania Baku(Azerbaijan) Colombia Jordan Peru Kosovo HongKong(China) Panama Mexico Lebanon Montenegro Kazakhstan VietNam Argentina ChineseTaipei CostaRica SaudiArabia Brazil Malaysia Canada Bulgaria Morocco Portugal Australia Uruguay Lithuania Iceland NorthMacedonia Turkey Greece Moldova Korea Poland Macao(China) BosniaandHerzegovina Chile BruneiDarussalam Spain Malta Italy Austria OECDaverage Belarus Croatia Germany Ireland NewZealand Romania Serbia Switzerland Ukraine Estonia SlovakRepublic Russia Israel Latvia Scotland(UnitedKingdom) France Slovenia Hungary Numberofactionstakenbystudents Number of learning activities students engage in at school Fig VI.7.2
  73. 73. -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 Macao(China) Scotland(UnitedKingdom) ChineseTaipei Australia Canada NewZealand Korea HongKong(China) Baku(Azerbaijan) Kazakhstan Estonia Austria Ukraine Iceland Slovenia SlovakRepublic Brazil Germany Morocco Albania Lithuania Kosovo Belarus Ireland VietNam Jordan Argentina OECDaverage Singapore Latvia Philippines Colombia Hungary Russia Malaysia France Mexico BruneiDarussalam BosniaandHerzegovina CostaRica Indonesia Thailand Montenegro Greece NorthMacedonia Croatia Uruguay Bulgaria Turkey Israel SaudiArabia Poland Switzerland Moldova Lebanon Chile Malta Italy Spain Serbia DominicanRepublic Romania Panama Peru Portugal Differenceinstudents'socio-economicstatus (Advantaged–Disadvantaged) Number of learning activities, by socio-economic status of students Fig VI.8.2 Advantaged students attend more learning activities Disadvantaged students attend more learning activities
  74. 74. -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Macao(China) Scotland(UnitedKingdom) Australia Canada Iceland Korea HongKong(China) Estonia ChineseTaipei Austria Colombia VietNam NewZealand Singapore Indonesia Brazil CostaRica Albania Philippines Argentina Baku(Azerbaijan) Thailand Ireland Jordan Kazakhstan OECDaverage Germany Ukraine Malta Slovenia Mexico Greece Morocco NorthMacedonia Lebanon Latvia Belarus Malaysia BosniaandHerzegovina Italy SaudiArabia France SlovakRepublic BruneiDarussalam Turkey Poland Hungary Spain Uruguay DominicanRepublic Kosovo Lithuania Russia Switzerland Serbia Portugal Chile Moldova Montenegro Croatia Bulgaria Romania Peru Panama Israel Differenceinschools'socio-economicprofile (Advantaged-Disadvantaged) Number of learning activities, by schools' socio-economic profile Fig VI.8.3 Students enrolled in advantaged schools attend more learning activities Students enrolled in disadvantaged schools attend more learning activities A socio-economically disadvantaged (advantaged) school is a school in the bottom (top) quarter of the index of ESCS in the relevant country/economy.
  75. 75. 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 Interest in learning about other cultures Awareness of global issues Agency regarding global issues Self-efficacy regarding global issues Cognitive adaptability Perspective taking Awareness of intercultural communication Respect for people from other cultures Attitudes towards immigrants Index change Number of learning activities and students’ attitudes Fig VI.7.3 Before accounting for gender, immigrant background, and students' and schools' socio-demographic profile After accounting for gender, immigrant background, and students' and schools' socio-demographic profile All associations are statistically significant OECD average
  76. 76. • Large gender gap in access to opportunities to learn global competence as well as in students’ global and intercultural skills and attitudes • Boys were more likely than girls to report taking part in activities where they are expected to express and discuss their views, while girls were more likely than boys to report taking part in activities related to intercultural understanding and communication. • Teachers play a key role in promoting and integrating intercultural understanding into classroom practices • Most teachers reported that they are confident in their ability to teach in multicultural settings. But the lack of adequate professional development opportunities in this field remains a major challenge. • Few teachers reported having received training on integrating intercultural issues in the classroom or on conflict resolution, the role of education in confronting discrimination or on teaching in multicultural and multilingual settings. • Students who perceive discrimination by their teachers towards immigrants and people from other cultural backgrounds exhibited similar negative attitudes. • A link between students learning foreign languages and having more positive intercultural attitudes • Speaking two or more languages was positively associated with awareness of global issues, interest in learning about other cultures, respect for people from other cultures and positive attitudes towards immigrants. • Students who exhibited more positive intercultural attitudes were more likely to report that they take action • Public policy can make a real difference: The schools and education systems that are most successful in fostering global knowledge, skills and attitudes among their students are those that • offer a curriculum that values openness to the world, • provide a positive and inclusive learning environment, • offer opportunities to relate to people from other cultures, and • have teachers who are prepared for teaching global competence. Some takeaways
  77. 77. Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/pisa  PISA 2018: Insights and Implications  PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do  PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed  PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students’ Lives Take the test: www.oecd.org/pisa/test FAQs: www.oecd.org/pisa/pisafaq PISA indicators on Education GPS: http://gpseducation.oecd.org PISA Data Explorer: www.oecd.org/pisa/data Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Thank you

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