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PISA 2018 Results
Programme for International Student Assessment
Are students ready to thrive in an interconnected world?
Results from the first assessment of Global Competence
PISA’s definition of global competence
Effectively combining knowledge
and critical reasoning to establish an
informed opinion
PISA’s definition of global competence
Recognising that perspectives and
behaviours – including one’s own –
are inherently shaped by various
influences and concepts of reality
PISA’s definition of global competence
Understanding the cultural norms of
different contexts and adapting behaviour
and communication accordingly
PISA’s definition of global competence
Being ready and willing to take
informed, reflective action to improve
living conditions in one’s own
communities and beyond.
PISA’s definition of global competence
• Knowledge and cognitive skills
directly tested
• Social skills and attitudes
surveyed through self-reports
• Background data from
– School leaders
– Teachers
– Parents
Country participation
27 Full assessment
39 Student self-reports only
Performance on the global competence test
[CELLRANGE]
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[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
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350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
510
520
530
540
550
560
570
580
590
600
Score points
-25-20-15-10-50510152025
Korea 509
Russia 480
Kazakhstan 408
Brunei Darussalam 429
Albania 427
Lithuania 489
Thailand 423
Philippines 371
Latvia 497
Chile 466
Serbia 463
Indonesia 408
Overall average 474
Chinese Taipei 527
Hong Kong (China) 542
Slovak Republic 486
Malta 479
Morocco 402
Costa Rica 456
Croatia 506
Greece 488
Panama 413
Singapore 576
Israel 496
Spain 512
Scotland (United Kingdom) 534
Canada 554
Colombia 457
Score-point difference between actual and expected
performance in global competence (based on reading, math and science)
Score-pointMean
Score
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Respect for
people from
other cultures
Attitudes
towards
immigrants
Cognitive
adaptability
Self-efficacy
regarding global
issues
Awareness of
global issues
Perspective
taking
Interest in
learning about
other cultures
Agency regarding
global issues
Awareness of
intercultural
communication
Score-pointdifference
Score-point difference associated with a one-unit increase in the indices of students' attitudes and dispositions
Students’ attitudes and dispositions predict performance in global competence
Fig VI.6.10
Before accounting for gender, immigrant background, and students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
After accounting for gender, immigrant background, and students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
Overall average
Examining local, global
and intercultural issues
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Singapore
Canada
HongKong(China)
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Korea
ChineseTaipei
Israel
Spain
Croatia
Latvia
SlovakRepublic
Russia
Malta
Lithuania
Overallaverage
Greece
Serbia
Chile
Colombia
CostaRica
BruneiDarussalam
Albania
Thailand
Indonesia
Morocco
Panama
Kazakhstan
Philippines
%
Percentage of correct answers: Examining issues of local and global significance
Examining issues of local and global significance
Fig VI.2.12
Examining issues of local and global
significance was assessed using 37
items in the cognitive test
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Global health
(e.g. epidemics)
International conflicts
Hunger or malnutrition in different parts of the world
Causes of poverty
Climate change and global warming
Migration
(movement of people)
Equality between men and women in different parts of the world
Percentage of students who responded they know about the following topics or are very familiar with them:
Singapore OECD average
Students' awareness of global issues
Fig VI.2.1a
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
HongKong(China)
Lithuania
Russia
Ukraine
Albania
ChineseTaipei
France
Portugal
Greece
Kazakhstan
Peru
Montenegro
VietNam
Belarus
Serbia
Moldova
Thailand
Poland
Spain
Canada
Kosovo
Mexico
Turkey
Croatia
Panama
Slovenia
Bulgaria
Malaysia
Philippines
Romania
Malta
DominicanRepublic
Macao(China)
Italy
UnitedArabEmirates
Baku(Azerbaijan)
CostaRica
OECDaverage
Australia
Israel
Colombia
Singapore
BosniaandHerzegovina
Hungary
Uruguay
Estonia
Jordan
NorthMacedonia
Latvia
Chile
Brazil
Iceland
Switzerland
Morocco
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
NewZealand
Germany
Ireland
SlovakRepublic
Austria
Korea
Lebanon
BruneiDarussalam
Argentina
Indonesia
SaudiArabia
Percentage of students who are aware of public health issues%
Students’ awareness of public health issues such as pandemics
Fig VI.2.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Korea
Singapore
ChineseTaipei
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Israel
HongKong(China)
Iceland
Austria
VietNam
Macao(China)
Australia
BruneiDarussalam
France
NewZealand
Canada
Hungary
Germany
Poland
Switzerland
Baku(Azerbaijan)
CostaRica
Indonesia
Ireland
Portugal
Malaysia
Estonia
OECDaverage
Malta
Colombia
Peru
Chile
Russia
Mexico
Slovenia
Romania
Brazil
Croatia
Spain
SlovakRepublic
Italy
Belarus
Thailand
Latvia
Morocco
Panama
Serbia
Uruguay
Greece
Argentina
Turkey
Moldova
Bulgaria
BosniaandHerzegovina
DominicanRepublic
Ukraine
Philippines
Lebanon
Lithuania
UnitedArabEmirates
Montenegro
Kazakhstan
Kosovo
NorthMacedonia
SaudiArabia
Albania
Jordan
Meanindexdifference
Girls’ and boys' awareness of global issues
Fig VI.2.1
Girls - Boys
Girls have higher awareness of
global issues
Boys have higher awareness of global
issues
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
HongKong(China)
Israel
Italy
VietNam
Thailand
Turkey
Macao(China)
Spain
Peru
Greece
Colombia
Mexico
ChineseTaipei
Montenegro
Croatia
Kazakhstan
Malaysia
Chile
Latvia
Slovenia
Albania
Kosovo
Ireland
France
Switzerland
OECDaverage
Uruguay
Estonia
CostaRica
DominicanRepublic
Serbia
Canada
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Germany
Indonesia
Morocco
Portugal
Russia
Argentina
BosniaandHerzegovina
Poland
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Singapore
Hungary
Romania
NewZealand
Belarus
Ukraine
Korea
Australia
Jordan
Lebanon
Austria
SaudiArabia
Lithuania
UnitedArabEmirates
Moldova
SlovakRepublic
Panama
Iceland
Malta
Philippines
Brazil
Bulgaria
NorthMacedonia
BruneiDarussalam
Meanindexdifference Students' awareness of global issues: differences between students in the
top and bottom quarter of ESCS
Fig VI.2.1
Top – Bottom quarter of ESCS
Students in the top quarter of ESCS
have higher awareness of global issues
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Lebanon
Montenegro
Panama
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Slovenia
Portugal
Greece
Italy
Iceland
Kazakhstan
Israel
Jordan
Estonia
Croatia
OECDaverage
Spain
Malta
NewZealand
Russia
Macao(China)
CostaRica
HongKong(China)
Singapore
Germany
Serbia
Australia
Switzerland
France
Austria
Canada
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Ireland
BruneiDarussalam
SaudiArabia
UnitedArabEmirates
Meanindexdifference
Immigrant students' awareness of global issues
Fig VI.2.1
Immigrant - non-immigrant students
Immigrant students
have higher awareness of global issues
Non-immigrant students
have higher awareness of global issues
Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant students
are only presented for countries and economies where more
than 5% of students have an immigrant background.
After accounting for students' and
schools' socio-economic profile
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
Brazil(-0.32)
Portugal(0.19)
Chile(-0.2)
DominicanRepublic(-0.1)
Korea(-0.49)
Mexico(-0.34)
Croatia(0.4)
Italy(0.25)
Overallaverage(-0.07)
Malta(-0.07)
Macao(China)(-0.4)
HongKong(China)(-0.43)
Germany(0.48)
Ireland(0.31)
Panama(-0.25)
Meanindexchange
Change in students’ awareness of global issues associated with a one-unit increase in the index of parents’
awareness of global issues
Students’ and parents' awareness of global issues
Fig VI.2.5
Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
Parents' awareness of
global issues index
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Establish a connection between prices of textiles and
working conditions in the countries of production
Explain how economic crises in single countries affect the
global economy
Explain how carbon-dioxide emissions affect global climate
change
Discuss the consequences of economic development on
the environment
Explain why some countries suffer more from global
climate change than others
Discuss the different reasons why people become refugees
Students who reported doing these tasks easily or with some effort
Singapore OECD average
Students' self-efficacy regarding global issues
Fig VI.2.7
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Hungary
NewZealand
Malta
Canada
Singapore
Switzerland
Austria
France
Ireland
Germany
Iceland
Russia
Australia
Slovenia
SlovakRepublic
Estonia
Baku(Azerbaijan)
OECDaverage
Latvia
Korea
Morocco
Italy
Poland
Chile
Indonesia
Belarus
ChineseTaipei
Lithuania
Israel
Kazakhstan
Kosovo
Spain
Bulgaria
Ukraine
Romania
Colombia
Serbia
Portugal
Croatia
HongKong(China)
BruneiDarussalam
Macao(China)
Lebanon
CostaRica
Uruguay
Mexico
Malaysia
BosniaandHerzegovina
Philippines
UnitedArabEmirates
Brazil
Peru
Thailand
Greece
Moldova
Panama
Montenegro
Argentina
NorthMacedonia
DominicanRepublic
VietNam
Turkey
Jordan
SaudiArabia
Albania
Meanindexdifference
Girls’ and boys' self-efficacy regarding global issues
Fig VI.2.6
Girls - Boys
Girls have higher self-efficacy
regarding global issues
Boys have higher self-efficacy
regarding global issues
Understanding and appreciating the
perspectives and worldviews of others
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
"I can adapt easily to a new culture"
"I can adapt to different situations
even when under stress or
pressure"
"I am capable of overcoming my
difficulties in interacting with
people from other cultures"
"When encountering difficult
situations with other people, I can
think of a way to resolve the…
"I can deal with unusual situations"
"I can change my behaviour to meet
the needs of new situations"
Percentage of students who reported the following statements describe them well or very well:
OECD average Singapore
Cognitive adaptability
Fig VI.3.7a
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
BosniaandHerzegovina1,14
NorthMacedonia0,98
Spain0,99
Mexico1,09
Turkey0,99
Canada1,00
Moldova0,92
Jordan1,12
Belarus1,04
Montenegro1,07
Albania1,01
Romania0,88
Ukraine1,05
Australia1,01
UnitedArabEmirates1,17
Iceland1,12
Ireland0,95
Estonia0,97
Russia1,12
NewZealand0,97
Malta0,99
Germany0,88
Poland1,00
CostaRica1,05
Serbia1,08
Kosovo0,99
DominicanRepublic1,23
Lithuania1,11
Switzerland0,88
Slovenia0,89
OECDaverage0,99
Israel1,11
Croatia1,06
Baku(Azerbaijan)1,30
Kazakhstan1,10
Singapore0,93
Latvia0,98
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)0,97
Peru1,02
Panama1,09
Bulgaria1,18
Lebanon0,96
Hungary0,93
SaudiArabia1,05
Uruguay1,04
Chile1,04
Austria0,93
Korea1,02
Brazil1,10
Philippines0,89
Argentina1,03
Indonesia0,79
France0,99
Colombia0,99
Portugal0,89
ChineseTaipei0,92
Morocco1,02
SlovakRepublic0,98
HongKong(China)0,92
Greece1,00
Thailand0,89
Malaysia0,91
Italy0,92
BruneiDarussalam0,87
VietNam0,82
Macao(China)0,84
Meanindex
Standard Deviation
Students’ cognitive adaptability
Fig VI.3.7
Higher values in the index indicate
higher cognitive adabtability
-0.30
-0.25
-0.20
-0.15
-0.10
-0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
Korea
Greece
Iceland
France
CostaRica
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Macao(China)
Portugal
Argentina
Singapore
SaudiArabia
Israel
VietNam
Italy
Chile
Slovenia
Malaysia
HongKong(China)
ChineseTaipei
Uruguay
Lebanon
Hungary
NorthMacedonia
Ireland
OECDaverage
Latvia
Moldova
Germany
Switzerland
Malta
Colombia
Austria
Kosovo
Peru
BruneiDarussalam
Canada
Brazil
SlovakRepublic
Indonesia
Croatia
Belarus
Philippines
Ukraine
Panama
Spain
Turkey
DominicanRepublic
Australia
Montenegro
Mexico
Kazakhstan
Poland
Albania
NewZealand
Romania
Russia
Thailand
Morocco
Estonia
Serbia
Lithuania
UnitedArabEmirates
Bulgaria
BosniaandHerzegovina
Jordan
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Meanindexdifference
Girls’ and boys' cognitive adaptability
Fig VI.3.7
Girls - Boys
Girls have higher cognitive adaptability
Boys have higher cognitive adaptability
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
"When I’m upset at someone, I try to take the perspective
of that person for a while"
"Before criticising somebody, I try
to imagine how I would feel if I were in their place"
"I try to look at everybody's side of a disagreement before I
make a
decision"
"I believe that there are two sides to every question and try
to look
at them both"
"I sometimes try to understand my friends better by
imagining how
things look from their perspective"
Percentage of students who reported the following statements describe them well or very well:
OECD average Singapore
Students’ ability to understand the perspectives of others
Fig VI.3.1a
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Singapore
Canada
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
ChineseTaipei
HongKong(China)
Korea
Croatia
Spain
Lithuania
Greece
Israel
Latvia
Malta
SlovakRepublic
Russia
Overallaverage
Serbia
Colombia
Chile
CostaRica
BruneiDarussalam
Indonesia
Panama
Albania
Thailand
Kazakhstan
Morocco
Philippines
% Percentage of correct answers: Understanding the perspectives of others
Understanding the perspectives of others
Fig VI.3.15
Examining issues of local and global
significance was assessed using 37
items in the cognitive test
Only the 27 countries and economies that
conducted the cognitive test are shown
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
DominicanRepublic
SaudiArabia
Israel
Macao(China)
Indonesia
Argentina
Hungary
CostaRica
Colombia
HongKong(China)
Malaysia
France
Italy
Lebanon
Moldova
Iceland
Singapore
SlovakRepublic
VietNam
Chile
Morocco
Korea
Jordan
Uruguay
Switzerland
Latvia
Kazakhstan
ChineseTaipei
Malta
OECDaverage
Peru
Turkey
Canada
Ukraine
Greece
Slovenia
Spain
NewZealand
Philippines
Germany
Australia
Thailand
BruneiDarussalam
Belarus
Mexico
Panama
Estonia
Montenegro
NorthMacedonia
Portugal
Poland
Romania
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Austria
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Lithuania
Russia
BosniaandHerzegovina
Brazil
Serbia
Croatia
Ireland
Kosovo
Albania
Bulgaria
UnitedArabEmirates
Meanindexdifference
Girls’ and boys' ability to understand the perspectives of others
Fig VI.3.1
Girls - Boys
Girls have higher ability to understand
the perspectives of others
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
"I want to learn more about the religions of the world"
"I am interested in finding out about the traditions of other cultures"
"I am interested in how people from various cultures see the world"
"I want to learn how people live in different countries"
Percentage of students who reported the following statements describe them well or very well:
OECD average Singapore
Students’ interest in learning about other cultures
Fig VI.3.3a
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
Turkey0,88
Albania0,82
Kosovo0,81
DominicanRepublic1,02
Philippines0,85
Jordan0,94
BosniaandHerzegovina1,04
Montenegro0,99
Panama1,00
CostaRica0,99
Kazakhstan0,99
Mexico1,01
Moldova0,86
Peru0,91
BruneiDarussalam0,87
Brazil1,03
Baku(Azerbaijan)1,08
Singapore0,94
Spain1,02
Malaysia0,86
Morocco0,98
Uruguay1,02
SaudiArabia0,93
Portugal0,93
NorthMacedonia0,91
Colombia0,88
Belarus1,01
Romania0,87
Lithuania1,03
Chile0,97
Argentina1,00
Serbia1,02
ChineseTaipei0,86
France1,01
Indonesia0,73
Poland0,96
Malta0,98
Canada1,03
NewZealand0,99
Estonia0,96
Latvia0,96
Macao(China)0,85
Croatia1,03
OECDaverage0,98
Bulgaria1,05
Russia1,06
Australia1,01
Greece1,01
Iceland1,07
Slovenia0,95
VietNam0,79
Israel1,06
Ireland0,98
Switzerland0,97
HongKong(China)0,87
Thailand0,73
Ukraine0,95
Korea0,92
Austria1,02
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)1,01
Germany0,98
Hungary0,92
Italy0,93
SlovakRepublic0,98
Meanindex
Standard Deviation
Students’ interest in learning about other cultures
Fig VI.3.3
Higher values in the index indicate
higher interest in learning about other
cultures
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Korea
Indonesia
SaudiArabia
Thailand
Israel
ChineseTaipei
Colombia
DominicanRepublic
Philippines
VietNam
Ukraine
HongKong(China)
Macao(China)
CostaRica
Mexico
Kosovo
Malaysia
Jordan
Albania
Panama
Peru
Argentina
Malta
Hungary
Brazil
Moldova
SlovakRepublic
Morocco
Uruguay
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Turkey
BruneiDarussalam
Romania
Italy
NorthMacedonia
Chile
BosniaandHerzegovina
France
OECDaverage
Croatia
Kazakhstan
Serbia
Russia
Singapore
Greece
Belarus
Portugal
Spain
Ireland
Poland
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Latvia
Montenegro
Bulgaria
Austria
Slovenia
Switzerland
Germany
Lithuania
Canada
Australia
Iceland
Estonia
NewZealand
Meanindexdifference
Girls’ and boys' interest in learning about other cultures
Fig VI.3.3
Girls - Boys
Girls have higher interest in learning
about other cultures
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Panama
Montenegro
BruneiDarussalam
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Serbia
Estonia
Kazakhstan
Israel
CostaRica
Jordan
Portugal
Croatia
SaudiArabia
Malta
Singapore
Greece
Macao(China)
HongKong(China)
Russia
OECDaverage
Iceland
France
Italy
NewZealand
Australia
Canada
Switzerland
Ireland
Spain
Germany
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Slovenia
Austria
Meanindexdifference
Immigrant students’ interest in learning about other cultures
Fig VI.3.3
Immigrant - non-immigrant students
Immigrant students
have higher interest in learning
about other cultures
Non-immigrant students
have higher interest in learning
about other cultures
Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant students
are only presented for countries and economies where more
than 5% of students have an immigrant background.
After accounting for students' and
schools' socio-economic profile
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
Germany(0.18)
Ireland(0.07)
Portugal(0.01)
Malta(0.05)
Brazil(-0.03)
HongKong(China)(-0.32)
Korea(0.00)
Italy(-0.15)
Overallaverage(0.02)
Mexico(-0.07)
Chile(0.05)
DominicanRepublic(0.33)
Macao(China)(-0.22)
Croatia(0.25)
Panama(0.1)
Indexchange
Change in students’ interest in learning about other cultures associated with a one-unit increase in the index
of parents’ interest in learning about other cultures
Students’ and parents’ interest in learning about other cultures
Fig VI.3.4
Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
Mean index of parents’
interest in learning
about other cultures
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
"I value the opinions of people from different cultures"
"I give space to people from other cultures to express
themselves"
"I respect the values of people from different cultures"
"I treat all people with respect regardless of their cultural
background"
"I respect people from other cultures as equal human
beings"
Percentage of students who reported the following statements describe them well or very well:
OECD average Singapore
Students’ respect for people from other cultures
Fig VI.3.5a
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
Indonesia
VietNam
Colombia
Korea
Macao(China)
Thailand
Lebanon
DominicanRepublic
Malaysia
BruneiDarussalam
SaudiArabia
ChineseTaipei
Hungary
Philippines
CostaRica
Kosovo
Peru
Romania
Singapore
Chile
HongKong(China)
Panama
Mexico
Moldova
Albania
Ukraine
Spain
France
Germany
Argentina
Kazakhstan
Uruguay
NorthMacedonia
Morocco
Jordan
Switzerland
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Belarus
Austria
Portugal
OECDaverage
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Brazil
SlovakRepublic
Bulgaria
Australia
Canada
NewZealand
Latvia
BosniaandHerzegovina
Malta
Turkey
Montenegro
Slovenia
Italy
Serbia
UnitedArabEmirates
Ireland
Iceland
Russia
Greece
Croatia
Lithuania
Estonia
Poland
Meanindexdifference
Girls’ and boys' respect for people from other cultures
Fig VI.3.5
Girls - Boys
Girls have more respect for people from
other cultures
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Montenegro
Lebanon
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Estonia
Panama
Kazakhstan
Serbia
Iceland
Canada
Portugal
CostaRica
Croatia
NewZealand
BruneiDarussalam
Jordan
OECDaverage
Singapore
Spain
SaudiArabia
Greece
Italy
Australia
Macao(China)
Russia
HongKong(China)
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Ireland
Germany
Switzerland
Malta
France
UnitedArabEmirates
Slovenia
Austria
Meanindexdifference
Immigrant students’ respect for people from other cultures
Fig VI.3.5
Immigrant - non-immigrant students
Immigrant students
have more respect for people
from other cultures
Non-immigrant students
have more respect for people
from other cultures
Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant students
are only presented for countries and economies where more
than 5% of students have an immigrant background.
After accounting for students' and
schools' socio-economic profile
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Immigrants who live in a country for
several years should have the
opportunity to vote in elections
Immigrants should have the
opportunity to continue their own
customs and lifestyle
Immigrants should have all the same
rights that everyone else in the country
has
Immigrant children should have the
same opportunities for education that
other children in the country have
Percentage of students who reported they agree or strongly agree with the following statements about immigrants:
OECD average Canada
Students’ attitudes towards immigrants
Fig VI.3.10a
-1.0
-0.9
-0.8
-0.7
-0.6
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Portugal0,85
Canada0,98
Korea0,86
Albania0,92
Spain0,99
ChineseTaipei0,90
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)0,96
Ireland0,96
NewZealand0,94
Australia0,97
Iceland1,05
Mexico1,00
Chile1,06
CostaRica0,98
Uruguay1,03
Germany0,96
Kosovo0,91
Brazil0,97
Argentina1,02
Croatia0,94
Colombia0,86
Lithuania1,00
NorthMacedonia0,95
HongKong(China)0,79
OECDaverage0,93
BruneiDarussalam0,82
Switzerland1,00
Moldova0,8
Macao(China)0,76
Panama0,99
Montenegro0,98
Slovenia0,92
Malta0,93
Greece0,93
Jordan0,99
BosniaandHerzegovina0,99
Baku(Azerbaijan)1,01
Austria1,00
Ukraine0,86
Philippines0,81
Thailand0,73
Morocco0,91
Romania0,85
DominicanRepublic0,99
Belarus0,78
Italy0,91
Kazakhstan0,91
VietNam0,69
Lebanon0,88
Estonia0,81
Serbia0,96
Indonesia0,73
Russia0,87
SaudiArabia0,93
Turkey0,93
Bulgaria0,92
Latvia0,81
Poland0,84
SlovakRepublic0,82
Hungary0,81
Meanindex
Standard Deviation
Students’ attitudes towards immigrants
Fig VI.3.10
Higher values in the index indicate more
positive attitudes towards immigrants
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
Estonia
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Montenegro
Lebanon
Iceland
Serbia
Kazakhstan
Croatia
Russia
HongKong(China)
Macao(China)
Portugal
NewZealand
BruneiDarussalam
OECDaverage
Canada
Panama
Germany
CostaRica
Jordan
Australia
Greece
Switzerland
Italy
Malta
Ireland
Spain
Slovenia
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Austria
SaudiArabia
Meanindexdifference
Immigrant students’ attitudes towards immigrants
Fig VI.3.10
Immigrant - non-immigrant students
Immigrant students
have more positive attitudes
towards immigrants
Non-immigrant students
have more positive attitudes
towards immigrants
Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant students
are only presented for countries and economies where more
than 5% of students have an immigrant background.
After accounting for students' and
schools' socio-economic profile
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
Germany(-0.33)
Malta(-0.74)
Italy(-0.43)
Ireland(0.08)
Brazil(0.03)
Croatia(-0.46)
Overallaverage(-0.19)
Portugal(0.33)
Chile(0.01)
HongKong(China)(-0.22)
DominicanRepublic(-0.53)
Macao(China)(-0.11)
Korea(-0.13)
Mexico(0.27)
Panama(-0.4)
Indexchange
Change in students’ attitudes towards immigrants associated with a one-unit increase in the
index of parents’ attitudes towards immigrants
Students’ and parents’ attitudes towards immigrants
Fig VI.3.13
Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
Index of parents'
attitudes towards
immigrants
Based on parents’ reports
Correlations between students' intercultural attitudes and dispositions
Perspective taking
Cognitive adaptability
Attitudes towards
immigrants
Interest in learning about
other cultures
Respect for people from
other cultures
0.32 0.37
0.31
0.44
0.45
0.38
Correlation coefficient between 0.4 and 0.45
Correlation coefficient between 0.3 and 0.4
Fig VI.3.14
OECD average
Based on students’ reports
Ability to engage in open, appropriate and
effective communication across cultures
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
"I explain things very carefully"
"I choose my words carefully"
"I give concrete examples to explain
my ideas"
"I carefully observe their reactions"
"I frequently check that we are
understanding each other correctly"
"If there is a problem with communication, I find ways
around it (e.g. by using gestures, re-explaining, writing…
"I listen carefully to what they say"
Percentage of students who agreed or strongly agreed that, when talking to people whose native language is different from theirs,
they do the following:
OECD average Singapore
Students' awareness of intercultural communication
Fig VI.4.1a
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
Indonesia
Colombia
Hungary
VietNam
Baku(Azerbaijan)
DominicanRepublic
Thailand
Belarus
Peru
Mexico
Brazil
Uruguay
Chile
Russia
Singapore
Korea
CostaRica
Panama
Kazakhstan
SlovakRepublic
Macao(China)
ChineseTaipei
Philippines
HongKong(China)
Iceland
Germany
Bulgaria
Greece
Croatia
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
NewZealand
BosniaandHerzegovina
Montenegro
France
Serbia
OECDaverage
Argentina
Estonia
Poland
Australia
Slovenia
Israel
Latvia
Ukraine
Romania
Portugal
BruneiDarussalam
Switzerland
Moldova
Canada
Malaysia
Morocco
UnitedArabEmirates
Kosovo
Italy
Malta
Spain
Austria
Ireland
Lebanon
Lithuania
Turkey
SaudiArabia
Albania
Jordan
Meanindexdifference
Girls’ and boys' awareness of intercultural communication
Fig VI.4.1
Girls - Boys
Girls have higher awareness of
intercultural communication
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
In their circle of friends In their family At school In their neighbourhood
%
Students who reported having contact with people from other countries
Fig VI.4.4
OECD average
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Switzerland
ChineseTaipei
Panama
NewZealand
Singapore
Greece
Germany
Albania
Italy
UnitedArabEmirates
Canada
Spain
Austria
Kosovo
Ireland
HongKong(China)
CostaRica
Australia
Thailand
Philippines
Montenegro
BosniaandHerzegovina
Malta
Slovenia
DominicanRepublic
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Iceland
BruneiDarussalam
Macao(China)
Portugal
Chile
Lebanon
OECDaverage
France
Kazakhstan
SaudiArabia
Serbia
Morocco
Estonia
Jordan
Bulgaria
Romania
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Malaysia
Croatia
Latvia
SlovakRepublic
Moldova
NorthMacedonia
Ukraine
Colombia
Belarus
Korea
Russia
Israel
Peru
Hungary
Indonesia
Uruguay
Lithuania
Poland
Mexico
Argentina
Turkey
Brazil
VietNam
%
Students who reported having contact with people from other countries at school
Fig VI.4.5
-0.10
-0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
Iceland
Australia
Germany
NewZealand
Canada
Switzerland
Ireland
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
ChineseTaipei
Hungary
France
Belarus
Malta
Austria
SlovakRepublic
Bulgaria
OECDaverage
Spain
Korea
Slovenia
Portugal
Russia
Thailand
Latvia
SaudiArabia
Moldova
Romania
Singapore
Uruguay
Estonia
Israel
Mexico
Panama
NorthMacedonia
Montenegro
Greece
Argentina
Chile
Croatia
CostaRica
Serbia
Kosovo
Italy
HongKong(China)
Kazakhstan
Indonesia
Albania
Macao(China)
BosniaandHerzegovina
VietNam
BruneiDarussalam
Peru
Jordan
Ukraine
Poland
Lithuania
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Colombia
Brazil
Turkey
Malaysia
DominicanRepublic
Philippines
Morocco
Meanindexdifference
Difference in the index of interest in learning about other cultures between students who reported that they
have contact with people from other countries and those who reported that they do not have such contact
Contact with people from other countries and interest in learning about
other cultures
Fig VI.4.7
Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
Socio-demographic status includes gender,
immigrant status and student's and school's
index of economic, social and cultural status
-0.20
-0.15
-0.10
-0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
Switzerland
Germany
Ireland
Australia
NewZealand
Canada
Austria
Iceland
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
ChineseTaipei
Thailand
Panama
Greece
Hungary
OECDaverage
Spain
Malta
BruneiDarussalam
Belarus
Italy
Slovenia
Macao(China)
SaudiArabia
CostaRica
VietNam
Estonia
Russia
Portugal
Croatia
Korea
SlovakRepublic
Montenegro
Turkey
Uruguay
Poland
Albania
HongKong(China)
Latvia
Kazakhstan
Moldova
BosniaandHerzegovina
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Romania
Ukraine
Serbia
Colombia
Bulgaria
Lebanon
Jordan
Indonesia
DominicanRepublic
Argentina
NorthMacedonia
Chile
Lithuania
Mexico
Kosovo
Morocco
Philippines
Brazil
Meanindexdifference
Difference in the index of student's attitudes towards immigrants between students who reported that they have
contact with people from other countries and those who reported that they do not have such contact
Contact with people from other countries and student's attitudes towards
immigrants
Fig VI.4.7
Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
Socio-demographic status includes gender,
immigrant status and student's and school's
index of economic, social and cultural status
Speaking foreign languages
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Latvia
HongKong(China)
Singapore
Macao(China)
Croatia
Malta
Estonia
Lithuania
Slovenia
Austria
Switzerland
SlovakRepublic
BruneiDarussalam
Germany
Greece
Moldova
ChineseTaipei
Spain
UnitedArabEmirates
Montenegro
Ukraine
Kazakhstan
Iceland
Poland
Portugal
Belarus
Hungary
France
BosniaandHerzegovina
Serbia
Israel
Albania
Italy
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Bulgaria
Philippines
OECDaverage
Morocco
Kosovo
Romania
Indonesia
Canada
Malaysia
Ireland
Thailand
Russia
Uruguay
Turkey
CostaRica
Jordan
Argentina
Panama
SaudiArabia
NewZealand
DominicanRepublic
Peru
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Chile
Australia
Brazil
VietNam
Colombia
Mexico
Korea
%
Student
Student's mother
Student's father
Students who speak two or more languages
Fig VI.4.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Lithuania
Poland
Bulgaria
Latvia
Croatia
Italy
Hungary
Estonia
Romania
BosniaandHerzegovina
Slovenia
Montenegro
SlovakRepublic
Serbia
Ukraine
Belarus
VietNam
NorthMacedonia
Portugal
Germany
Russia
Moldova
Greece
Austria
France
Spain
Iceland
Kazakhstan
Albania
Korea
Kosovo
Malta
Morocco
CostaRica
Singapore
DominicanRepublic
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Israel
Switzerland
Turkey
Argentina
Thailand
ChineseTaipei
Uruguay
Colombia
Panama
Macao(China)
Indonesia
Lebanon
OECDaverage
Ireland
Chile
Brazil
Peru
Mexico
UnitedArabEmirates
Jordan
HongKong(China)
Philippines
BruneiDarussalam
SaudiArabia
Malaysia
Canada
NewZealand
Australia
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
%
None One language Two or more languages
Students who learn multiple foreign languages at school
Fig VI.4.10
-0.10
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
Estonia
Switzerland
Austria
Germany
HongKong(China)
Malta
Latvia
Greece
Lithuania
BruneiDarussalam
Montenegro
Ukraine
ChineseTaipei
Belarus
Philippines
Poland
Croatia
Portugal
Hungary
Macao(China)
BosniaandHerzegovina
OECDaverage
France
Jordan
Slovenia
Romania
Iceland
Kazakhstan
Serbia
UnitedArabEmirates
Uruguay
SlovakRepublic
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Chile
Moldova
Italy
Thailand
Malaysia
Peru
Russia
Morocco
Kosovo
Ireland
Indonesia
Argentina
Albania
Mexico
Turkey
NewZealand
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Colombia
Canada
Panama
Spain
VietNam
Bulgaria
Australia
SaudiArabia
CostaRica
Singapore
Korea
Brazil
DominicanRepublic
Meanindexdifference
Difference in the index of respect for people from other cultures between students who reported
to speak two or more languages and those who do not
Speaking two or more languages and respect for people from other cultures
Fig VI.4.12
Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
Socio-demographic status includes gender,
immigrant status and student's and school's
index of economic, social and cultural status
Taking action for collective well-being and
sustainable development
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
"I think my behaviour can impact
people in other countries"
"I can do something about the
problems of the world"
"It is right to boycott companies that
are known to provide poor
workplace conditions for their employees"
"When I see the poor conditions that
some people in the world live
under, I feel a responsibility to do…
"I think of myself as a citizen of the
world"
"Looking after the global
environment is important to me"
Percentage of students who agreed or strongly agreed with the following statements:
OECD average Singapore
Students’ agency regarding global issues
Fig VI.5.1a
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
Belarus
Thailand
BosniaandHerzegovina
VietNam
HongKong(China)
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Montenegro
Russia
Kazakhstan
Hungary
ChineseTaipei
Indonesia
Croatia
Kosovo
Romania
Peru
Korea
Panama
Malaysia
Serbia
Brazil
Macao(China)
Colombia
CostaRica
Uruguay
Chile
Philippines
SlovakRepublic
France
Moldova
Latvia
Slovenia
DominicanRepublic
Morocco
Mexico
Singapore
BruneiDarussalam
Bulgaria
Austria
Ukraine
SaudiArabia
Switzerland
Iceland
Portugal
OECDaverage
Albania
Greece
Italy
Poland
Spain
Estonia
Germany
Lebanon
NorthMacedonia
Argentina
Turkey
Malta
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Canada
Australia
Lithuania
NewZealand
Ireland
Jordan
Meanindexdifference
Girls’ and boys' agency regarding global issues
Fig VI.5.1
Girls - Boys
Girls have higher agency regarding
global issues
Engagement with global issues and other student attitudes
Interest in learning about
other cultures
Respect for people from
other cultures
Cognitive adaptability
Attitudes towards
immigrants
Self-efficacy regarding
global issues
0.30
0.24
Fig VI.5.3
OECD average
Based on students’ reports
Index of students' agency
regarding global issues
Awareness of global
issues
Perspective taking
0.20
0.26
0.240.36
0.31
Awareness of intercultural
communication
0.18
Correlation coefficient between 0.3 and 0.4
Correlation coefficient below 0.3
Taking action
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
I reduce the
energy I use at
home to protect
the environment
I keep myself
informed about
world events via
<Twitter> or
<Facebook>
I regularly read
websites on
international
social issues
(e.g. poverty,
human rights)
I choose certain
products for
ethical or
environmental
reasons,
even if they are
a bit more
expensive
I participate in
activities in
favour of
environmental
protection
I participate in
activities
promoting
equality between
men and women
I boycott
products or
companies for
political, ethical
or
environmental
reasons
I sign
environmental
or social
petitions on line
% Students who reported that they take the following actions:
Students taking action
Fig VI.5.4
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
I reduce the
energy I use at
home to protect
the environment
I choose certain
products for
ethical or
environmental
reasons,
even if they are
a bit more
expensive
I boycott
products or
companies for
political, ethical
or
environmental
reasons
I participate in
activities
promoting
equality
between men
and women
I participate in
activities in
favour of
environmental
protection
I sign
environmental
or social
petitions on line
I keep myself
informed about
world events via
<Twitter> or
<Facebook>
I regularly read
websites on
international
social issues
(e.g. poverty,
human rights)
Oddsratio
Association between students' capacity to take action and that of their parents
Students and parents who take action for collective well-being and
sustainable development
Fig VI.5.9
Based on parents’ reports
Overall average
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Sudents' interest in learning
about other cultures
Students’ agency regarding
global issues
Students' awareness of global
issues
Student's self-efficacy regarding
global issues
Students' awareness of
intercultural communication
Students' perspective-taking
Students' respect for people
from other cultures
Students' cognitive
flexibility/adaptability
Students' attitudes towards
immigrants
Mean index difference
Change in the number of actions taken by students associated with a one-unit
increase in the following indices
Change in students' attitudes and in number of actions taken
Fig VI.5.7
Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
After accounting for students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
Socio-demographic status includes gender,
immigrant status and student's and school's
index of economic, social and cultural status
OECD average
Education for living
in an interconnected world
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Climate change and
global warming
Equality between
men and women in
different parts of the
world
International
conflicts
Causes of poverty Migration
(movement of
people)
Hunger or
malnutrition in
different parts of the
world
Global health (e.g.
epidemics)
%
Principals who reported that there is a formal curriculum for the following topics:
Global issues covered in the curriculum
Fig VI.7.8
OECD average
Based on principals' reports
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Poland
Thailand
Russia
Lithuania
HongKong(China)
DominicanRepublic
BruneiDarussalam
Morocco
Ukraine
Latvia
Turkey
Korea
ChineseTaipei
France
VietNam
CostaRica
UnitedArabEmirates
Peru
Malaysia
Philippines
SlovakRepublic
Estonia
Spain
Slovenia
Macao(China)
Romania
NewZealand
Uruguay
Argentina
Ireland
SaudiArabia
Albania
Panama
Brazil
Australia
Singapore
Jordan
Malta
Germany
Hungary
Greece
OECDaverage
Portugal
Canada
Austria
Kosovo
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Lebanon
Indonesia
Iceland
Mexico
Chile
Montenegro
Switzerland
Croatia
BosniaandHerzegovina
Serbia
Bulgaria
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Moldova
Colombia
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Italy
Israel
% Percentage of students in schools whose principal reported that public health issues are covered
in the curriculum
Public health issues covered in the curriculum
Fig VI.7.9
Based on principals' reports
Learning about other cultures at school
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
In our school, students learn about different cultural perspectives on historical
and social events
In our school, students learn about the cultures (e.g. beliefs, norms, values,
customs or arts) of diverse cultural groups that live in <country of test>
Our school supports activities that encourage students’ expression of diverse
identities (e.g. national, religious, ethnic or social identities)
In our school, students learn about the histories of diverse cultural groups that
live in <country of test>
In our school, students learn about the histories of diverse cultural groups that
live in other countries
Our school adopts different approaches to educate students about cultural
differences (e.g. teamwork, peer-to-peer learning, simulations, problem-based…
Our school organises multicultural events (e.g. cultural diversity day)
In our school, students are encouraged to communicate with people from other
cultures via web/Internet/social media
Our school offers an exchange programme with schools in other countries
In our school, we celebrate festivities from other cultures
%
Percentage of students whose school principal reported that the following statements reflect
teachers’ practices for multicultural learning in their school:
Multicultural learning at school
Fig VI.7.5
OECD average
Based on principals' reports
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Panama
Singapore
CostaRica
Philippines
Brazil
Albania
Lithuania
Germany
NewZealand
DominicanRepublic
BosniaandHerzegovina
NorthMacedonia
Indonesia
Colombia
Iceland
SlovakRepublic
Estonia
Thailand
Peru
ChineseTaipei
Australia
Canada
Montenegro
Ireland
Croatia
Austria
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Serbia
Argentina
Malaysia
Latvia
Russia
Slovenia
Mexico
Kazakhstan
BruneiDarussalam
Poland
Jordan
VietNam
OECDaverage
Switzerland
Macao(China)
Chile
Spain
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Morocco
Turkey
Kosovo
HongKong(China)
Hungary
Moldova
Portugal
SaudiArabia
Lebanon
Bulgaria
Israel
Ukraine
Malta
Belarus
Romania
Uruguay
Korea
Italy
Greece
% In our school, students learn about the cultures (e.g. beliefs, norms, values, customs or arts) of
diverse cultural groups that live in <country of test>
Learning about different cultural groups
Fig VI.7.6
Based on principals' reports
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Singapore
Slovenia
ChineseTaipei
Italy
NewZealand
Germany
Romania
Portugal
NorthMacedonia
Montenegro
Spain
Australia
Serbia
Croatia
Lithuania
Hungary
Canada
Estonia
BruneiDarussalam
SlovakRepublic
Thailand
Albania
Kosovo
Bulgaria
OECDaverage
Latvia
BosniaandHerzegovina
Ireland
Austria
Macao(China)
Poland
Malta
Israel
CostaRica
HongKong(China)
Greece
Panama
Moldova
Switzerland
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Kazakhstan
Ukraine
Lebanon
Korea
Malaysia
Indonesia
Uruguay
Jordan
DominicanRepublic
Baku(Azerbaijan)
SaudiArabia
Chile
Russia
Philippines
Turkey
Brazil
Belarus
Iceland
Morocco
Mexico
VietNam
Argentina
Peru
Colombia
%
Our school offers an exchange programme with schools in other countries
Student exchanges
Fig VI.7.7
Based on principals' reports
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Singapore
Panama
Brazil
Moldova
Malaysia
Thailand
Romania
Kosovo
Macao(China)
Albania
Philippines
NewZealand
NorthMacedonia
Kazakhstan
DominicanRepublic
Australia
Ukraine
ChineseTaipei
HongKong(China)
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Canada
Montenegro
Latvia
Portugal
Russia
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Poland
BosniaandHerzegovina
Lithuania
Lebanon
Chile
Bulgaria
Estonia
Belarus
Jordan
Serbia
Colombia
Indonesia
BruneiDarussalam
Morocco
Spain
CostaRica
OECDaverage
Israel
Mexico
Ireland
Peru
Uruguay
SlovakRepublic
VietNam
Croatia
Austria
Malta
Hungary
Slovenia
Germany
Greece
Turkey
Argentina
Korea
Iceland
SaudiArabia
Switzerland
Italy
%
In our school, we celebrate festivities from other cultures
Celebrations of cultural festivities
Fig VI.7.7
Based on principals' reports
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Conflict-resolution
strategies
Teaching about equity and
diversity (included in
teacher education
programme)
Intercultural
communication
Teaching in a multicultural
or
multilingual setting
(included in teacher
education programme)
Second-language teaching
(included in teacher
education programme)
%
Percentage of students whose teachers received professional development in the following areas
Teachers’ professional development in teaching in multicultural settings
Fig VI.7.13
Overall average
Based on teachers’ reports
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
UnitedArabEmirates
Baku(Azerbaijan)
HongKong(China)
Albania
Macao(China)
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Spain
Germany
Overallaverage
ChineseTaipei
Portugal
Panama
Morocco
DominicanRepublic
Malaysia
Peru
Korea
Chile
Brazil
% Percentage of students whose teachers reported needing professional development in teaching
in a multicultural or multilingual setting
Teachers’ need for professional development in teaching culturally diverse students
Fig VI.7.14
Based on teachers’ reports
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Baku(Azerbaijan)1,12
SaudiArabia0,98
Philippines0,94
Morocco0,96
Thailand1,00
DominicanRepublic1,11
Jordan1,07
Bulgaria1,12
Turkey1,03
Greece1,00
SlovakRepublic0,97
Panama1,03
Malta1,02
BruneiDarussalam0,93
Malaysia0,93
Slovenia0,96
Indonesia1,08
Kosovo1,00
BosniaandHerzegovina1,07
ChineseTaipei0,95
Lithuania1,04
Montenegro1,15
NorthMacedonia1,01
Hungary1,00
Serbia1,09
Kazakhstan1,10
Brazil1,02
Colombia0,98
Argentina0,95
Mexico1,00
Poland0,97
Romania0,91
Russia1,08
Uruguay0,99
Peru0,87
Moldova0,88
Latvia0,96
Croatia1,01
Estonia0,96
Switzerland1,03
NewZealand0,95
OECDaverage0,97
Ukraine0,95
HongKong(China)1,01
Germany0,94
Chile0,99
Albania1,16
Spain0,99
Australia0,99
Italy1,00
Belarus1,02
Macao(China)0,84
Portugal0,94
Iceland0,99
CostaRica0,91
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)0,92
Ireland0,87
VietNam0,88
Korea0,90
Meanindex
Standard Deviation
Students’ perception of discrimination at school
Fig VI.8.9
Higher values in the index indicate higher
perception of discrimination in schools
“They have misconceptions about the history of some cultural groups”;
“They say negative things about people of some cultural groups”;
“They blame people of some cultural groups for problems faced by [the country of test]”;
“They have lower academic expectations for students of some cultural groups”.
-0.35
-0.30
-0.25
-0.20
-0.15
-0.10
-0.05
0.00
SaudiArabia
Turkey
Philippines
Thailand
Indonesia
NorthMacedonia
BruneiDarussalam
Greece
ChineseTaipei
Malaysia
Hungary
Macao(China)
VietNam
Moldova
HongKong(China)
NewZealand
Ireland
Belarus
Albania
Argentina
Colombia
Slovenia
CostaRica
Korea
Kazakhstan
Panama
Malta
OECDaverage
Latvia
Kosovo
Poland
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Jordan
Romania
Mexico
Uruguay
Morocco
Germany
Lithuania
Australia
Spain
Peru
Italy
Ukraine
DominicanRepublic
Chile
Estonia
Portugal
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Switzerland
BosniaandHerzegovina
SlovakRepublic
Bulgaria
Russia
Serbia
Croatia
Montenegro
Brazil
Iceland
Indexchange
Change in the index of students' respect for people from other cultures associated with a one-unit increase
in the index of discriminatory school climate
Perception of discrimination at school and students’ respect for people
from other cultures
Fig VI.8.10
Before accounting for gender, immigrant background, and students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
After accounting for gender, immigrant background, and students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
I learn about different cultures
I learn how to solve conflicts with other people in our classrooms
I learn how people from different cultures can have different
perspectives on some issues
I learn how to communicate with people from different backgrounds
I participate in classroom discussions about world events as part of
the regular instruction
I learn about the interconnectedness of countries’ economies
I analyse global issues together with my classmates in small groups
during class
I am often invited by my teachers to give my personal opinion about
international news
We read newspapers, look for news on the Internet or watch the
news together during classes
I participate in events celebrating cultural diversity throughout the
school year
%
Students engaged in learning opportunities at school
Fig VI.7.1
OECD average
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Philippines
DominicanRepublic
Singapore
Indonesia
Thailand
Albania
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Colombia
Jordan
Peru
Kosovo
HongKong(China)
Panama
Mexico
Lebanon
Montenegro
Kazakhstan
VietNam
Argentina
ChineseTaipei
CostaRica
SaudiArabia
Brazil
Malaysia
Canada
Bulgaria
Morocco
Portugal
Australia
Uruguay
Lithuania
Iceland
NorthMacedonia
Turkey
Greece
Moldova
Korea
Poland
Macao(China)
BosniaandHerzegovina
Chile
BruneiDarussalam
Spain
Malta
Italy
Austria
OECDaverage
Belarus
Croatia
Germany
Ireland
NewZealand
Romania
Serbia
Switzerland
Ukraine
Estonia
SlovakRepublic
Russia
Israel
Latvia
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
France
Slovenia
Hungary
Numberofactionstakenbystudents
Number of learning activities students engage in at school
Fig VI.7.2
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
Macao(China)
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
ChineseTaipei
Australia
Canada
NewZealand
Korea
HongKong(China)
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Kazakhstan
Estonia
Austria
Ukraine
Iceland
Slovenia
SlovakRepublic
Brazil
Germany
Morocco
Albania
Lithuania
Kosovo
Belarus
Ireland
VietNam
Jordan
Argentina
OECDaverage
Singapore
Latvia
Philippines
Colombia
Hungary
Russia
Malaysia
France
Mexico
BruneiDarussalam
BosniaandHerzegovina
CostaRica
Indonesia
Thailand
Montenegro
Greece
NorthMacedonia
Croatia
Uruguay
Bulgaria
Turkey
Israel
SaudiArabia
Poland
Switzerland
Moldova
Lebanon
Chile
Malta
Italy
Spain
Serbia
DominicanRepublic
Romania
Panama
Peru
Portugal
Differenceinstudents'socio-economicstatus
(Advantaged–Disadvantaged) Number of learning activities, by socio-economic status of students
Fig VI.8.2
Advantaged students attend more
learning activities
Disadvantaged students attend more
learning activities
-1.6
-1.4
-1.2
-1.0
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Macao(China)
Scotland(UnitedKingdom)
Australia
Canada
Iceland
Korea
HongKong(China)
Estonia
ChineseTaipei
Austria
Colombia
VietNam
NewZealand
Singapore
Indonesia
Brazil
CostaRica
Albania
Philippines
Argentina
Baku(Azerbaijan)
Thailand
Ireland
Jordan
Kazakhstan
OECDaverage
Germany
Ukraine
Malta
Slovenia
Mexico
Greece
Morocco
NorthMacedonia
Lebanon
Latvia
Belarus
Malaysia
BosniaandHerzegovina
Italy
SaudiArabia
France
SlovakRepublic
BruneiDarussalam
Turkey
Poland
Hungary
Spain
Uruguay
DominicanRepublic
Kosovo
Lithuania
Russia
Switzerland
Serbia
Portugal
Chile
Moldova
Montenegro
Croatia
Bulgaria
Romania
Peru
Panama
Israel
Differenceinschools'socio-economicprofile
(Advantaged-Disadvantaged) Number of learning activities, by schools' socio-economic profile
Fig VI.8.3
Students enrolled in advantaged schools
attend more learning activities
Students enrolled in disadvantaged
schools attend more learning activities
A socio-economically disadvantaged (advantaged) school
is a school in the bottom (top) quarter of the index of ESCS
in the relevant country/economy.
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
Interest in
learning about
other cultures
Awareness of
global issues
Agency
regarding global
issues
Self-efficacy
regarding global
issues
Cognitive
adaptability
Perspective
taking
Awareness of
intercultural
communication
Respect for
people from
other cultures
Attitudes
towards
immigrants
Index change
Number of learning activities and students’ attitudes
Fig VI.7.3
Before accounting for gender, immigrant background, and students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
After accounting for gender, immigrant background, and students' and schools' socio-demographic profile
All associations are statistically significant
OECD average
• Large gender gap in access to opportunities to learn global competence as well as in students’ global and intercultural
skills and attitudes
• Boys were more likely than girls to report taking part in activities where they are expected to express and discuss their views, while girls were more
likely than boys to report taking part in activities related to intercultural understanding and communication.
• Teachers play a key role in promoting and integrating intercultural understanding into classroom practices
• Most teachers reported that they are confident in their ability to teach in multicultural settings. But the lack of adequate professional development
opportunities in this field remains a major challenge.
• Few teachers reported having received training on integrating intercultural issues in the classroom or on conflict resolution, the role of education in
confronting discrimination or on teaching in multicultural and multilingual settings.
• Students who perceive discrimination by their teachers towards immigrants and people from other cultural backgrounds exhibited similar negative
attitudes.
• A link between students learning foreign languages and having more positive intercultural attitudes
• Speaking two or more languages was positively associated with awareness of global issues, interest in learning about other cultures, respect for
people from other cultures and positive attitudes towards immigrants.
• Students who exhibited more positive intercultural attitudes were more likely to report that they take action
• Public policy can make a real difference: The schools and education systems that are most successful in fostering
global knowledge, skills and attitudes among their students are those that
• offer a curriculum that values openness to the world,
• provide a positive and inclusive learning environment,
• offer opportunities to relate to people from other cultures, and
• have teachers who are prepared for teaching global competence.
Some takeaways
Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/pisa
 PISA 2018: Insights and Implications
 PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do
 PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed
 PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students’ Lives
Take the test: www.oecd.org/pisa/test
FAQs: www.oecd.org/pisa/pisafaq
PISA indicators on Education GPS: http://gpseducation.oecd.org
PISA Data Explorer: www.oecd.org/pisa/data
Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
Thank you

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PISA 2018 Results Volume VI - Are Students Ready to Thrive in an Interconnected World?

Editor's Notes

  1. The first… This dimension refers to the ability to effectively combining knowledge and critical reasoning, in order to establish an informed opinion on a global or intercultural issue. In order for students to successfully do this, it requires the development of cognitive skills such as selecting and weighing appropriate evidence, as well as media literacy.
  2. The second dimension… This refers to students’ willingness and capability to understand global issues, and others’ perspectives and behaviours from multiple points of view. Being globally competent does not mean that everyone must share the same perspective: individuals can retain their own cultural identities, but globally competent students recognise that perspectives and behaviours – including their own – are inherently shaped by various influences, and that others have views of the world that are profoundly different to their own as a result.
  3. The third dimension…. Essentially, this describes what globally competent individuals are able to do when they interact with people from different cultures. An individual who is globally competent can understand the… Individuals demonstrate sensitivity towards others, and a willingness to engage with other perspectives. They are able to make themselves understood, and make efforts to understand others.
  4. The final dimension of global competence is much more oriented towards what globally competent individuals actually do. It focuses on individuals’ roles as active and responsible members of society and their engagement to take action for collective well-being and sustainable development. They are ready and willing to…
  5. Global competence is a multi-dimensional concept, and one that is supported in all dimensions by four distinct, yet interrelated “building blocks”. These are knowledge, skills, attitudes and values. For example if we take the first dimension – “examine local, global and intercultural issues” – this requires knowledge of a particular issue; the skills to transform awareness into a deeper understanding; and the attitudes and values to reflect on the issue from multiple perspectives. Effective education for global competence therefore gives students the opportunity to use and develop their knowledge, skills, attitudes and values in relation to global or intercultural issues.
  6. Much healthier European participation in the questionnaire element, although with some notable exceptions (Nordics, Netherlands, Belgium and England and Wales). A combination of factors have unfortunately led to many countries deciding not participate in PISA GC: Some countries were worried that a PISA assessment on global competence could put additional pressure on an already overloaded curriculum and teachers. Some countries considered global competence to be too complex, multidimensional and dependent on the cultural context to be reliably measured in an assessment like PISA. Some countries cited methodological concerns (namely a lack of adequate development time and testing – the first iteration of the assessment framework developed by the PISA contractor was rejected by countries, and so the OECD then took ownership of the development in-house and with a new group of experts. However, this complete redevelopment meant that, given the very tight timeline of the PISA development cycle, there was not enough time to conduct a full-scale Field Trial due to lack of time to translate all the assessment materials into all PISA languages etc.) However, given that the OECD doesn’t explicitly ask countries as to why they are not participating in the options they choose, we have no real way of knowing the exact reasons why countries did not choose to participate.