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Starting Strong Teaching and Learning International Survey 2018 - Conceptual Framework, Instruments and Reporting Plans

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The TALIS Starting Strong Survey provides early childhood staff and centre leaders with an opportunity to share insights on their professional development; pedagogical beliefs and practices; and working conditions, as well as various other leadership, management and workplace issues.

The survey seeks to identify strengths of and improvement opportunities for early childhood learning and well-being environments across different countries and jurisdictions, while identifying factors that are open to change. The survey also builds on the OECD‘s study of the teaching profession, the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS).

The TALIS Starting Strong Survey will compare early childhood settings within and across countries, highlighting diversity within systems and identifying points of commonality. Information gained from the data will inform and facilitate policy discussions about staff’s working conditions and training needs, and can help enhance the overall quality of the workforce.

The survey is part of the OECD’s long-term strategy to develop early childhood education and care data, and will serve as the foundation for future analyses of what works for young children.

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Starting Strong Teaching and Learning International Survey 2018 - Conceptual Framework, Instruments and Reporting Plans

  1. 1. STARTING STRONG TEACHING AND LEARNING INTERNATIONAL SURVEY 2018: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK, INSTRUMENTS AND REPORTING PLANS Webinar, 13 March 2019 Andreas Schleicher OECD Director for Education and Skills
  2. 2. Brain sensitivity of highly important developmental areas peak in the first three years of a child’s life Sources: Adapted from Council for Early Childhood Development, (2010), in Naudeau S. et al. (2011).
  3. 3. Enrolment of 3 to 5-year-olds in Early Childhood Education and Care increased in the past decade 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 France UnitedKingdom Israel Belgium Denmark Iceland Spain Norway Sweden Italy Germany Netherlands Korea NewZealand Latvia Hungary Japan Estonia Austria EU23average Slovenia Portugal CzechRepublic OECDaverage Luxembourg Australia Poland Lithuania RussianFederation Mexico Brazil Chile Finland Colombia Ireland Argentina SlovakRepublic Indonesia UnitedStates Greece CostaRica Switzerland Turkey SaudiArabia % 2016 2010 2005 Source: OECD (2018), Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators 3
  4. 4. Enrolment in early childhood education and care 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 % Enrolment rates for children under the age 3 Enrolment rates at age 3 Enrolment rates at age 4 Enrolment rates at age 5 Source: OECD (2018), Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators Enrolment rates in early childhood education and primary education, by age (2016)
  5. 5. Children who need it most are less likely to have access to early childhood education and care 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 B-S-J-G(China) Croatia Lithuania Colombia DominicanRepublic Montenegro Malaysia CostaRica UnitedStates Turkey Peru SlovakRepublic Qatar Slovenia Russia Uruguay Finland Tunisia Canada Australia Norway Mexico Chile Brazil Sweden UnitedArabEmirates Ireland OECDaverage Luxembourg Austria Portugal Estonia France Spain UnitedKingdom Bulgaria Germany ChineseTaipei Israel Greece *Cyprus CzechRepublic Thailand NewZealand Denmark Belgium HongKong(China) Hungary Iceland Latvia Korea Switzerland Singapore Japan Italy Macao(China) Disadvantaged students (bottom quarter) Advantaged students (top quarter) Source: Starting Strong 2017, Key OECD Indicators on Early Childhood Education and Care; PISA online education database Percentage of 15-year-old students who had attended preschool for two years or more, by socio-economic status (2015)
  6. 6. The many sources of inequalities in participation in early childhood education and care 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 Bottom quarter Top quarter Public Private Rural area Town City School socio-economic profile Type of school School location In years Differences in duration of attendance at early childhood education and care, by school characteristics Source: OECD, Programme for International Student Assessment database
  7. 7. Beyond access, Early Childhood Education and Care quality matters for child development and learning and well being Physical, human, and material resources (e.g. child-staff ratios, staff qualifications) ECEC Structural Quality ECEC Process Quality Child Development, Learning, and Well- being Process Quality 7
  8. 8. • To approximate the quality of ECEC learning and well being environment • Learn about the drivers of quality • A tool for policy makers and researchers to monitor and compare ECEC systems at the international level Building on TALIS 2018 and OECD Starting Strong policy reviews Why an international survey of Early Childhood Education and Care Workforce? 8
  9. 9. The TALIS Starting Strong Survey is a partnership between An international consortium OECD Governments in 9 countries ECEC staff and teacher unions Who is involved in the project? IEA, Rand Europe, Statistics Canada Experts: Questionnaire Expert Group 9 Experts: Technical Advisory Group
  10. 10. Which countries participate in the first cycle? Chile Japan Iceland Turkey Israel Countries participating for pre-primary education Countries participating for pre-primary education and children under the age of 3 10 Germany Denmark Norway Korea
  11. 11. • Leaders • Teachers • Assistants • Staff for individual children • Staff for special tasks Who is being surveyed? Leader questionnaire Staff questionnaire Several perspectives on the same theme 11
  12. 12. What are the themes of the survey? ECEC Environment for Children’s Development, Well-Being and Learning Staff/Leader-Child Interactions ECEC Centre Characteristics Leader & Staff Characteristics Equity and Diversity 12
  13. 13. LEADERS AND STAFF CHARACTERISTICS 13
  14. 14. Good working conditions are needed to attract qualified staff In almost half of OECD countries, salary differences show that pre-primary teachers are paid less than primary teachers (in % of pre-primary teacher salary) (2016) -10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Parity of salaries between pre-primary and primary school teachers Source: OECD (2018), Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators 14
  15. 15. Leader and staff characteristics: Indicators (examples) Background and initial preparation Age, gender Employment status, work experience Qualification Characteristics of initial preparation Professional development Participation in professional development activities Type and content of professional development Staff needs for further professional development Incentives, resources, and barriers to participate Well-being Career aspirations Satisfaction with career and profession Perception of the value of the profession Sources of work stress Self-efficacy relating to Equity and diversity practices Process quality of staff-child interaction Assessment and monitoring of children Shortage of resources (staff, ICT, materials, physical space) 15
  16. 16. Characteristics of initial preparation: Staff report (question example) Were the following elements included in your formal <education or training> programme? Yes No a) Content related to child development (e.g., socio-emotional, motor, cognitive or self- regulation) o1 o2 b) Content related to child health or personal care (e.g. hygiene) o1 o2 c) Facilitating play o1 o2 d) Facilitating creativity and problem solving o1 o2 e) Facilitating children’s transitions from <ISCED 2011 Level 0> to <ISCED 2011 Level 1> o1 o2 f) Working with parents or guardians/families o1 o2 g) Learning theories (e.g. socio-cultural, behavioural, cognitive, constructivist) o1 o2 h) Facilitating learning in literacy and oral language o1 o2 i) Facilitating learning in mathematics/numeracy o1 o2 j) Facilitating learning in science and technology o1 o2 k) Facilitating learning in arts o1 o2 16
  17. 17. STAFF/LEADER-CHILD INTERACTIONS 17
  18. 18. Staff/Leader-child interactions (process quality): Indicators Staff/Leader-child interactions Beliefs about enhancing the development of children’s abilities and skills Facilitating, language, literacy and numeracy learning Facilitating play and child initiated activities Facilitating prosocial behaviour; Staff emotional support for children Pedagogical practices with second language learners Self-efficacy regarding process quality of staff-child interaction Time spent on process quality Monitoring children’s development, well-being and learning Content of pre-service education regarding assessment and monitoring Content of professional development and need for further development regarding assessment and monitoring Self-efficacy regarding the assessment and monitoring of children Time spent on the assessment and monitoring of children Staff engagement in collaborative practices related to the assessment and monitoring of children 18
  19. 19. Facilitating prosocial behaviour: Staff report (question example) To what extent do the following apply to <ECEC staff> at this <ECEC centre>? Not at all Very little To some extent A lot e) <ECEC staff> encourage sharing amongst children o1 o2 o3 o4 f) <ECEC staff> encourage children to help each other o1 o2 o3 o4 g) <ECEC staff> encourage children playing in small groups to include other children o1 o2 o3 o4 h) <ECEC staff> encourage children if they comfort each other o1 o2 o3 o4 19
  20. 20. Facilitating play and child initiated activities: Situational Judgement Item (question example) Suppose that five three-year old children are playing with different toys of their choosing. In an ideal situation where you could choose what to do during this time, what would you do? I would definitely do this I would probably do this I would probably not do this I would definitely not do this a) I would play with the children by following their lead o1 o2 o3 o4 b) I would let children play by themselves and only intervene when they request it o1 o2 o3 o4 c) I would contribute to children’s play by asking questions or providing explanations o1 o2 o3 o4 d) I would encourage children to play together rather than joining in their play o1 o2 o3 o4 e) I would contribute to children’s play by providing new ideas or materials o1 o2 o3 o4 Situational Judgement Items attempt to: • Capture what respondents would do, rather than how often staff exhibit certain behaviour • Limit social desirability bias: Respondents tend to answer in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others • Limit cultural bias : Respondents in some cultures tend to use the extremities of the scales (e.g. A lot), while respondents in other cultures tend to choose the response in the middle (e.g. To some extent). 20
  21. 21. EARLY CHILDHOOD AND CARE CENTRE CHARACTERISTICS 21
  22. 22. Large variability in the child-to-teacher ratio across countries Rate of children to teaching staff in early childhood education (2016) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Child-to-teachingstaffratio Pre-primary education (ISCED 02) Early childhood educational development (ISCED 01) Source: OECD (2018), Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators 22
  23. 23. ECEC centre characteristics: Indicators (examples) Structural quality characteristics Centre staff human resources Centre funding and budget constraints Staff attrition and turnover Centre location and environment of the neighbourhood Pedagogical and administrative leadership Appraisal and feedback Distribution of tasks Pedagogical leadership Time spent on leadership Climate Climate for staff learning Number of working hours Sources of work stress Staff beliefs about spending priorities Stakeholder relations Parent or guardian engagement Relationship with other stakeholders Transition to other education level 23
  24. 24. Centre funding, human and budget constraints: Leaders report (question example) To what extent do the following limit your effectiveness as an <ECEC centre leader> in this <ECEC centre>? Not at all To some extent Quite a bit A lot a) Inadequate <ECEC centre> budget and resources o1 o2 o3 o4 b) Government regulation and policy o1 o2 o3 o4 c) <ECEC staff> absences o1 o2 o3 o4 d) <ECEC staff> shortage o1 o2 o3 o4 e) Lack of parent or guardian involvement and support o1 o2 o3 o4 f) Lack of opportunities and support for my own professional development o1 o2 o3 o4 g) Lack of opportunities and support for <ECEC staff’s> professional development o1 o2 o3 o4 24
  25. 25. EQUITY AND DIVERSITY 25
  26. 26. Children who need it the most are less likely to have access to ECEC Percentage of 15-year-old students who had attended preschool for two years or more, by socio-economic status (2015) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 B-S-J-G(China) Croatia Lithuania Colombia DominicanRepublic Montenegro Malaysia CostaRica UnitedStates Turkey Peru SlovakRepublic Qatar Slovenia Russia Uruguay Finland Tunisia Canada Australia Norway Mexico Chile Brazil Sweden UnitedArabEmirates Ireland OECDaverage Luxembourg Austria Portugal Estonia France Spain UnitedKingdom Bulgaria Germany ChineseTaipei Israel Greece *Cyprus CzechRepublic Thailand NewZealand Denmark Belgium HongKong(China) Hungary Iceland Latvia Korea Switzerland Singapore Japan Italy Macao(China) Disadvantaged students (bottom quarter) Advantaged students (top quarter) Source: Starting Strong 2017, Key OECD Indicators on Early Childhood Education and Care; PISA online education database 26
  27. 27. Cross-cutting theme: Equity and diversity Equity and diversity Composition of child population in the centre Composition of the target group of children in (a particular group of children the respondent has experience with) Approaches to diversity Pedagogical practices with second language learners 27
  28. 28. Diversity in activities and practices: Self report measure (question example) When considering daily interactions with children, to what extent do the following apply to this <ECEC centre>? Not at all Very little To some extent A lot a) The use of books and pictures featuring people from a variety of ethnic and cultural groups o1 o2 o3 o4 b) Books or toys show people from different ethnic and cultural groups in a variety of professional and social roles o1 o2 o3 o4 c) The children sometimes play with toys and artefacts from cultures other than the ethnic majority o1 o2 o3 o4 d) Some activities emphasise what people from different ethnic and cultural groups have in common o1 o2 o3 o4 28
  29. 29. FORTHCOMING INTERNATIONAL DATABASE AND PUBLICATIONS 29
  30. 30. Which publications are planned? First volume and International Database: October 2019 Theme: QUALITY in Early Childhood Education and Care Quality from factors that are most proximal to those that are more distal 30
  31. 31. Which publications are planned? Second volume : 2020 Theme: A high quality Early Childhood Education and Care WORKFORCE THREE major areas to build and maintain a high quality workforce Leadership and management Working conditions Workforce skills development And a thematic report on Early Childhood Education and Care for children under the age of 3 (2020) 31
  32. 32. Where to find the information? 32 Starting Strong Teaching and Learning International Survey 2018 Conceptual Framework : https://doi.org/10.1787/106b1c42-en Further information on the Survey and the questionnaires: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/oecd-starting-strong-teaching- and-learning-international-survey.htm More information about other projects on early childhood education and care: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/earlychildhoodeducationandcar e.htm Forthcoming: Document on Situational Judgment items
  33. 33. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Questions? startingstrongsurvey@oecd.org www.oecd.org/education/school/earlychildhoodeducationandcare.htm 33 This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

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