What is operating system


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What is operating system

  1. 1. What is Operating System?An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardwareresources and providescommon services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in acomputer system. Application programs require an operating system to function.Time-sharing operating systemsschedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time,mass storage, printing, and other resources.For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation,the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, [1][2]although theapplication code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS functionor be interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellularphones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers.Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_systemThe operating system is the most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer musthave an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such asrecognizing inputfrom the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of filesand directories onthe disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.For large systems, the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. It is like a traffic cop -- itmakes sure that different programs andusers running at the same time do not interfere with each other. Theoperating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system.Source: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/O/operating_system.htmlHow does Operating System works?The operating system acts as an interface between an application and the hardware. The user interacts with thehardware from "the other side". The operating system is a set of services which simplifies development ofapplications. Executing a program involves the creation of a process by the operating system. The kernel creates aprocess by assigning memory and other resources, establishing a priority for the process (in multi-tasking systems),loading program code into memory, and executing the program. The program then interacts with the user and/orother devices performing its intended function.References: http://www.megatypers.in/?p=152History of Microsoft Windows.The dawn of MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System)In June 1980, Gates and Allen hire Gates’ former Harvard classmate Steve Ballmer to help run the company. The nextmonth, IBM approaches Microsoft about a project code-named "Chess." In response, Microsoft focuses on a newoperating system—the software that manages, or runs, the computer hardware and also serves to bridge the gapbetween the computer hardware and programs, such as a word processor. It’s the foundation on which computerprograms can run. They name their new operating system "MS-DOS."When the IBM PC running MS-DOS ships in 1981, it introduces a whole new language to the general public. Typing―C:‖ and various cryptic commands gradually becomes part of daily work. People discover the backslash () key.MS-DOS is effective, but also proves difficult to understand for many people. There has to be a better way to build anoperating system.1982–1985: Introducing Windows 1.0
  2. 2. Microsoft works on the first version of a new operating system. Interface Manager is the code name and is consideredas the final name, but Windows prevails because it best describes the boxes or computing ―windows‖ that arefundamental to the new system. Windows is announced in 1983, but it takes a while to develop. Skeptics call it―vaporware.‖ The fully-packagedWindows 1.0On November 20, 1985, two years after the initial announcement, Microsoft shipsWindows 1.0. Now, rather thantyping MS-DOS commands, you just move a mouse to point and click your way through screens, or ―windows.‖ BillGates says, ―It is unique software designed for the serious PC user…‖There are drop-down menus, scroll bars, icons, and dialog boxes that make programs easier to learn and use. Youreable to switch among several programs without having to quit and restart each one. Windows 1.0 ships with severalprograms, including MS-DOS file management, Paint, Windows Writer, Notepad, Calculator, and a calendar, card file,and clock to help you manage day-to-day activities. There’s even a game—Reversi.1987–1992: Windows 2.0–2.11—More windows, more speedOn December 9, 1987 Microsoft releases Windows 2.0 with desktop icons and expanded memory. With improvedgraphics support, you can now overlap windows, control the screen layout, and use keyboard shortcuts to speed upyour work. Some software developers write their first Windows–based programs for this release. Windows 2.0
  3. 3. Windows 2.0 is designed for the Intel 286 processor. When the Intel 386 processor is released, Windows/386 soonfollows to take advantage of its extended memory capabilities. Subsequent Windows releases continue to improve thespeed, reliability, and usability of the PC.In 1988, Microsoft becomes the world’s largest PC software company based on sales. Computers are starting tobecome a part of daily life for some office workers.1990–1994: Windows 3.0–Windows NT—Getting the graphicsOn May 22, 1990, Microsoft announces Windows 3.0, followed shortly byWindows 3.1 in 1992. Taken together, theysell 10 million copies in their first 2 years, making this the most widely used Windows operating system yet. The scaleof this success causes Microsoft to revise earlier plans. Virtual Memory improves visual graphics. In1990 Windows starts to look like the versions to come.Windows now has significantly better performance, advanced graphics with 16 colors, and improved icons. A newwave of 386 PCs helps drive the popularity of Windows 3.0. With full support for the Intel 386 processor, programsrun noticeably faster. Program Manager, File Manager, and Print Manager arrive inWindows 3.0.Windows software is installed with floppy discs bought in large boxes with heavy instruction manuals.The popularity of Windows 3.0 grows with the release of a newWindows software development kit (SDK), which helpssoftware developers focus more on writing programs and less on writing device drivers.Windows is increasingly used at work and home and now includes games like Solitaire, Hearts, and Minesweeper. Anadvertisement: ―Now you can use the incredible power of Windows 3.0 to goof off.‖Windows for Workgroups 3.11 adds peer-to-peer workgroup and domain networking support and, for the first time,PCs become an integral part of the emerging client/server computing evolution.Windows NTWhen Windows NT releases on July 27, 1993, Microsoft meets an important milestone: the completion of a projectbegun in the late 1980s to build an advanced new operating system from scratch. "Windows NT represents nothingless than a fundamental change in the way that companies can address their business computing requirements," BillGates says at its release.Unlike Windows 3.1, however, Windows NT 3.1 is a 32-bit operating system, which makes it a strategic businessplatform that supports high-end engineering and scientific programs.1995–2001: Windows 95—the PC comes of age (and dont forget the Internet)On August 24, 1995, Microsoft releases Windows 95, selling a record-setting 7 million copies in the first five weeks.It’s the most publicized launch Microsoft has ever taken on. Television commercials feature the Rolling Stones singing"Start Me Up" over images of the new Start button. The press release simply begins: ―It’s here.‖
  4. 4. This is the era of fax/modems, e-mail, the new online world, and dazzling multimedia games and educationalsoftware.Windows 95 has built-in Internet support, dial-up networking, and new Plug and Play capabilities that makeit easy to install hardware and software. The 32-bit operating system also offers enhanced multimedia capabilities,more powerful features for mobile computing, and integrated networking.At the time of the Windows 95 release, the previous Windows and MS-DOS operating systems are running on about80 percent of the world’s PCs. Windows 95 is the upgrade to these operating systems. To run Windows 95, you need aPC with a 386DX or higher processor (486 recommended) and at least 4 MB of RAM (8 MB of RAM recommended).Upgrade versions are available for both floppy disk and CD-ROM formats. It’s available in 12 languages.Windows 95 features the first appearance of the Start menu, taskbar, and minimize, maximize, and close buttons oneach window. Windows 95Catching the Internet waveIn the early 1990s, tech insiders are talking about the Internet—a network of networks that has the power to connectcomputers all over the world. In 1995, Bill Gates delivers a memo titled ―The Internet Tidal Wave,‖ and declares theInternet as ―the most important development since the advent of the PC.‖In the summer of 1995, the first version of Internet Explorer is released. The browser joins those already vying forspace on the World Wide Web.1998–2000: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows MeWindows 98Released on June 25, 1998, Windows 98 is the first version of Windows designed specifically for consumers. PCs arecommon at work and home, and Internet cafes where you can get online are popping up. Windows 98 is described asan operating system that ―Works Better, Plays Better.‖With Windows 98, you can find information more easily on your PC as well as the Internet. Other improvementsinclude the ability to open and close programs more quickly, and support for reading DVD discs and universal serialbus (USB) devices. Another first appearance is the Quick Launch bar, which lets you run programs without having tobrowse the Start menu or look for them on the desktop.
  5. 5. Windows 98Windows MeDesigned for home computer use, Windows Me offers numerous music, video, and home networking enhancementsand reliability improvements compared to previous versions.First appearances: System Restore, a feature that can roll back your PC software configuration to a date or timebefore a problem occurred. Windows Movie Maker provides users with the tools to digitally edit, save, and share homevideos. And with Microsoft Windows Media Player 7 technologies, you can find, organize, and play digital media.Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000ProfessionalMore than just the upgrade to Windows NT Workstation 4.0, Windows 2000 Professional is designed toreplaceWindows 95, Windows 98, and Windows NT Workstation 4.0 on all business desktops and laptops. Built on topof the proven Windows NT Workstation 4.0 code base, Windows 2000 adds major improvements in reliability, ease ofuse, Internet compatibility, and support for mobile computing.Among other improvements, Windows 2000 Professional simplifies hardware installation by adding support for a widevariety of new Plug and Play hardware, including advanced networking and wireless products, USB devices, IEEE 1394devices, and infrared devices.2001–2005: Windows XP—Stable, usable, and fast
  6. 6. On October 25, 2001, Windows XP is released with a redesigned look and feel thats centered on usability and aunified Help and Support services center. It’s available in 25 languages. From the mid-1970s until the releaseof Windows XP, about 1 billion PCs have been shipped worldwide.For Microsoft, Windows XP will become one of its best-selling products in the coming years. It’s both fast and stable.Navigating the Start menu, taskbar, and Control Panel are more intuitive. Awareness of computer viruses and hackersincreases, but fears are to a certain extent calmed by the online delivery of security updates. Consumers begin tounderstand warnings about suspicious attachments and viruses. There’s more emphasis on Help and Support.Windows XP Home Edition offers a clean, simplified visual design that makes frequently used features moreaccessible. Designed for home use, Windows XP offers such enhancements as the Network SetupWizard, Windows Media Player,Windows Movie Maker, and enhanced digital photo capabilities.Windows XP Professional brings the solid foundation of Windows 2000to the PC desktop, enhancing reliability,security, and performance. With a fresh visual design, Windows XP Professional includes features for business andadvanced home computing, including remote desktop support, an encrypting file system, and system restore andadvanced networking features. Key enhancements for mobile users include wireless 802.1x networkingsupport, Windows Messenger, and Remote Assistance.Windows XP has several editions during these years: Windows XP 64-bit Edition (2001) is the first Microsoft operating system for 64-bit processors designed for working with large amounts of memory and projects such as movie special effects, 3D animations, engineering, and scientific programs. Windows XP Media Center Edition (2002) is made for home computing and entertainment. You can browse the Internet, watch live television, enjoy digital music and video collections, and watch DVDs. Windows XP Tablet PC Edition (2002) realizes the vision of pen-based computing. Tablet PCs include a digital pen for handwriting recognition and you can use the mouse or keyboard, too.2006–2008: Windows Vista—Smart on securityWindows Vista is released in 2006 with the strongest security system yet. User Account Control helps preventpotentially harmful software from making changes to your computer. In Windows Vista Ultimate,BitLocker DriveEncryption provides better data protection for your computer, as laptop sales and security needsincrease. Windows Vista also features enhancements to Windows Media Player as more and more people come to seetheir PCs as central locations for digital media. Here you can watch television, view and send photographs, and editvideos.
  7. 7. Windows Vista UltimateDesign plays a big role in Windows Vista, and features such as the taskbar and the borders around windows get abrand new look. Search gets new emphasis and helps people find files on their PCs faster. Windows Vista introducesnew editions that each have a different mix of features. Its available in 35 languages. The redesigned Start buttonmakes its first appearance in Windows Vista.2009–Today: Windows 7 and counting...By the late 2000s, the wireless world has arrived. When Windows 7 is released in October 2009, laptops are outsellingdesktop PCs and it’s common to get online at public wireless hotspots like coffee shops. Wireless networks can becreated at the office or at home.Windows 7 includes many features, such as new ways to work with windows—Snap, Peek, and Shake.Windows Touchmakes its debut, enabling you to use your fingers to browse the web, flip through photos, and open files and folders.You can stream music, videos, and photos from your PC to a stereo or TV.By the fall of 2010, Windows 7 is selling seven copies a second—the fastest-selling operating system in history. Improvements to the Windows 7 taskbar includelive thumbnail previewsWhats next?Source: http://windows.microsoft.com/is-IS/windows/historyHistory of Linux Operating System1986 Linus (Benedict) Torvalds programmed its own driver for its floppy controller. He learned intensively hardwareprogramming and became better knowledge about his Sinclair computer with Q-DOS. Additionally he provided his ownprogrammer Tools. When 1991 the 386-Intel PC became modern, he got one PC to learn about the programming of386 CPUs. As operating system the Unix derivate MINIX was used, he has know Unix already since 1990 from itsuniversity. Minix was developed by Andrew Tanenbaum as learning system and was particularly used at universities.The written book from A. Tanenbaum "Operating Systems: Design and Implementation" is about operating system
  8. 8. concepts and Minix, which became the favourite book from Torvalds. The source code of Minix is open source, anymodifications are bound to the license conditions.Because he did not find the provided terminal emulator program in Minix acceptable, he began his project to code hisown and better terminal emulator with more functions on hardware level. In addition he programmed his own driversfor the data medium access and the file system and others in assembler. With these functions the software becamesthe ability to upload and download from the Internet. In the line of the development terminal program got more andmore functions so he made the decision to enhance it to a operating system. Its operating system was derivated fromconcepts of Minix but completely written from scratch beginning at the Kernel. After long programming evenings itwas so far. On 17th September 1991 the operating system Freax version 0.01 was finished, as developmentenvironment was used still the MINIX for 386 CPUs. It contained already the GNU Shell bash and the GNU C-compilerGCC from Richard Stallman, which counts to the standard programs for the meantime named operating system Linux.Because Linux profits particularly from the GNU software pool, it is generally called GNU/Linux.After approximately 6 months Freax was renamed in Linux. Already on 3th July 1991 he had asked for the POSIXstandards in the minix-newsgroup, he presented on 25th August 1991 his project in public and asked for suggestionsfor further functions and extensions. The source code was made freely accessible by ftp. To communicate with otherprogrammers and interested people he used the Maylinglist "Linux-activists@niksula.hut.fi" and the newsgroup"comp.os.minix" for contact and progress messages. Later its own Maylinglist and forums were created. In the line ofthe development he received wished postcards from all over the world with thankfully words. The project has got astrong self-dynamic in the InterNet and was maintained by the community. The rights at the brand name Linux wastransferred after a legal incident to Linus Torvalds and later distributed on several persons to ensure the furtherdevelopment and to avoid a "takeover by enemys". The symbol figure "Tux the penguin" was selected becauseTorvalds was bitten by a penguin in a Finnish zoo. The self-willed animal had impressed him in such a way, which itgave to its operating system this guidance figure. At the beginning Linux doesn`t contain any installation script orgraphical installation menu. To make the installation from Linux easier and automated Owen LeBlanc from theManchester Computing Centre published the MCC Interim release, this was the key for the automated installation oftodays distributions.Debian GNU/LinuxThe Debian GNU /Linux Project team is a special one under the distributorssince it does not pursue any commercial targets. Since the foundation byIan Murdock on 16th August 1993 Debian is cared by voluntary developersand supported by the FSF. Ian Murdock conducted the team to 1996. Thename Debian gets together from Deb for Ian Murdocks Wife Debra and hisfirst name together. Only software which was published completely underthe GPL flows into the Debian distribution. Developed in Germany the mainarea lies more in Europe. Specified versions exist for Intel x86 and ARMsystems. As unusual feature a format of ones own is used for theinstallation by software packages (Deb), just like the packet format RPM itresolves the dependences automatically, though according after anotherprinciple. The GUI Gnomes become preferred as standard. Up till now only asimple text mode for the installation is available. Debian has gotsynonymous for quality and stability. The code names as of release 1.1 arefrom figures from the digital cartoon film Toy Story.Ian Murdock set up a new company with Bruce Perens named Progeny Linux Systems in 2001. It is target to developa network solution based on Debian GNU/Linux named Linux NOW (Network of Workstations). Linux NOW shall mergethe advantages of efficient, flexible and scalable workstation with centralized solutions that are simply to beadministered.The networked systems then form one single, smooth system with the advantages of those two worlds. A softwareproduct that uses this technique is the web-based Linux Platform Manager which accelerates the construction,administration and the test of distributions.Debian GNU/Linux 4.0 supports altogether 11 processor architectures, the software KDE 3.5.5 a, gnomes 2.14 andXfce 4.4 were updated. The graphic interface for the installation was replaced and is available in 58 languages. At theinstallation also cryptographic software can be selected from more than 18,000 programmes. The compatibility withthe FHS 2.3 and the LSB 3.1 is granted to.Ian Murdock changed to the company Sun in March 2007 and ended the business activity of Progeny Linux Systems tothe end of 2007-04-30. His new work area is the coordination and strategic orientation of the business for Solaris tokeep pace with Linux.
  9. 9. The next stable release was Debian GNU/Linux 5.0 (Lenny) of 14 February 2009. For the first time, there is agraphical Debian installer. The hardware detection has been further improved. The configuration-free X-Server isincluded in version 7.3. Gnome is installed as standard desktop. The network setup is even easier with the NetworkManager.A distribution based on Debian is Knoppix (Knoppers UNIX) from Klaus Knopper. It is a directly bootable live systemfrom CD-ROM or DVD media. Knoppix is installable also on a fixed disk, e.g. it is suitable for a productive desktopsystem or also as a Rescue system. Knoppix 4.0 bases on Debian GNU/Linux 3.1 and was released on the event"Linux Tag 2005" on 06-22-2005. As a user surface KDE 3.4.1 and gnomes 2.8 can be chosen. By the cloop datacompression over 9 gigabytes of software on a single layer DVD and to 2 GByte on a CD-ROM are possible. Knoppixbased distributions are Freeduc, Kanotix, Quantian, Paipix, SymphonyOS und DSL (Damn Small Linux). Knoppix 5.1.0was released on 2006-12-30.Ubuntu Linux is a well-known Debian distribution, on 20th October 2004 was the first release of Ubuntu 4.10. MoreaboutUbuntu Linux.BeatriX is based on Ubuntu, and therefore also supports Debian and Ubuntu packages. This distribution by StevenWatsky has been discontinued in 2005. More about BeatriX. Debian 3.0, startup screen Debian 3.0, selection of Debian 3.0, notice to the Debian 3.0, install of the of the installation DVD the used language project base system Debian 3.0, notice about Debian 3.0, setup of the Debian 3.0, Debian Task Debian 4.0, startup screen the install process operating system with Installer, selection of of the installation DVD tasksel profiles Debian 4.0, selection of Debian 4.0, partition tool Debian 4.0, install of the Debian 4.0, selection of the used language for the hard disk base system profiles Debian 4.0, install of the Debian 4.0, startup screen Debian 4.0, login screen Debian 4.0, gnome additional software from the hard disk desktop with file managr and terminal
  10. 10. Debian 4.0, query for the Debian 4.0, software Debian 4.0, playing of Debian 4.0, internetroot password to run the management with DivX Video browser of the gnome update manager Synaptic Package Manager desktop Debian 4.0, system Debian 5.03, Installer boot Debian 5.03, Language Debian 5.03, Select the monitor with CPU and menu selection keyboard layout memory usageDebian 5.03, Installation is Debian 5.03, Hostname for Debian 5.03, Partition Debian 5.03, Selected for prepared the system disks partitioningDebian 5.03, Overview of Debian 5.03, Install the Debian 5.03, Set up root Debian 5.03, Configure currently configured base system password the package manager partitions Debian 5.03, Network Debian 5.03, Configuring Debian 5.03, Predefined Debian 5.03, Software is mirror popularity contest collections of software retrieved Debian 5.03, Install the Debian 5.03, Finish the Debian 5.03, Login screen Debian 5.03, Gnome GRUB boot loader installation Desktop
  11. 11. Debian 5.03, Internet Ubuntu 6.10, Live system BeatriX, Gnome desktop browser and shell running from DVD media, GNOME 2.16Versions Date Version 1993 Aug. Debian GNU/Linux 0.1 1994 Jan. Debian GNU/Linux 0.91 Debian GNU/Linux 1.1 (buzz), Kernel 2.0.0, 474 software packages, 1996 June .ELF support, dpkg Debian GNU/Linux 1.2 (rex), Kernel 2.0.27, 120 developers, 848 1996 Dec. software packages Debian GNU/Linux 1.3 (bo), kernel 2.0.29, 200 developers, 974 1997 June software packages Debian GNU/Linux 2.0 (hamm), kernel 2.0.34, over 400 developers, 1998 July more than 1,500 software packages included Debian GNU/Linux 2.1 (slink), kernel 2.0.36, now for Sparc and 1999 March Alpha platform available too, more than 2,250 software packages Debian GNU/Linux 2.2 (potato), kernel 2.2.19, FHS compatible, over 2000 Aug. 450 developers, more than 3,900 software packages, 55 million SLOC Debian GNU/Linux 3.0 (woody), kernel 2.2.20, LSB compatible, gcc 2002 July 2.95.4, now with crypto software, over 900 developers, more than 8,900 software packages 2005 June Debian GNU/Linux 3.1 (sarge) 2007 April Debian 4.0 2009 Feb. Debian GNU/Linux 5.0Lindows CompanyMichael Robertson had announced the beginning of an ambitious project inAugust 2001. He was a CEO at MP3.com before. The operating systemLindowsOS shall unite many advantages of Linux and Windows after thefirst completion. Programs of both Windows and Linux can be installed andexecuted easily. LindowsOS is a derivative of the Xandros distribution whichbased on Debian GNU/Linux, makes the execution of Windows programs bythe smooth integration of the Wine project easily possible. One of broaderadvantages is the installation simply held, there are only less user detailsneeded to install LindowsOS. With an agreement with WAL-MART Lindowshas found a sales partner who offers a cheap PC system with preinstalledLindowsOSLindows merged the stability of a Linux derivative with the usability and characteristics which one would rather assignto a Windows operating system. LindowsOS goes one step further. With the procedure named Click-N-Run programsor upgrades can be installed with one single mouse click. The costs for the software subscription amount are EUR 99for 12 months. Registered users could choose at the beginning from more than 1,000 applications, in meanwhile this
  12. 12. number has increased to over 2,400 programs in the year 2006. No licence is needed for the private use on severalPCs.- zero Mayntenance- containing plug-and-play abilities for USB 1.0, USB 2.0 devices- improved driver software support particularly for multimedia devices- blocks Advertisements and Spam from the InternetIn the legal controversy about the word similarity of the name Lindows to Microsoft Windows the opponents agreedabout therenaming of Lindows in Linspire. The software product, logos as well as the website from Lindows wasswitched over to the changed naming in the period from April to the end of October 2004. In response Microsoftassured the payment of 20 million dollars and a time limited use of Windows Media components the distributionLinspire. For this Linspire put down the counter legal suit against the word mark for Windows.To the innovations of Linspire 5.0 of 2005/16/03 belongs the Kernel 2.6.10, KDE 3.3, X-Server 6.8.2, the Reiser4 filesystem and improved support for Notebooks with Intel Centrino and AMD PowerNow technology. The new userinterface and the extended CNR technology have flowed into this version with more than 1,200 improvementsaltogether.Linspire announced the publication of a Linspire based pure open source distribution named Freespire on2006/24/04. The project is supported by the Community. No version was published for download till now. LindowsOS Preview - LindowsOS Preview - LindowsOS Preview - 4.5 - Lindows installation Desktop Browser, Lotus Notes and desktop menu and screen Microsoft Word 2000 Microsoft Office 2000 program 4.5 - selection of the 4.5 - view of the Desktop 4.5 - program selection 4.5 - Overview about destination partition system settings 4.5 - file manager 4.5 - Playing a video file 4.5 - Preview for graphic 4.5 - Playing an audio file of a FAT32 partition files in the OGG format with XMMS 4.5 - Quit of Lindows 4.5 - Mozilla internet 4.5 - Mozilla internet 4.5 - Internet connection (switch off, warm start, browser - version browser with online for downloads of Click-N- cold start) website Run software
  13. 13. 4.5 - Click-N-Run software 4.5 - Click-N-Run Software 5.0 - Linspire, boot menu 5.0 - boot screen for the selection of the for the program selection category 5.0 - Loading up screen 5.0 - view of the KDE 5.0 - CNR service for 5.0 - Internet browser 1 for desktop desktop programs 5.0 - Internet browser 2 5.0 - Konqueror file 5.0 - Linspire control 5.0 - options for shut manager and shell center down 5.0 - Menu for program selectionVersions Date Version 2002 Sept. LindowsOS 2.0 2002 Nov. LindowsOS 3.0 2003 June LindowsOS 4.0 2003 Dec. LindowsOS 4.5 2005 March Linspire 5.0 (in english) 2005 June Linspire 5.0 (in german) 2006 Aug. Freespire 1.0Red Flag LinuxRed Flag Software Co., Ltd. was founded of the software research institute"Chinese Academy of Sciences" and NewMargin venture capital in June2000. Red Flag Software maintains business relations with IBM, Intel, HP,Oracle and other companys. Red Flag aimed at the implementation ofbuildings for training, technological support and point of sales in China andlater worldwide. In several server variants they exists currently the
  14. 14. Function Server, Database Server, Cluster Server and Webmail Server in version 3.0.Red Flag came in an alliance with Miracle and Oracle for the Asian Linux at the beginning of January 2004. This shallguarantee an free alternative operating systems for servers and desktops. The server software shall be certified in theOracle China Development centre. South Korea, Japan and China announced already in September 2003 to create analternative for Windows. With the certification of users both the involved companies and the customers can profit. Red Flag 4 Boot Screen of Red Flag 4 Licence Red Flag 4 Installation Red Flag 4 GRUB Boot CD-ROM Agreement process Loader Red Flag 4 graphical boot Red Flag 4 graphical Login Red Flag 4 Default Red Flag 4 Internet process Desktop KDE Browser and Start Menu Red Flag 5 Boot Screen of Red Flag 5 Welcome Red Flag 5 Asianux Logo Red Flag 5 Languages CD-ROM Screen (Chinese, English, Japanese, Korean) Red Flag 5 automatic Red Flag 5 Summary of Red Flag 5 Network Red Flag 5 Select software Partitioning Partitioning Configuration profile Red Flag 5 Installation Red Flag 5 Boot Loader Red Flag 5 graphical Login Red Flag 5 Default Desktop process KDE
  15. 15. Red Flag 5 System Red Flag 5 Mozilla Firefox Red Flag 5 Start Menu and Red Flag 5 Taskmanager Informations and Console Internet Browser Control Panel and Desktop MenuVersions Date Version 1999 Oct. Redflag Linux Server 1.0 launched Redflag Linux Server 2.0 in many different 2000 Oct. languages available 1999 Sept. Redflag Linux Desktop 1.0 2000 Oct. Redflag Linux Desktop 2.0 2001 April Redflag Linux Desktop 2.4 2002 April Redflag Linux Desktop 3.0 2002 Aug. Redflag Linux Desktop 3.2 2003 July Redflag Linux Desktop 4.0 2004 Nov.,Redflag Linux Desktop 4.1 2005 Nov Redflag Linux Desktop 5.0 2007 Sept. Redflag Linux Desktop 6.0 2008 Jan. Redflag Linux Desktop 6.0 SP1 2009 Feb. Redflag Linux Desktop 6.0 SP2 2010 March Redflag Linux Desktop 6.3SuSESuSE GmbH (society for software and system development) is a daughterenterprise of SuSE Linux AG. SuSE was founded on 2-9-1992 of BurchardSteinbild, Hubert Mantel, Thomas Fehr and Roland Dyroff and offers a Linuxdistribution of its own in the European area. Additional Programs and IT serviceslike support and trainings are offered. SuSE cooperates closely with other ITcompanies, SuSE Linux was certified for the Oracle 9 I database already in2001. A green chameleon serves as symbol figure. The SuSE Linux distributiondefines itself from the current Linux kernel, the X Window system and the KDEinterface as standard GUI. Softwarecan be installed over precompiledpackages in the .RPM format. Driversoftware and applications arepermanently renewed and kept on thenewest stand.SuSE Linux has taken a high value in Germany/Europe. The firstdistribution was published in 1996 and the latest published versions can beused in the private area, or commercial area for servers. Support andservices are offered for companies and private users. There are additionalspecial software products like firewall and mail servers von SuSE.Other services- SuSE Linux Business Solutions- SuSE Linux Enterprise Platform- SuSE Linux eMayl Server II- SuSE Linux Groupware Server with Lotus Domino- SuSE Linux Enterprise Server for S/390This list does not lay any claim to completeness
  16. 16. Field of ApplicationServer operating system, Internet server, firewall, web server, mail server, database server, from embedded systemsup to large computers and cluster systems usable USB, PCMCIA, IEEE 1394, AGP and DVD are better supported now;SCSI was programmed partly newStructure informationMonolithic kernel, capable for modulesHardware is used through symbolic interfacesRead/Write access: FAT, FAT32, UFS, (FreeBSD, only read), HPFS, NTFS read onlySystem EnvironmentIntel (x86), PowerPC, Alpha, Motorola 68 K, SPARC, UltraSparc, ARM, MIPS, SuperH (RISC CPU of Hitachi)Till now 32-bit on Intel, 64-bit on UltraSparc and Alpha systems as well as Intel 64-bit architectur- Time sharing system- RAM support: up to 64 gbyte- Partition size: up to 2 tbyte- File size is theoretically 16 tbyte- Graphical interfaces like KDE2 and Gnome- Real multi-user abilityStrengths- faultless run time behavior- Support for LDAP authentification and NDS- High stability and performance in networks- network features, fulfilled as first operating system completely the valid standards IPv4/IPv6- Ported databases of Oracle, Informix, Sybase, IBM, Inprise, SAP- High security by file system and access restrictions- Large number of Users, extensive documentation- Very high customization ability and hardware optimizationVersion 7.1Split up into a client and server installation by own Personal and Professional Edition. The Personal Edition is aimed tobeginners and home users, the Professional Edition with 2,000 optional programs and server applications rather foradvanced and professional users. The SuSE operating system is available besides x86 CPUs also for PowerPC andAlpha. SuSE Linux can be installed by 6 CDs or 1 DVD, about 1,800 programs are contained for an wide field ofapplication. The complete full installation takes about 6.5 gbyte harddisk storage space.Novell announced the take-over of the company SuSE Linux on 4-11-2003.Suse Linux 10.1 exclusively uses open source software and is available for systems with x86, x64 and PowerPCprocessors. The integration of the virtualization solution Xen 3.0.2 and the safety enhancement AppArmor wasimproved. Assistants watch the behaviour of an application and can create an AppArmor profile from this. With Xgl 3Deffects come onto the desktop. This release is used for Suse Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) and Suse Linux EnterpriseDesktop (SLED) as a code base.Screenshots SuSE 7.0 - boot screen for SuSE 7.0 - at every booting SuSE 7.0 - SuSE Linux 7.0 SuSE 7.0 - SuSE Linux 7.0 the Installation of CD- procedure the system with KDE Surface with opened menu ROM processes the configuration scripts and starts the Shell
  17. 17. SuSE 7.0 - SuSE Linux 7.0 SuSE 7.0 - SuSE Linux 7.0 SuSE 7.0 - SuSE Linux 7.0 SuSE 7.0 - shows runningwith KDE controll centre provides now different with normal file manager system processes in the YAST2 assistants for the and opened Root directory process manager selection to avoid manuall configurationsSuSE 7.1 - KDE2 welcome SuSE 7.1 - KDE2 program SuSE 7.1 - KDE2 Konqueror SuSE 7.1 - KDE2 controlmessage, with graphical menu supports now the preview centre, system improvements of graphics in directories information too SuSE 9 - boot screen 9 - boot menu 9 - Installation progress 9 - Starting screen of the KDE surface 9 - KDE desktop with 9 - Program menu and 9 - KDE control centre 9 - OpenOffice program console window Konqueror file browser SuSE Linux 10.0 - boot SuSE Linux 10.0 - SuSE Linux 10.0 - licence SuSE Linux 10.0 - Desktop process Installation assistant agreement selection (KDE, Gnome, other)SuSE Linux 10.0 - settings SuSE Linux 10.0 - file copy SuSE Linux 10.0 - SuSE Linux 10.0 - Yast process configuration online update
  18. 18. SuSE Linux 10.0 - SuSE Linux 10.0 - SuSE Linux 10.0 - Login SuSE Linux 10.0 - KDE selection of the patches installation screen desktop SuSE Linux 10.0 - KDE SuSE Linux 10.0 - welcome SuSE Linux 10.0 - SuSE Linux 10.0 - control centre and shell message Konqueror and KDE menu OpenOffice and Firefox browser SuSE LED 10.1, Boot menu SuSE LED 10.1, Choice of SuSE LED 10.1, Licence SuSE LED 10.1, Confirming before installation the language agreement installation SuSE LED 10.1, Files are SuSE LED 10.1, SuSE LED 10.1, Standard SuSE LED 10.1, Program copied Configuration Customer desktop menu and Shell Center SuSE LED 10.1, Firefox SuSE LED 10.1, Program SuSE LED 10.1, System SuSE LED 10.1, Running Internet Browser Overview Configuration processesVersions Date Version --- SuSE Linux 1.0 --- SuSE Linux 2.0 --- SuSE Linux 3.0 1996 May SuSE Linux 4.2, 1996 Sept. SuSE Linux 4.3, 1996 Nov. SuSE Linux 4.4, 1997 July SuSE Linux 5.0,
  19. 19. 1997 Dec. SuSE Linux 5.1, 1998 March SuSE Linux 5.2, 1998 Sept. SuSE Linux 5.3 Kernel 2.0.35, 1999 Feb. SuSE Linux 6.0, 1999 Sept. SuSE Linux 6.1, 1999 Aug. SuSE Linux 6.2 Kernel 2.2.10, SuSE Linux 6.3 improved and simplified Installation with Yast2, 1999 Nov. optimized on hardware, SuSE Linux 6.4 ReiserFS, improved Plug_n_Play 64-bit operating 2000 Mrz. system 2000 Aug. SuSE Linux 7.0 Kernel 2.4 PRE YAST 2 XFree86 4.0, 2001 Feb. SuSE Linux 7.1 KDE2 and Kernel 2.4.1 integrated 2001 May SuSE Linux 7.2, 2001 Oct. SuSE Linux 7.3 Kernel 2.4.10 KDE 2.2.1, 2002 July SuSE Linux 8.0, SuSE Linux 8.1 Kernel 2.4.19 gcc 3.2 XFree86 4.2 Gnome 2.0 KDE 2002 Oct. 3.0.3 ACPI complete supported 2003 April SuSE Linux 8.2 2003 Oct. SuSE Linux 9.0 2004 Oct. SuSE Linux 9.2 SuSE Linux 9.3, with Software Xen for several parallel running operating systems on a PC, KDE 3.4, Gnome 2.10, OpenOffice 2.0 2005 April Beta, Mono 1.1.4, Eclipse 3.0.1, in versions for 32-bit and 64-bit processors 2006 May Suse Linux 10.1 2006 Dez. openSUSE 10.2 2007 Okt. openSUSE 10.3Gentoo LinuxGentoo was founded by Daniel Robbins in the year 2001. The first version 1.0 hasbeen published in March 2002. Gentoo offers a special and powerful installationprogram named Portage. This installs the programs or the source code after thepackage selection, optionally from the Internet, a high-speed Internet connection isrecommendable. Advantages are the use of always most current software as well asthe special customization and optimization on the existing hardware and the field ofapplication. Portage takes care of it automatically. The software must be compiled atevery installation, there are no precompiled software packages as in the case ofother distributions. A speed advantage at modern processors of 20% compared withsoftware compiled normally is possible. Gentoo Linux is usably on the x86, PowerPC,UltraSparc and alpha architecture. Gentoo Linux 1.4 (08-05-2003) is based on thenew gcc 3.2 and current Linux Kernel 2.4.19, over 4,000 software packages can bechosen.D. Robbins decided to take distance in April 2004 of his roll as boss developer at Gentoo. On 23th May 2005 D.Robbins changed to Microsoft, before he transferred all rights and intellectual property at the Gentoo project to thecharitable Gentoo-Foundation. Gentoo 2006 Boot Screen Gentoo 2006 Default Gentoo 2006 Mozilla Gentoo 2011 boot screen of CD-ROM Desktop GNOME Firefox Internet Browser of DVD
  20. 20. Gentoo 2011 desktop Gentoo 2011 file manager Gentoo 2011 Konqueror and Terminal internet browserVersions Date Version 2005 March Gentoo 2005.0, software and security updates Gentoo Linux 2006.0, KDE 3.4.3, gnome 2.12.2, XFCE 4.2.2, GCC 2006 Feb. 3.4.4 and Kernel 2.6.15 Gentoo Linux 2006.1, GCC 4.1, glibc 2.4, supports officially dual 2006 Aug. core G5 processors of the PPC platform 2007 May Gentoo 2007.0 2008 July Gentoo Linux 2008.0 2009 Oct. Gentoo Linux 10.0 2011 March Gentoo Linux 11.0Mandriva (Mandrake Linux)MandrakeSoft was founded in France in 1998. With the distributionMandrake Linux based on Linux and configuration tools of its own as well asspecified KDE surface the target was put to be installable as simply aspossible operably and without problems. RPM is used as a packet format forsoftware, one recognizes the precompiled software by the code contained inthe package name, "mdk", for Mandrake Linux. It is available as a desktopand server version.Test: July 2003The installation of Mandrake proceeds uncomplicatedly. By dialogprocedures the system is established, the kind of installation can with orwithout surfaces, development, console tools as well as server applicationsbe selected comfortably. As a typical workstation with Open Office theinstallation uses approx. 1.1 GByte storage space, as complete serverinstallation 490 MByte and as a development environment only 370 MByte. If one selects all components, the setupinstalls 1.7 GByte of the 3 CD-ROMs. As a booting manager lilo is installed, after the graphical booting procedure thefirst-time assistent enabling the configuration of the GUI and the e-mail client.Update March 2004, Mandrakelinux 10.0 Community Release: The ISO images of the three CDs be able todownload or to send by an ISO distributor on CD-ROM at mail. ontained are the Kernel 2.6.3, XFree86 4.3, GCC 3.3.2and glibc 2.3.3. You can choice between the KDE 3.2, gnomes 2.4.2 and IceWM 1.2.13 desktop. Standard applicationsare the web suite Mozilla 1.6 and Open Office 1.1. Details of the control centre became improved, software tools forthe DVD burning and for the network set up were revised.From the fusion of Mandrakesoft and Conectiva was Mandriva formed. Mandrakesoft published the take-over of theLinux enterprise Conectiva leading in Brazil and Latin America on 24-2-2005. This strengthens the know how ofMandrakesoft in the area of research and development. The strengths of Conectiva were broad Linux softwaresolutions for big firms, enterprises and authorities in whole Latin America. Mandrakesoft purchases all shares ofConectiva for about 1.8 million euros in shares.Mandriva published his new Linux distribution Mandriva limited edition 2005 on 04-13-05. Processors with dualcore are supported now and besides 32 bits also 64 bit processors. The contained applications for the web becameimproved as others like GCC 3.4.3, OpenOffice.org 1.1.4 and MySQL 4.1.11 are part of the installation package withbetter hardware suport too. The Linux Kernel, KDE 3.3.2 and gnomes 2.8.3 are up to date.The agreement between Mandriva and Lycoris to take on values in the form of patents and enterprise parts was
  21. 21. published on06-15-2005. The founder of Lycoris, Joseph Cheek, changes to Mandriva. A new and better Linuxproduct shall arise for the desktop and the development of desktop technologies be accelerated by the acquisition.Lycoris has developed special customizations of his Lycoris desktop/LX distribution for Tablet and Pocket PCs. Bothdistributions shall unify into a common product.Mandriva Linux 2007 is available in 3 versions. The Discovery Pack is designed for beginners, Powerpack is aimed toto the advanced user and Powerpack+ for SOHO user. The GNOME 2.16 or KDE 3.5.4 desktop can be used on AIGLXand Xgl with 3D functions. A complete DVD video player is available with LinDVD, with Cedega of TransGaming PCWindows games are playable. Mandrake Linux 9.1, Mandrake Linux 9.1, KDE Mandrake Linux 9.1, Mandrake Linux 9.1, bash Konqueror browser with 3.1 desktop and KDE menu Support and online help Shell Mandrake favourites Mandrake Linux 10, Mandrake Linux 10, Mandrake Linux 10, Mandrake Linux 10, Welcome message Mandrake Desktop with Configuration of Mandrake category: system program selection sorted by category Mandrake Linux 10, Mandrake Linux 10, Mandrake Linux 10, Mandrake Linux 10, category: services category: hardware console preview of video- and audio files Mandriva 2006 - boot Mandriva 2006 - Licence Mandriva 2006 - Mandriva 2006 - selection menu agreement Installation media of software Mandriva 2006 - progress Mandriva 2006 - Internet Mandriva 2006 - Mandriva Mandriva 2006 - KDE 3.4 for file copy update of software website interface and menu
  22. 22. Mandriva 2006 - Shell with Mandriva 2006 - control Mandriva 2008 Boot Mandriva 2008 Choice of Root- directory and centre Screen of CD-ROM Language version Mandriva 2008 Select Mandriva 2008 Installation Mandriva 2008 Boot Mandriva 2008 graphical software profile process Loader Login Mandriva 2008 Default Desktop KDEVersions Date Version 1998 July Mandrake Linux 5.1 (venice) kernel 2.0.35 1998 Dec. Mandrake Linux 5.2 (leeloo) kernel 2.0.36 1999 Feb. Mandrake Linux 5.3 (festen) kernel 2.0.36 1999 May Mandrake Linux 6.0 (venus) kernel 2.2.9 1999 Sep. Mandrake Linux 6.1 (helios) kernel 2.2.13 2000 Jan. Mandrake Linux 7.0 (air) kernel 2.2.14 2000 June Mandrake Linux 7.1 (helium) kernel 2.2.15 2000 Oct. Mandrake Linux 7.2 (ulysses) kernel 2.2.17 Mandrake Linux 8.0 (traktopel) kernel 2.4.3, ext3, JFS, ReiserFS, 2001 April XFS 2001 Sept. Mandrake Linux 8.1 (vitamin) kernel 2.4.8 2002 March Mandrake Linux 8.2 (bluebird) kernel 2.4.18 2002 Sept. Mandrake Linux 9.0 (dolphin) kernel 2.4.19, gcc 3.2, XFree86 4.2.1 2003 March Mandrake Linux 9.1 (bamboo) kernel 2.4.21 2004 March Mandrake Linux 10.0 kernel 2.6.3 2005 Sept. Mandrake Linux 10.1 2005 April Mandriva Limited Edition 2005 2005 Oct. Mandriva Linux 2006 2006 Oct. Mandriva Linux 2007 2007 Sept. Mandriva Linux 2008 2008 Sept. Mandriva Linux 2008 SpringRed Hat
  23. 23. The company Red Hat with company headquarters in the USA NorthCarolina was founded 1994 by Bob Young and Marc Ewing. From thebeginning the open source operating system has played a high role for theenterprise concept. The field of application reached from miniature devicesover work stations up to server systems on Intel x86, Dec alpha and SunSPARC systems. One strengthens of Red Hat Linux is the application inInterNet and Intranet. Extensive support, training and training offers aswell as the broad support of IT companies carry to the growth of Red Hatconstantly. Red Hat reached with his Linux distribution about 15 % by thegross income, a majority income is realized by competent services like theRedhat network - RHN. With the software package format RPM, Red Hat hasset a standard which many distributions followed.1998: Partnerships with Intel and Netscape1999: Partnerships with SAP, Oracle, IBM, Compaq, Dell and NovellThe Fedora project is one of Red Hat approved Consumer version of the Linux distribution Red Hat Linux. This opensource project is sponsored by Red Hat, but lies independently in administration of the Linux Community. In May 2004the Fedora core 2 for the x86-64 and i386 architecture was published, used the Linux Kernel 2.6, the new X-server ofX.org and the extended access protection SELinux in the Kernel.With the new Fedora Linux core 4 the contained software was brought up to date. GCC 4.0, gnomes 2.10, KDE 3.4,OpenOffice 2.0 beta, the development environment Eclipse 3.1 and the universal document viewer Evince 0.2.1belongs to this software now. Beside the x86 32-Bit and x86 64-Bit architecture is now Fedora also installable onpower PC systems. The global file system (GFS) in version 6.1 is used for Cluster systems, Xen 2 creates a virtualenvironment for guest systems. For the minimum installation are 620 MByte up to 7 GByte (everything to install) freestorage space needed. Fedora Linux Core 5 contains new graphic tools for the software management, the GNOME2.14 and KDE 3.5 desktop and the standard Web browser Firefox 1.5. The Linux Kernel is updated on version 2.6.16,Apache Server 2.2, X.org X11R7.0, GCC 4.1 and SELinux were revised.The printing system was completely revised in Fedora Linux Core 6 and based on CUPS 1.2. Fedora Core 6 buildsthe basis for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 (RHEL). This release is without any commercial software like Java, NTFSsupport, flash, MP3 codec and DVD software player for encoded DVDs. Graphic drivers of ATI and Nvidia are alsomissing. The software was updated, for the installation the X server X.org 7.1, GNOME 2.16, KDE 3.5.4, Firefox1.5.0.6, Thunderbird, OpenOffice.org 2.0.4, Apache web server 2.2.3, MySQL 5.0.22, PHP 5.1.6 and the free.Net implementation Mono can be selected.In February 2006 the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) version 4 operating system was certified for safety according tothe Common-Criteria EAL4+.CentOS, the Community ENTerprise Operating System, is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) operatingsystem and is a liberal and free alternative to RHEL. Contained are the gnome and KDE desktop.Screenshots Red Hat 9 Boot Screen Red Hat 9 Welcome Red Hat 9 Select Red Hat 9 Confirm of CD-ROM Screen software profile software profile Red Hat 9 Installation Red Hat 9 GRUB Boot Red Hat 9 basic Red Hat 9 graphical process Loader configuration Login
  24. 24. Red Hat 9 Default Red Hat 9 Internet Red Hat 9 Console with Fedora Core 5 Boot Desktop GNOME Browser and Desktop Root Directory Screen of CD-ROM Menu Fedora Core 5 Fedora Core 5 Select Fedora Core 5 Fedora Core 5 basic Welcome Screen software profile Installation process configuration Fedora Core 5 Firewall Fedora Core 5 SELinux Fedora Core 5 Fedora Core 5 Default Settings Settings graphical Login Desktop GNOMEVersions Date Version 1995 Red Hat Linux 1.0 (mothers day), kernel ? 1995 Red Hat Linux 2.0 (?), kernel ? 1996 May Red Hat Linux 3.0.3 (picasso), kernel 1.2 1996 Oct. Red Hat Linux 4.0 (colgate), kernel ? 1997 April Red Hat Linux 4.2 (biltmore), kernel 2.0.30 1997 Nov. Red Hat Linux 5.0 (hurricane), kernel 2.0.32 1998 May Red Hat Linux 5.1 (manhattan), kernel 2.0.34 1998 Oct. Red Hat Linux 5.2 (apollo), kernel 2.0.36 1999 April Red Hat Linux 6.0 (hedwig), kernel 2.2.5 1999 Sep. Red Hat Linux 6.1 (cartman), kernel 2.2.12 2000 March Red Hat Linux 6.2 (zoot), kernel 2.2.14 2000 Aug. Red Hat Linux 7.0 (guiness), kernel 2.2.16 2001 April Red Hat Linux 7.1 (seawolf), kernel 2.4.2 2001 Oct. Red Hat Linux 7.2 (enigma), kernel 2.4.7 2002 May Red Hat Linux 7.3 (vallhalla), kernel 2.4.18, ext3 2002 Sept. Red Hat Linux 8.0 (psyche), gcc 3.2, kernel 2.4.18 2003 April Red Hat Linux 9.0 (shrike), gcc 3.2.1, kernel 2.4.20 2003 Nov. Fedora Linux Core 1 2004 May Fedora Linux Core 2 2004 Nov. Fedora Linux Core 3 2005 June Fedora Linux Core 4, kernel 2.6.9 2006 March Fedora Linux Core 5 2006 Oct. Fedora Linux Core 6 2007 May Fedora Linux Core 7 2007 Nov. Fedora Linux Core 8 2008 May Fedora Linux Core 9
  25. 25. 2005 Jan. CentOS 3.4 2006 March CentOS 4.0 2006 March CentOS 4.3 2007 Dec. CentOS 4.6 2008 Sept. CentOS 4.7, based on open source code of RHEL 4.7 2007 Dec. CentOS 5.1 2008 June CentOS 5.2, based on open source code of RHEL 5.2SlackwareOn 17 July 1993 Patrick Volkerding announced the completion of Slackwareversion 1.0 in the newsgroup comp.os.linux, interested could download byftp the installation packages. From the beginning the public Linux standardwas considered. As package format for programs TGZ of archives are used,the preferential surface is KDE. It exist only a text-based Setup. Slackwarewas ported for Sparc, alpha and x86 of systems. Slackware addresses itselfto the experienced user and developers.Slackware version 12.0 contains the Linux kernel and as graphicinterface KDE 3.5.7. The slighter window manager Xfce 4.4.1 canalternatively be used. The operating system offers complete support forencrypted network connections with OpenSSL, OpenSSH, OpenVPN andGnuPG. The hardware support is enlarged by PCMCIA, CardBus, USB, IEE1394 (FireWire) and ACPI.The 1 CD-ROM distribution Zenwalk Linux profits from the simplicity and stability of the Slackware distribution. As aslim desktop alternative it puts the main emphasis on it most current stable software releases an application per fieldof application and installation profiles for use as a development platform, desktop or multimedia. The simple networkadministration tool netpkg is contained.12.2005 Zenwalk Linux Zenwalk Linux 3.011.2006 Zenwalk Linux 4.001.2007 Zenwalk Linux 4.2Screenshots Slackware 12, Boot Slackware 12, Login Slackware 12, partition Slackware 12, package screen with cfdisk manager Slackware 12, Lilo Slackware 12, KDE Slackware 12, Shell Slackware 12, KDE Boot menu Login screen and Internet browser Control Center and file managerVersions
  26. 26. Date Version 1993 July Slackware 1.0 1994 July Slackware 2.0 1994 Oct. Slackware 2.1 1995 March Slackware 2.2 1995 May Slackware 2.3 1995 Aug. Slackware 3.0 1996 July Slackware 3.1 1997 April Slackware 3.2 1997 July Slackware 3.3, Kernel 2.0.30 1997 Oct. Slackware 3.4, Kernel 2.0.33 1998 Oct. Slackware 3.6, Kernel 2.0.35 1999 May Slackware 3.9, Kernel 2.0.37pre10 1999 May Slackware 4.0, Kernel 2.2.7 1999 Oct. Slackware 7.0, Kernel 2.2.13 2000 June Slackware 7.1, Kernel 2.2.16 2001 June Slackware 8.0, Kernel 2.2.19 2002 June Slackware 8.1, Kernel 2.4.18 2002 Aug. Slackware 9.0beta, Kernel 2.4.19 based on gcc 3.2 2004 June Slackware 10, Kernel 2.4.26 gnome 2.6.1 kde 3.2.3 X11R6.7 2005 Feb. Slackware 10.1 2006 Oct. Slackware 11 2007 July Slackware 12 2008 May Slackware 12.1 2008 Dec. Slackware 12.2 2009 Aug. Slackware 13.0 2010 May Slackware 13.1 2011 April Slackware 13.37Source: http://www.operating-system.org/betriebssystem/_english/bs-linux.htm