Steve Vitto Breaking Down the Walls in Ocean County


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A presentation for the Oceana Human Resources Council on Strategies for Defiant Students and Bringing out the Best in Challenging Home School Partnerships
in May, 2011 by Steven Vitto

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  • Steve Vitto Breaking Down the Walls in Ocean County

    1. 1. BREAKING DOWN THE WALLS Strategies for Defiant Students Presented by: Steven Vitto, M.A., CCII., CTCI., Behavior Specialist, Muskegon Area ISD Oceana County Human Resource Council May 20th, 2011 and bringing out the best in Challenging Home School Partnerships
    2. 2. The Reality <ul><li>We are being asked to do more with less and achieve better results!!! </li></ul>
    3. 3. What to Expect… <ul><li>Higher Class Sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Reductions in Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Reductions in School Social Workers and Psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in Teacher Aides </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in non-mandatory course offerings- e.g., Art, Band, Vocal Music </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating buildings </li></ul><ul><li>A failure to pass the baton!!!! </li></ul>
    4. 4. To meet the needs of an increasing number of children <ul><li>who are living in poverty </li></ul><ul><li>who are living in single parent families </li></ul><ul><li>who have one or both parents unemployed </li></ul><ul><li>who have increased incidence of social maladjustment, oppositional defiance, and conduct disorders </li></ul><ul><li>who have a greater incidence of attachment related disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Who have a greater incidence of Autism and ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>Who have a higher rate of anxiety and other related disorders </li></ul>
    5. 5. And to think there won’t be repercussions is burying our head in the sand
    6. 6. So what will we need to change to move in a positive direction? <ul><li>Now more than ever, we will have to come together and provide a community of supports </li></ul><ul><li>The option of “wrap around” will become a necessity </li></ul><ul><li>The option of using anything less than evidenced based best practice approaches will become a necessity </li></ul><ul><li>The option of developing positive home-school partnerships will become a necessity </li></ul><ul><li>The option of saying he is your responsibility ,not mine, will no longer be an option! </li></ul>
    7. 7. What are the risks of failing?
    8. 8. If you’ve told a child a thousand times and she/he still doesn’t understand, then it is not the CHILD who is the slow learner! Anonymous
    9. 9. Circa 1996
    10. 10. RTI- Are classroom response cost systems contributing to defiance? <ul><li>Response to Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Are we using evidenced based classroom behavior management systems at the universal level? Are classroom response cost systems evidenced based? Is there a balance, better yet, an overbalance of Positive Incentives and Feedback for Desired Behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>When universal consequences (e.g., Classroom Response Cost System) are not effective, or when they trigger an escalation of behavior, do we differentiate our approach? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we over-relying on classroom response cost systems to manage student behaviors? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Quotable <ul><li>“ Differentiation is not a checklist of strategies, </li></ul><ul><li>but a philosophical approach to teaching all students.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Carol Ann Tomlinson </li></ul>
    13. 13. Common Individual and System Responses to Problem Behavior <ul><li>Clamp down on rule violators </li></ul><ul><li>Extend continuum of aversive consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Improve consistency of use of punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Establish “bottom line” </li></ul><ul><li>In-school suspension </li></ul><ul><li>Zero tolerance policies </li></ul><ul><li>Security guards, student uniforms, metal detectors, surveillance cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension/Expulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusionary options (e.g. Alternative programs) </li></ul>
    14. 14. According to Research, the LEAST EFFECTIVE responses to problem behavior are: <ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment (Gottfredson,1997; Lipsey, 1991; Lipsey & Wilson, 1993; Tolan & Guerra, 1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusion is the most common response for conduct-disordered, juvenile delinquent, and behaviorally disordered youth (Lane & Murakami, 1987) but it is largely ineffective. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Why Then, Do We Educators, Resource Officers, and Counselors Employ These Procedures? <ul><li>When WE experience aversive situations, we select interventions that produce immediate (rather than sustained) relief. We tend to focus on our concerns, not the student’s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove the student. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove ourselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify the physical environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign responsibility for change to student and/or others. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. What results from these responses? <ul><li>Punishing problem behaviors without a school-wide system of support is associated with increased: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vandalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>truancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tardiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dropping out (Mayer, 1995; Mayer & Sulzer-Azaroff, 1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fosters environments of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occasions and reinforces antisocial behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifts ownership away from school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens child-adult relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Social skills training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic and curricular restructuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral interventions (Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsey, 1991, 1992; Lipsey & Wilson, 1993; Tolan & Guerra, 1994) </li></ul></ul>According to Research, the MOST EFFECTIVE responses to problem behavior are:
    18. 18. <ul><li>Power based on love is a thousand times more effective and permanent than the one derived from fear of punishment. </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>The key to controlling someone else is teaching them how to control you!! </li></ul>
    20. 20. DEFIANCE What it looks like…
    21. 21. How do we respond?
    22. 22. PAIR SHARE ACTIVITY #1 <ul><li>Take a few minutes and discuss a child you are working with that displays defiant behavior. What does the behavior look like? What effect does it have on you? </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>An explanation of the diagram can be found on the slides that follow. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Competing Behavior Model alternative, functionally equivalent behavior Long-term desired behavior Setting Events/ Slow Triggers Antecedents/Fast Triggers Desired Behavior Problem Behavior Replacement Behavior Reinforcing Consequence Reinforcing Consequence
    26. 26. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents . Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
    27. 27. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern. Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
    28. 28. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern. Events with a discrete onset and offset, that occur immediately before the challenging behavior (e.g., task demand, teacher direction, social interaction) Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
    29. 29. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern. Events with a discrete onset and offset, that occur immediately before the challenging behavior (e.g., task demand, teacher direction, social interaction). “Make it Happen” Events that may occur before and/or during the targeted response that causes the student to respond to a “typical” situation in an “atypical” way. Specific conditions, events, or activities that make the problem behavior worse? (missed meds, academic failure, conflicts at home, lack of sleep, missed meals, poor interactions with peers/teacher(s), school/classroom behavioral expectations unclear… Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
    30. 30. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. Those events that occur after the behavior (e.g., peer attention, escape task) or as a result of the behavior (e.g., time out, suspension, detention, …) What usually happens after the behavior occurs? (e.g., teacher’s reaction, other students’ reactions, power struggle …) An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern. Events with a discrete onset and offset, that occur immediately before the challenging behavior (e.g., task demand, teacher direction, social interaction) Events that may occur before and/or during the targeted response that causes the student to respond to a “typical” situation in an “atypical” way. Specific conditions, events, or activities that make the problem behavior worse? (missed medication, history of academic failure, conflict at home, missed meals, lack of sleep, history of problems with peers… Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
    31. 31. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. Obtain Attention Escape or Avoid Avoid adult control Obtain Sensory Those events that occur after the behavior (e.g., peer attention, escape task) or as a result of the behavior (e.g., time out, suspension, detention, …) What usually happens after the behavior occurs? (e.g., teacher’s reaction, other students’ reactions, power struggle …) An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern. Events with a discrete onset and offset, that occur immediately before the challenging behavior (e.g., task demand, teacher direction, social interaction) Events that may occur before and/or during the targeted response that causes the student to respond to a “typical” situation in an “atypical” way. Specific conditions, events, or activities that make the problem behavior worse? (missed medication, history of academic failure, conflict at home, missed meals, lack of sleep, history of problems with peers… Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
    32. 32. What is the Function or Motivation of Defiant Behavior? <ul><li>Obtain … </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Items/Activities (tangible) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (seeking) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid… </li></ul><ul><li>Peer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (defensive) </li></ul>
    33. 33. The Grocery Store OBTAIN ITEM
    34. 34. When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers make multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful What function? Avoid difficult tasks
    35. 35. Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence The football game is coming on in 2 minutes. Your significant other asks you to wash the dishes. You happily oblige. After one minute, you have broken two glasses and one dish. Your significant other pushes you out of the way and says, “ Just let me do them.” You sigh and go watch the game . You know if you pretend you can’t do something she will do it for you The football game is coming on and your spouse asks you to wash dishes You break two dishes and a glass Your spouse takes over and washes the dishes herself What function? Avoid activity
    36. 36. Beginning the Pathways Defining the behavior <ul><li>Define the behaviors of concern </li></ul><ul><li>Refusing to follow directions </li></ul><ul><li>What does the behavior look like? </li></ul><ul><li>How often does it occur? </li></ul><ul><li>How long does it last? </li></ul><ul><li>How intensive is it (swearing versus saying “ no way”? </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritizing and clustering behaviors </li></ul>
    37. 37. Some times its hard to be objective
    38. 38. Some times things seem worse than they are…
    39. 39. Identifying and Defining the Problem behavior <ul><li>Why frequency may be skewed. </li></ul><ul><li>Why other kids may be doing the same thing and it may not be as problematic. </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean to be out of control? </li></ul><ul><li>Can someone be out of control and still have boundaries- i.e., absence of swearing, threatening ? </li></ul>
    40. 40. What does the behavior look like? <ul><li>May be overt and disrespectful </li></ul><ul><li>May be silly and uncaring </li></ul><ul><li>May be partial refusal or complete shutdown </li></ul><ul><li>May be threatening and intimidating </li></ul><ul><li>May be passive aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>May occur with staff or adults </li></ul><ul><li>May translate to bullying peers </li></ul>Defiant
    41. 41. What are the triggers or antecedents of your child’s behavior? <ul><li>Given a group or individual direction </li></ul><ul><li>Given a demand to perform a task or routine </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation to follow a rule or expectation </li></ul><ul><li>(keep hands to self, wait your turn, sit quietly) </li></ul><ul><li>The removal or reduction of direct adult supervision </li></ul><ul><li>(recess, cafeteria, alone time) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited access to a preferred item or activity </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation to terminate a desired activity </li></ul><ul><li>Being told “no” or “not now” </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior targets peers and/or adults </li></ul>
    42. 42. Being Accurate About Triggers sample responses for aggression and defiance <ul><li>I told him he could go outside until his work was finished </li></ul><ul><li>I told him to give me the Poke Man Cards </li></ul><ul><li>I told the class to put their head down </li></ul><ul><li>I told him to be quiet when he was talkng to his friends </li></ul><ul><li>I told him he needed to follow directions </li></ul><ul><li>I told him he couldn’t take the book home </li></ul><ul><li>We told him it was time to put the toy away. </li></ul><ul><li>I told him he couldn’t call his mom right now. </li></ul><ul><li>Did these directions trigger the behavior or was it the staff response to the noncompliance?? </li></ul>
    43. 43. Andrew <ul><li>11 years old </li></ul>Died from traumatic asphyxia and chest compression. Face-down restraint with arms crossed over chest.
    44. 44. Angie <ul><li>7 years old </li></ul>Stopped breathing after being placed in prone restraint position. Death being ruled a homicide  
    45. 45. Chase <ul><li>17 years old </li></ul>Asphyxiation by a prone restraint He was restrained for refusing to stop talking and not following instructions . According to an autopsy he died after suffocating on his own vomit.
    46. 46. Chris <ul><li>13 years old   </li></ul>Asphyxiation by prone restraint He was restrained 4 times … in his last 24 hours
    47. 47. Edith <ul><li>15 years old </li></ul>Restraint Asphyxia – She was looking at a family photograph when a male aide instructed her to hand over the &quot;unauthorized&quot; personal item. The dispute escalated into a face-down floor restraint
    48. 48. Gareth <ul><li>15 years old </li></ul>Died of asphyxiation by a prone restraint Restrained by three staff members on his 4th day at the facility
    49. 49. Jonathan <ul><li>13 years old </li></ul>Restrained in a van while staff were running errands. Though he was clearly having difficulties breathing they continued running their errands… for another 1½ hours .
    50. 50. Mark <ul><li>14 years old </li></ul>Asphyxiation while being forcibly restrained by 3 staff in a prone position
    51. 51. Travis <ul><li>13 years old </li></ul>The autopsy indicated he died because of the face-down on the ground restraint. Restrained 1½ hours.   Denied request for asthma meds.
    52. 52. Robert <ul><li>12 years old </li></ul>Asphyxiation while restrained after a dispute about his… missing teddy bear He was restrained for 10 minutes, face down on the floor. The staffer who restrained the boy left him lying, unresponsive, on the floor
    53. 53. The United States Government Accountability Office- Testimony Before the House of Representatives, 2009 <ul><li>Children with disabilities were more likely to suffer death as a result of seclusion and restraint. </li></ul><ul><li>These children were sometimes restrained and secluded even when they did not appear to be aggressive without parental consent. </li></ul><ul><li>Face down and other restraints that block air to the lungs can be deadly. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and staff in these cases were often NOT trained in the use of these techniques. </li></ul>
    54. 54. The Research <ul><li>Over 85% of restraints, management, seclusion, begin with students refusing to follow a staff direction. </li></ul><ul><li>How staff deal with this noncompliance plays a big part in whether the student’s behavior diffuses or escalates. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no research supporting the use of forced compliance as a behavioral change strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a significant increase in children with ODD, ADHD, ASD, Social Maladjustment, Down Syndrome in our schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff need to be trained in how to deal with oppositional, defiant and aggressive behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Most staff have little training in this area. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Consequences What are the consequences when your child engages in the problem behavior <ul><li>Ignoring </li></ul><ul><li>Reprimands and social disapproval </li></ul><ul><li>Looses privileges or rewards at school or at home </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of credit or bad grades </li></ul><ul><li>Time out </li></ul><ul><li>Forced compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Gets attention from adults and peers </li></ul><ul><li>Gets different reactions from different adults </li></ul><ul><li>Sent to office or suspended </li></ul><ul><li>Phone call home </li></ul><ul><li>Spanked or punished at home </li></ul><ul><li>Gets Status or Attention from other Students </li></ul><ul><li>Gets out of school work or non-preferred tasks or activities </li></ul><ul><li>The caregiver loosed control </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>
    56. 56. Caregiver getting into the power struggle
    57. 57. A Setting Event <ul><li>A pre-existing condition </li></ul><ul><li>The “origin” of the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Effected by history </li></ul><ul><li>Effected by biology </li></ul><ul><li>Something we may or may not be able to change </li></ul><ul><li>Is are attitude or belief system a setting event? </li></ul>
    59. 59. Quotable <ul><li>“ Our greatest natural resource is the minds of our children.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Walt Disney </li></ul>
    60. 60. Quotable <ul><li>True motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Is as mysterious </li></ul><ul><li> as life itself. </li></ul><ul><li> It must begin within… </li></ul><ul><li>~ George Betts </li></ul>
    61. 61. Quotable <ul><li>“ I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Michelangelo </li></ul>THE DANGER IN PREDICITING
    62. 62. Setting Events <ul><li>What are the causes of defiant behavior? </li></ul>
    63. 63. The Origin of Defiance
    64. 64. What is Social Maladjustment <ul><li>Many special education programs receive pressure from various sources to serve students who exhibit only social maladjustment. However, the law specifically excludes &quot;socially maladjusted&quot; students from special education services unless the student can also be shown to be emotionally disturbed. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who are socially maladjusted (or more precisely Oppositional Defiant or Conduct Disordered) typically display a persistent pattern of willful refusal to meet even minimum standards of conduct. Their behavior and values are often in conflict with society’s standards. </li></ul><ul><li>They exhibit a consistent pattern of antisocial behavior without genuine signs of guilt, remorse, or concern for the feelings of others. These students often engage in simulations of these behaviors but typically display them only when there is an immediate consequence for the absence of such displays. </li></ul><ul><li>Their antisocial behavior is most frequently seen as resulting from their tendency to place their own needs above those of all other people and the immediate gratification that such behavior brings them. </li></ul><ul><li>These students are not in chronic distress (one of the criteria for emotional disturbance under the law) although they can exhibit situational anxiety, depression, or distress in response to certain isolated events - particularly facing the consequences of their own actions. </li></ul>
    65. 65. Social Maladjustment <ul><li>These students do not typically respond to the same treatment interventions that benefit emotionally disordered students. </li></ul>
    66. 66. What is Oppositional Defiance Disorder?
    67. 67. Definition of ODD <ul><li>Oppositional Defiant Disorder is the persistent pattern (lasting for at least 6 months) of disobedient, hostile, negativistic, and defiant behavior in a child or teen without serious violation of the basic rights of others ( </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a student displays the same kinds of behavior that DOES violate the basic rights of others it is often labeled conduct disorder. Children with ODD often become adults with conduct disorder if the right steps aren’t taken to control the behavior. (Bailey and Northey and Silverman and Wells 2003) </li></ul></ul>
    68. 69. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SM AND EI <ul><li>For EI diagnosis (even if the child reacts by externalizing - arguing, losing temper, anger, initiating fights, physically cruel, destroying property, etc: ) </li></ul><ul><li>Impairment in affective regulation (anxious/depressed/unstable mood) </li></ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be rejected by others </li></ul><ul><li>Outbursts are reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Often feels regret </li></ul><ul><li>For SM , consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Low fear, low anxiety, low behavior inhibition </li></ul><ul><li>High daring/reward seeking </li></ul><ul><li>Preference for dangerous activities </li></ul><ul><li>Insensitive to the emotional distress of others </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired conscience development </li></ul><ul><li>A primary question to ask is, &quot;Is the externalizing behavior more of a reaction or is it planned?&quot; and &quot;Is the behavior an attempt to control their mood?&quot;  If yes, then the child is probably ED.  </li></ul>
    69. 70. Why Educate Ourselves About ODD? <ul><li>Because each year we can expect to have at least 1 student with ODD, and several more that exhibit oppositional behavior at some time. </li></ul><ul><li>Because our lives will be a lot easier, and our classes will be more productive, if we know how to deal with oppositional behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Because all students have the right to learn in our classes, even those with ODD. </li></ul><ul><li>Because good teachers know that there are no bad students, just bad behaviors. When we appropriately deal with the bad behaviors we get to see how awesome the student can truly be. </li></ul>
    70. 71. Understanding Aggressive Behaviors <ul><li>Reactive Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective or expressive aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of control and emotional flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions are dominant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proactive Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental or operant aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitions are dominant </li></ul></ul>TCI TRAINING [11]
    71. 72. Signs of ODD (Kirby 2002) <ul><li>Oppositional Behaviors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often loses temper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often argues with adults. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults’ requests or rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often deliberately annoys people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often blames others for his/her mistakes or misbehavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is often touchy or easily annoyed by others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is often angry or resentful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is often spiteful or vindictive. </li></ul></ul>
    72. 73. What Causes Oppositional Defiance Disorder? <ul><li>The cause of Oppositional Defiant Disorder is unknown at </li></ul><ul><li>this time. The following are some of the theories being </li></ul><ul><li>investigated: </li></ul><ul><li>It may be related to the child's temperament and the family's response to that temperament. </li></ul><ul><li>A predisposition to ODD is inherited in some families. </li></ul><ul><li>There may be problems in the brain that cause ODD. </li></ul><ul><li>It may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Children with ODD have often experienced a break in </li></ul><ul><li>attachment or bonding during the first 2 years of life </li></ul>
    73. 74. Prognosis: <ul><li>Eighty percent of children with Oppositional Defiance Disorder showed insecure attachment. </li></ul><ul><li>Insecurely attached children often grow up to become insecurely attached parents, and the cycle continues </li></ul>
    75. 76. Why is Attachment important? <ul><li>Attachment is essential for the formation of a healthy personality which includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Development of a conscience </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to become self-reliant </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to think logically </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to cope with frustration and stress </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to handle fear or a threat to self </li></ul><ul><li>Development of relationships </li></ul>
    76. 77. Characteristics or Symptoms of Attachment Disorder: <ul><li>Superficially charming: uses cuteness to get her or his way. </li></ul><ul><li>Cruel to animals or people. </li></ul><ul><li>Fascinated by fire/death/blood/gore. </li></ul><ul><li>Severe need for control over adults even over minute situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulative-plays adults against each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in making eye-contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of affection on parental terms yet overly affectionate to strangers. </li></ul><ul><li>Bossy. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows no remorse---seems to have no conscience. </li></ul><ul><li>Lies and steals. </li></ul><ul><li>Low impulse control. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of cause/effect thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Destructiveness to self, others and material things. </li></ul>
    77. 78. What the research says about overcoming the effects of insecure or interrupted attachment. <ul><li>Prognosis is Tenuous </li></ul><ul><li>High Risk for Interpersonal Problems </li></ul><ul><li>High Risk for Not Responding to Traditional Behavioral Treatment Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>High Risk for Oppositional Defiance </li></ul><ul><li>Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>High Risk for Conduct Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Age of Intervention is a significant variable </li></ul><ul><li>Most Frequently Identified Protective Factors include: Intelligence, Proximity, and Constancy </li></ul>
    78. 79. Students with conduct disorder engage in deliberate acts of self-interest to gain attention or to intimidate others. They experience no distress or self-devaluation or internalized distress.
    79. 80. <ul><li>Maladjusted/Conduct Disorder students: </li></ul><ul><li>perceive themselves as normal </li></ul><ul><li>are capable of behaving appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>choose to break rules and violate norms. </li></ul><ul><li>view rule breaking as normal and acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>are motivated by self-gain and strong survival skills </li></ul><ul><li>lack age appropriate concern for their behavior </li></ul><ul><li>displayed behavior which may be highly valued in a small subgroup </li></ul><ul><li>display socialized or unsocialized forms of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>due not display anxiety unless they fear being caught </li></ul><ul><li>intensity and duration of behavior differs markedly </li></ul><ul><li>from peer group </li></ul>
    80. 81. Scott
    81. 83. The Statistics <ul><li>Studies show that ODD presents in 5-15% of all school aged children. ( </li></ul><ul><li>ODD is reported in boys almost twice as much as it is reported in girls. (Carlson and Gaub and Tamm 1997). </li></ul><ul><li>50% of the children diagnosed with ODD are also diagnosed with ADHD. (Birmaher and Burke and Loeber 2002) </li></ul>
    82. 85. How does a student with ODD think? (Frank et al. ) <ul><li>I am the equal of those in authority- no one has the right to tell me what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, I sometimes do the wrong thing, but it is usually your fault. </li></ul><ul><li>When you punish or reward me, I feel that you are trying to control or manipulate me. </li></ul><ul><li>Because I know how much you want me to change, I will be very stubborn about changing behaviors. In spite of experiencing your intended punishments and/or rewards, if I change, it will be on my time and for me. </li></ul><ul><li>My greatest sense of control comes from how I make others feel. </li></ul>
    83. 86. “ He doesn’t seem to have a conscience” <ul><li>“He shows no remorse” </li></ul><ul><li>“He lies and steals” </li></ul><ul><li>“He hurts other children.” </li></ul><ul><li>“He threatens adults.” </li></ul><ul><li>“He can be charming an polite.” </li></ul><ul><li>“He can turn his behavior on and off.” </li></ul>
    84. 87. OTHER SETTING EVENTS <ul><li>Biomedical conditions, ADHD, Autism, Down Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with changes in routine </li></ul><ul><li>Highly oppositional </li></ul><ul><li>Moody or temperamental </li></ul><ul><li>ODD </li></ul><ul><li>Problems at home </li></ul><ul><li>Problems on the bus </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger or poverty </li></ul><ul><li>History of abuse neglect </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Regulation Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Adversarial Home School Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Language Delays </li></ul><ul><li>Medication </li></ul>
    85. 88. Students who are prone to conflict often do poorly in school. <ul><li>They may act out in part to mask their embarrassment about their limited academic skills. </li></ul><ul><li>These students may also lack basic prosocial strategies that would help them to work through everyday school difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>These students may become confrontational because they do not know how to ask for help on a difficult assignment, lack the ability to sit down with a peer and calmly talk through a problem, or are unable to negotiate politely with a teacher to get an extension on an assignment. </li></ul>
    86. 89. Tabla Rosa
    87. 90. Many Kids Have Low Self Esteem & Negative Self Concepts Due To ? <ul><li>Rotten childhoods filled with negative experiences . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse, neglect, and/or consistent messages of rejection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistently due to multiple care-takers using very different practices, and/or giving very different messages . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistent caretaking from primary adults who are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alcoholic/substance addicted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mentally ill (unmanaged) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>manic-depressive (unmanaged) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>negatively oriented authoritarian personalities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>incompetent due to lack of childrearing knowledge . </li></ul></ul></ul>
    88. 91. Reiterated negative labels & messages: <ul><ul><li>“ You rude little son of a b----. When I catch you, I’ll…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You little criminal. You’re going to end up dead or in jail someday.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Man, you’re strange.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Why don’t you use your head once in a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>while? Stupid.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What’s wrong with you, anyway? Get outta my face before I…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You little loser. Why can’t you be like Fran?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You evil little beast ! I’ll beat the devil out of you ! ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Client to psychologist friend of mine when the parent was asked what he does when his 10 year old son acts up : </li></ul><ul><li> “ I tell him he’s an a- -h-le . ” </li></ul>
    89. 92. The Perceptions That Might Develop From Maltreatment, Neglect, Rejection <ul><li>“ My parents treated me badly.” (Fact) </li></ul><ul><li>“ I can’t count on my parents to care for </li></ul><ul><li>me or treat me well.” (Fact) </li></ul><ul><li> “ I was treated badly because I am a bad person. Because I’m ‘BAD’, no one could ever like me, care for me, or treat me well . ” ( Distorted belief) </li></ul><ul><li>“ You say that you want to help me, but I know adults… When I show you why I’m not likeable, you’ll quickly reject and hurt me like my parents (and past teachers ) . </li></ul><ul><li> ( Identity and reaction pattern become further ingrained~) </li></ul><ul><li>You say you’re different… While I hope that is true, </li></ul><ul><li> you’ll have to PROVE IT! ” </li></ul><ul><li> ( over & over again as I seek reassurance that you really are different) . </li></ul>
    90. 93. Coercive Family Behavior and Conduct Problems <ul><li>Conduct problems can evolve from ongoing patterns of coercive parent-child interactions that are characterized by; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Escalating parent and child demands, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escalating negative consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the person who dispenses the most negative consequence “wins”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with “winning the battle” while “losing the war”. </li></ul></ul>
    91. 94. <ul><li>What are the setting events for your child? </li></ul>
    92. 95. What is the Function or Motivation of Defiant Behavior? <ul><li>Obtain … </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Items/Activities (tangible) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (seeking) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid… </li></ul><ul><li>Peer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (defensive) </li></ul>
    93. 96. What is the motivation or function of defiance? <ul><li>Most adults say it is “control.” </li></ul><ul><li>But is reality is avoidance of being controlled by others? </li></ul><ul><li>In many instances the defiant student is resisting the control of the adult, not trying to make the adult do something they don’t want to do. </li></ul><ul><li>In many instances the defiant student is resisting the agenda of the adult or authority figure </li></ul>
    94. 97. Traffic lights <ul><li>You are driving along a quiet country road, there has not been another car for the last twenty minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>In front there are some road works and someone has put up temporary traffic lights. </li></ul><ul><li>The lights have stayed on red for at least seven minutes, there is no-one coming in the opposite direction. </li></ul><ul><li>What should you do? </li></ul>
    95. 98. Traffic lights <ul><li>Wait another three minutes and then edge slowly forward. </li></ul><ul><li>Get out of your car and see if the other lights are working. </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly accelerate forward past the road works. </li></ul><ul><li>Something else. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do some students break the rules? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself why you break certain rules? </li></ul>
    96. 99. Defiant Kids: Why Are There So Many Classroom Conflicts? <ul><li>Students may act out because: </li></ul><ul><li>they are embarrassed about (or try to hide) poor academic skills </li></ul><ul><li>they enjoy ‘pushing the buttons’ of adults </li></ul><ul><li>they use misbehavior as a deliberate strategy to have work expectations lightened </li></ul><ul><li>They have a difficult time relinquishing control to authority figures </li></ul>
    97. 100. We all like to be in control of our lives. It’s how we meet that need that sets us apart.
    98. 101. What can a Child Control <ul><li>Items and Things-e.g., Video Games </li></ul><ul><li>Others-peers and adults </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing to follow adult expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing to participate or engage </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance and Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Eating and toileting </li></ul>
    99. 102. Attention, Sensory or Escape Avoidance Control
    100. 103. THE FUNCTION <ul><li>What is the motivation or function of your child’ defiant behavior? Is it attention, escape/avoidance, control? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss your hypothesis with your partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the function in your pathways form. </li></ul>
    101. 104. HOW TO WE BEST RESPOND? WHAT IS EVIDENCED BASED PRACTICE <ul><li>Setting Event Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Replacement Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>a. reward systems </li></ul><ul><li>b. reduction strategies </li></ul>
    102. 105. Behavior Mantra: “ It is easier to prevent a behavior from occurring than to deal with it after it has happened.”
    103. 106. Self discipline isn’t taught in obedience school.
    104. 107. The Tough Get Tougher <ul><li>“ Getting tough ” with persistently defiant, non-compliant kids is counter productive. </li></ul><ul><li>These youngsters don’t succumb to coercion. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather, they are incited by it. </li></ul><ul><li>If our penalties are harsh and repeatedly applied, we might possibly be able to subdue the rebellion and create a non-motivated, withdrawn kid </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled, knowledgeable and caring teachers do what we’re paid to do : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In order to promote positive behavior change and motivation, “ tough ” teachers must change their ways. While those ways work with 95% of the kids, it’s the 95% who don’t need to be treated in that manner in order to get them to behave. Their ways don’t work at all with the “difficult” 5%. In fact, their coercive interventions make things worse. However, it’s hard to convince negative teachers of the faults of their ways. They commonly respond with : </li></ul>
    105. 108. What ?! Me Change?! <ul><li>THEY’RE </li></ul><ul><li>the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>(not me) . </li></ul>
    106. 109. <ul><li>When teachers attempt to overpower a kid who has defeated more powerful adversaries, they fight a losing battle. </li></ul><ul><li>These teachers create the very conflict about which they complain . </li></ul>
    107. 110. Reconnaissance 101 <ul><li>Gather information on your adversary. </li></ul><ul><li>Use this information to inform your actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Tzu: ( The art of war ). The greatest victory is to win without ever having battled . </li></ul><ul><li>Tom McIntyre: The sweetest victory is one in which both sides are winners . </li></ul>
    109. 112. Withdrawing from Power Struggles The F.A.S.T. Program
    110. 113. SETTING EVENT STRATGIES <ul><li>Goal: to minimize or eliminate the effect that the setting event has on the child’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Can we eliminate the setting event? </li></ul><ul><li>(making the behavior irrelevant) </li></ul><ul><li>Can we take preventative actions to minimize the setting event? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we provide systematic support to gradually lessen the impact of the setting event? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we bring home and school together? </li></ul>
    111. 114. What Can We Do To Win Over Defiant Youngsters ? <ul><li>Establish personal connections. (308 NYC BD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human nature: We are more motivated to do things for those for whom we hold respect and affection . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promote achievement/Ensure progress. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The desire to continue in a pursuit requires that one see oneself as proficient, or making progress. (driving test repeated failure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify material and assignments to meet special needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a “safe” environment for individuals with a “failure identity” who will otherwise resist trying new things . ( Eskimo roll) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teach the behaviors we want to see </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate ( re) actions & behavior choices, like academics, are learned. </li></ul><ul><li>We often need to teach correct behavior to those aren’t yet displaying it. </li></ul><ul><li>We may need to teach how to interpret happenings & handle feelings . </li></ul>
    112. 115. Setting Event Strategies <ul><li>Building a connection or positive relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the physical space </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a predictable agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing classroom expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing routines </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing choices </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing leadership opportunities </li></ul>
    113. 116. Setting Event Strategies <ul><li>Until we have walked in someone’s shoes… </li></ul>REFRAMING NEGATIVES TO POSITIVES
    114. 117. Evidence Based Classroom Environment <ul><li>ARE WE USING THEM IN OUR CLASSROOM? </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Supports </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship Based? </li></ul><ul><li>Positives Outweigh the Negatives? </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Social Skills? </li></ul><ul><li>Clear Expectations taught and reviewed? </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures for transitions? </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Home School Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent Brief Consequences that promote the development of replacement behaviors? </li></ul><ul><li>Positives outweigh negatives </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-arranged consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Respect </li></ul>
    115. 118. MODELING Children See Children Do
    116. 119. Changing Perspective <ul><li>Does the defiant child think your behavior is about your needs or his???? </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing Program Expectations and Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing the Child’s Input whenever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Reframe the child in a positive light. Can you give him a clean slate every day </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect back the person you would like him to become. </li></ul>
    117. 120. Recovery Phase TCI TRAINING [6] Are you bigger and tougher? Do you tend to cave in?
    118. 121. How do we become an educateur?
    119. 122. Can you form attachments with these children? Avoid be Pushed Away!! <ul><li>Yes, with time and time and more time </li></ul><ul><li>How: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenting encourages reciprocity on parent’s terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working together in reciprocal way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate affection regardless of response </li></ul></ul>
    120. 123. How do we establish positive personal connections with our students ? <ul><li>Give them “the time of day”. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a history of positive interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that the first contact of the day or period is a positive one. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that the last contact of the day is a positive one. </li></ul><ul><li>Remain consistently supportive and encouraging, even when needing to administer penalties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You made a mistake in judgment, but they are further and farther between. I’m sure that the future will bring even more good choices . ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find the little bit of positive inside an inappropriate action. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I admire your loyalty to friends. However, it is not OK to pummel others on their behalf.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Even though you refused the direction, I want to thank you for doing it with acceptable words. That shows maturity. However, ... ” </li></ul></ul>
    121. 124. To make a long story short. (Too late?) <ul><li>“ Difficult kids ”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have an ingrained behavior patterns that become more so with rejection by significant adults (including educators) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They often project a “hardened” image to those who would help them in order to fend off more emotional hurt (from rejection by someone they start to trust) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishing these youngsters strengthens their negative world view. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes highly skilled, emotionally secure, caring, and resilient professionals to “reach” these youngsters . </li></ul><ul><li>The most “ hardened ” of kids are the most in need of the guidance of an “ iron hand in a velvet glove ”. Firmness and strength underlie the “soft” touch . </li></ul><ul><li>The glove must remain on the behavior management hand at all times . </li></ul>
    122. 125. Teacher Tips on How to Deal with the ODD Student (Barkley and Benton 1998) (Wenning 1999) <ul><li>Pick your battles- Keep in mind the struggles that students with ODD go through everyday and allow yourself to ignore some of the less serious behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t react, act- If you react you are giving the student exactly what he/she wants. </li></ul><ul><li>Act, don’t discuss- Prompt actions work better then trying to reason with a student that has ODD. It can quickly turn argumentative. </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase directions as statements not as questions- If you ask an ODD student to do something he/she probably won’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not bring up the past- You can do nothing to change it. </li></ul><ul><li>Have clear rules and appropriate consequences in place. </li></ul>
    123. 126. Dealing with Disrespect
    124. 127. Dealing with Provocation
    126. 129. <ul><li>Moderate Interventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help student set a goal each day and help him/her monitor success. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use behaviors that diminish power struggles (privacy, listening, simple directives and choices, brevity, walking away, saying “I want you to have the last word.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find an area of interest or expertise and ask for the students help. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send the student on an errand if you anticipate a resistant behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Challenge Approach-You may say, “Hmm, I don’t think your ready for this yet.” The ODD student will probably try to prove you wrong. </li></ul></ul>
    127. 130. <ul><li>Students can feel a greater sense of ownership when they are invited to contribute to their behavior management plan. Students also tend to know better than anyone else what triggers will set off their problem behaviors and what strategies they find most effective in calming themselves and avoiding conflicts or other behavioral problems. </li></ul>Have the Student Participate in Creating a Behavior Plan (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995).
    128. 131. <ul><li>ANTECEDENT STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><li>should make the target behavior irrelevant </li></ul>
    129. 132. Antecendent Strategies for the Defiant Child <ul><li>Should interrupt the conflict cycle before it begins </li></ul><ul><li>Should be viewed as a process as the child develops more functional coping skills (e.g., saying “no”, providing choices) </li></ul><ul><li>Should be consistent as possible across care providers </li></ul><ul><li>Should have a goal of engagment, participation, and social emotional growth </li></ul><ul><li>(Vitto, 2008) </li></ul>
    130. 133. Contra-Indicated Behavioral Strategies for the ODD Child <ul><li>Ultimatums </li></ul><ul><li>Strict Boundaries: Drawing the Line in the Sand </li></ul><ul><li>Counts, Warnings, Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged Eye-Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Infringing on Personal Space </li></ul><ul><li>Social Disapproval </li></ul><ul><li>Judgmental Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Response Cost and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Strict Boundaries or Contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension and Detention, Progressive Discipline </li></ul>Marion
    131. 134. Avoiding Triggers <ul><li>ASD Example </li></ul><ul><li>Treating with mutual respect </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding the three “don’ts” </li></ul>
    132. 135. Defiant Kids: What other effective communication strategies can I use ? <ul><li>Active listening. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Let me be sure that I understand you correctly…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I want to summarize the points that you made, so that I know that I heard you right…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ So from your point of view, the situation looks like this…” </li></ul></ul>
    133. 136. Defiant Kids: What other effective communication strategies can I use ? <ul><li>I-centered statements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Zeke, I find it difficult to keep everybody’s attention when there are other conversations going on in the classroom. That’s why I need you to open your book and focus on today’s lesson.” </li></ul></ul>
    134. 137. Antecedents to Avoid <ul><li>Antecedents to Avoid </li></ul><ul><li>A number of situations will spark noncompliant behavior in children with ODD. Some common examples include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>sharply worded verbal directives (e.g., &quot;Tony, stop playing with your crayons!&quot;); </li></ul><ul><li>unexpected and unannounced deviations in the routine; </li></ul><ul><li>tasks that are beyond the child's ability; </li></ul><ul><li>gestures, facial grimaces, or body language that suggest disapproval; and </li></ul><ul><li>poorly planned transitions. </li></ul>
    135. 138. <ul><li>An explanation of the diagram can be found on the slides that follow. </li></ul>
    136. 139. Stress Model of Crisis TCI TRAINING [5]
    137. 140. THE VERBAL ESCALATION CONTINUUM <ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal </li></ul><ul><li>Release </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidation </li></ul><ul><li>Tension Reduction </li></ul>
    138. 141. QUESTIONING <ul><li>ANSWER THE QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>PLANNED IGNORING </li></ul><ul><li>ADEQUATE RESPONSE TIME </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOW SPACE AND TIME </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT ARGUE </li></ul><ul><li>RESTATE THE LIMIT </li></ul>
    139. 142. REFUSAL <ul><li>DON’T ARGUE </li></ul><ul><li>SET LIMITS </li></ul><ul><li>EVALUATE HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>CONSIDER CALLING FOR HELP </li></ul><ul><li>RESPONSE TIME </li></ul><ul><li>ENFORCE LIMITS </li></ul>
    141. 144. THREATENIN G <ul><li>DON’T RUN </li></ul><ul><li>TAKE THREATS SERIOUSLY </li></ul><ul><li>STAY CALM & PROFESSIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT RESOND TO THREATS </li></ul><ul><li>STATE LIMITS </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT TEAM </li></ul><ul><li>ASSESS ENVIRONMENT </li></ul>
    142. 145. Setting Limits <ul><li>Present the expected behavior and logical consequence as a decision and place responsibility on the student. </li></ul><ul><li>Always lead with the positive outcome that will occur if the student make the choice to calm down or follow directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow a few seconds for the student to decide. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraw from the student and attend to other students. Limit direct eye-contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow though with limits established. </li></ul>
    143. 146. How to get someone to leave <ul><li>Consider focus of anger </li></ul><ul><li>Problem or solution </li></ul><ul><li>Remember your goal </li></ul>
    144. 147. How to avoid physical contact <ul><li>Remove triggering stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Calmly explain limits </li></ul><ul><li>Select a staff (or peer) who has a calming influence </li></ul><ul><li>Select a novel or neutral party </li></ul><ul><li>Bait to open area </li></ul><ul><li>Remove other students </li></ul><ul><li>Call home or police </li></ul>
    145. 148. SETTING LIMITS <ul><li>Simple and concise </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable and Pre-arranged </li></ul><ul><li>Enforceable </li></ul><ul><li>(avoid demands that make physcal </li></ul><ul><li>management to enforce) </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE IS THE LINE? </li></ul><ul><li>THE DEFIANT CHILD SHOULD HAVE VERY CLEAR BOUNDARIES !!! </li></ul>
    146. 149. The Art of Setting Limit Always remember your goal <ul><li>Providing Choices </li></ul><ul><li>“ You need do this or else” </li></ul><ul><li>“ You can do this own your own or I can help you.” </li></ul><ul><li>Transition Jingles and Rhymes </li></ul><ul><li>What noncompliance can be ignored or dealt with later </li></ul><ul><li>(the poke man incident) </li></ul><ul><li>IF YOU ASK SOMETHING AS A QUESTION BE PREPARED TO HONOR </li></ul><ul><li>THEIR RESPONSE- DO YOU WANT TO? WILL YOU? </li></ul><ul><li>INVITATION, ITS TIME TO--- </li></ul><ul><li>I STATEMENTS VERSUS YOU STATEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>THINK ABOUT YOU AND A FRIEND – MUTUAL RESPECT </li></ul>
    147. 150. When e m o t i o n s start to F l a r e Remember…
    148. 151. Is your Chinese a bit rusty? <ul><li>While I’m told (by my Chinese speaking wife) that the translation isn’t precise. The two kanji/symbols on the previous slide, taken together, can be translated to the English word “ Crisis ”. The first symbol translates to “ Danger ” (This simplified modern symbol is a stylized version of the ancient pictograph showing a human figure on the edge of a cliff. See it?) The lower symbol is equivalent to the English word “ Opportunity ”. </li></ul><ul><li>The message ???? </li></ul><ul><li>In a crisis situation with another, there is danger for making the situation worse, and opportunity for making it better . </li></ul><ul><li>Seize the opportunity ! </li></ul>
    149. 152. At this point, we wIll watch a video clip of a teacher and student engaged in an escalating war of words. The following questions would be discussed: <ul><li>In the short term (and the long term) , who “won”? </li></ul><ul><li>Did either person convince the other that his/her way was correct? </li></ul><ul><li>Has a “show of force” prevented future conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>Did the teacher do anything of which he could be proud? Did he implement best practice? </li></ul><ul><li>(Assuming a “ No ” answer) Why not ? </li></ul>
    150. 153. Shane
    151. 154. Known Triggers <ul><li>Singling Out </li></ul><ul><li>Invading Personal Space </li></ul><ul><li>Touching </li></ul><ul><li>Judging </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimatums </li></ul>
    152. 155. BE AWARE OF NONVERBALS AND TONE <ul><li>Codes and subtle nonverbal </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding embarrassment </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Self Management </li></ul><ul><li>Momentum and Transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Routine </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-established consequences </li></ul>
    153. 156. Antecedent Strategies <ul><li>Statements of Understanding proceed requests </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Momentum </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-correction </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul>
    154. 157. Emphasize the Positive in Teacher Requests <ul><li>(Braithwaite, 2001) . When an instructor's request has a positive 'spin', that teacher is less likely to trigger a power struggle and more likely to gain student compliance. Whenever possible, avoid using negative phrasing (e.g., &quot;If you don't return to your seat, I can’t help you with your assignment&quot;). Instead, restate requests in positive terms (e.g., &quot;I will be over to help you on the assignment just as soon as you return to your seat&quot;). </li></ul>
    155. 158. Use ‘Soft’ Reprimands (Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, 2002) . <ul><li>The teacher gives a brief, gentle signal to direct back to task any students who is just beginning to show signs of misbehavior or non-compliance. </li></ul><ul><li>These ‘soft’ reprimands can be verbal (a quiet word to the student) or non-verbal (a significant look). If a soft reprimand is not sufficient to curb the student’s behaviors, the teacher may pull the student aside for a private problem-solving conversation or implement appropriate disciplinary consequences. </li></ul>
    156. 159. <ul><li>What is the most important point to keep in mind when working with a defiant or noncompliant student? </li></ul>
    157. 160. What is the most important point to keep in mind when working with a defiant or noncompliant student? <ul><li>If you instead approach the student in a business-like, neutral manner, and impose consistent, fair consequences for misbehavior, you will model the important lesson that you cannot be pulled into a power struggle at the whim of a student. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors who successfully stay calm in the face of student provocation often see two additional benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Over time, students may become less defiant, because they no longer experience the 'reward' of watching you react in anger; </li></ul><ul><li>b. Because you now deal with student misbehavior impartially, efficiently and quickly, you will have more instructional time available that used to be consumed in epic power struggles. </li></ul>
    158. 161. How do I deliver a teacher command in a way that will minimize the chance of a power struggle? <ul><li>You can increase the odds that a student will follow a teacher command by: </li></ul><ul><li>a. approaching the student privately and using a quiet voice establishing eye contact and calling the student by name before giving the </li></ul><ul><li>command b. stating the command as a positive ( do ) statement, rather than a negative </li></ul><ul><li>( don't ) statement. </li></ul><ul><li>c. phrasing the command in clear and descriptive terms (using simple </li></ul><ul><li>language that is easily understood) so the student knows exactly what he </li></ul><ul><li>or she is expected to do (Walker & Walker, 1991). </li></ul>
    159. 162. The Child Who is triggered by Praise <ul><li>For some children with ODD, even praise can be an antecedent for noncompliance. Teachers are understandably confused when they praise a child and the student explodes. Nonetheless, it is important to recognize when praise predictably brings out the worst in a child and to avoid that antecedent. </li></ul>
    160. 163. <ul><li>REPLACEMENT STRATEGIES </li></ul>
    164. 167. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIORS for Defiance <ul><li>Taking leave appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Refusing in a respectful manner </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing between two tasks or demands </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to a coded signal </li></ul><ul><li>Taking part in plan development </li></ul><ul><li>Performing three no preferred tasks per day </li></ul><ul><li>Being a class helper </li></ul>
    165. 168. How we want defiant students to respond… <ul><li>Defiant : Challenging; non-compliant; confrontational; openly and boldly challenging and resisting authority     </li></ul><ul><li>We have 5 available choices when we don't want to follow a direction: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Deny or swallow our feelings & comply passively. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Refuse in a rude manner.  (This is the common choice for our defiant </li></ul><ul><li>kids.) </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Withdraw or run away. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Avoid complying by use of trickery and manipulation. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Make our feelings and decisions known in an respectful manner. </li></ul><ul><li>*We want to help our kids adopt patterns #5. </li></ul><ul><li>(Sometimes #1 is an appropriate choice, given certain </li></ul><ul><li>circumstances) </li></ul>
    166. 169. Teaching the child better ways to meet his needs <ul><li>Leadership opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Self management </li></ul><ul><li>Making compromises </li></ul><ul><li>Accept positives </li></ul><ul><li>Acts of kindness or restoration </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching child tolerance for non-preferred task </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching child to respond appropriately to authority figures </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching child appropriate ways to challenge adult </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching child how to make choices </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching child social skills </li></ul>
    167. 170. <ul><li>CONSEQUENCE STRATEGIES </li></ul>
    168. 171. Remember the PURPOSES of negative consequences <ul><li>Do not expect negative consequences to change behavior patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative consequences are a way to “keep the lid on” </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching changes behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent escalation of problem behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent/minimize reward for problem behaviors </li></ul>
    169. 172. Problems with traditional consequences <ul><li>They often reinforced the child’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>The often place the adult in an adversarial role </li></ul><ul><li>They desensitize the child to authority figures (administrators, police, parents) </li></ul><ul><li>They distant the child from school </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t teach problem solving </li></ul>
    170. 173. Consequence Concerns <ul><li>Repeated loss of anything tends to establish and discount orientation-I don’t care </li></ul><ul><li>The child may start to believe that they can’t be successful and acclimate to a life In the office </li></ul><ul><li>These kids tend to move us to an ultimate consequence philosophy- we tend to up the severity of punishment thinking that a more sever consequence will do the trick </li></ul><ul><li>Defiant behavior may have stronger issues of escape as the student kids behind </li></ul><ul><li>If the child doesn't want to do something or engage punishing usually makes things worse </li></ul><ul><li>If we have to call the principal all the time the child gradually becomes desensitized to administration and authority </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated exclusion tends to foster a difficult or adversarial relationship with families </li></ul><ul><li>If the behavior is chronic there is a likelihood that something about the consequence may be reinforcing </li></ul>
    171. 174. CONSEQUENCES SHOULD: <ul><li>Reduce the effectiveness and efficiency of the problem behavior!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Set the stage for teaching alternative strategies for meeting needs!! </li></ul><ul><li>Never degrade or humiliate </li></ul><ul><li>Be implemented consistently and calmly </li></ul><ul><li>Not create more of a problem than the behavior itself </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce frequency, intensity, and duration of the problem behavior </li></ul>
    172. 175. A consequence may work at the moment but may be reinforcing the behavior in the long run!!!
    173. 176. CONSEQUENCES <ul><li>Drawing the line and sticking to it!! </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Limits </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcing those Limits </li></ul><ul><li>Getting Parental and Community Support </li></ul><ul><li>Weakening the payoff for the behavior </li></ul>
    174. 177. Reinforcement History <ul><li>Has reinforcement been used as a means of acknowledging approximations of desired behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Has reinforcement been used as a means of control, leading to resentment, and loss of motivation? </li></ul>
    175. 178. The Evolution of Praise versus Correction in the Elementary Years <ul><li>Why praise may be difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Why praise backfires with ODD </li></ul><ul><li>Why positive need to be quick and brief </li></ul><ul><li>Why response cost is a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Why reinforcement is discounted </li></ul><ul><li>Create a 5:1 ratio of positives to negatives </li></ul>
    176. 179. Motivation: The Hair Cut
    177. 180. Problems with Reward Systems <ul><li>“ What I giveth I can taketh away.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Marion Story </li></ul><ul><li>May not be reinforcing to that child </li></ul><ul><li>May have been used to control bad behavior rather than celebrate good behavior </li></ul><ul><li>May quickly be discounted with a response cost approach (example of Richard and plying football) </li></ul>
    178. 181. The Mis-use of Rewards
    179. 182. “ Once you give circle a try, we will use the new markers.”
    180. 183. <ul><li>Bigger, tougher Consequences is NOT what we mean by a Correction System </li></ul>
    181. 184. Ross Greene’s Three Basket Method <ul><li>Three goals with this method: </li></ul><ul><li>1. To maintain adults as authority figures. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Teach skills of flexibility and frustration </li></ul><ul><li>tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Awareness of the child’s limitations. </li></ul>
    182. 185. Three basket method: How it works <ul><li>Behaviors are divided into three baskets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basket A -are non-negotiable behaviors- usually fall into the safety and rights of others category. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These behaviors are those that are important enough to endure a “meltdown” over. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child must be capable of successfully exhibiting this behavior on a fairly consistent basis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basket B - These behaviors are important but can be worked on over time. They are not behaviors worth inducing a “meltdown” over. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basket C - These behaviors are those that could be ignored without any significant repercussions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    184. 187. <ul><li>COMPETING </li></ul><ul><li>PATHWAYS </li></ul>
    185. 188. Competing Behavior Model alternative, functionally equivalent behavior Long-term desired behavior Setting Events/ Slow Triggers Antecedents/Fast Triggers Desired Behavior Problem Behavior Replacement Behavior Reinforcing Consequence Reinforcing Consequence
    186. 189. Competing Behavior Model Setting Event Antecedent Desired Behavior Problem Behavior Replacement Behavior Reinforcing Consequence Reinforcing Consequence Academic engagement Anger Control Self Management Request to leave class/school Verbal & Physical Aggression Profanity Limited group of friends Lack of sleep Peer negative comments about size/physique or character Adult directions/ comments provided in officious, chiding, or condescending fashion Escape current demands/ situation Personal satisfaction Passing grades Enlistment in military
    188. 191. For More Information on Positive Approaches for challenging behavior or having Steve present at your school, Write Steve Vitto at [email_address] Or call him at 231-767-7279 Or send for Steve’s Book, In Search of a Heart, Creating Caring, Conscience, and Character in All Kid (A text in using positive a relationship driven approaches for all children), Copyright, 2007 This 450 page text contains researched based methods for implementing positive classroom management strategies and treating children with severe behavior challenges (Cost: $30.00) This book is also available on audio tape and Audio CD
    189. 192. GO OUT AND MAKE A DIFFERENCE!! Steve Vitto at Slide