Classroom management


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  • I will always try to … I will never… There is no teaching unless learning occurs
  • Study by Jacob Kounin – withitness had the biggest decrease in disruptive behavior
  • Eulogy
  • STORY: One teacher with whom we were working was really struggling with the level of freedom she permitted her students. This was a teacher who had taught effectively for 20 years and her students had always been successful while enjoying a high level of autonomy. The district had restructured, however, and this teacher ended up with a number of students in her room who lacked maturity and were exhibiting disruptive, off-task behaviors. It was clear the students had too much autonomy and needed more restriction to help them learn to control themselves but the teacher said: “I feel like I am running a boot camp. I have never had so many restrictions before and I don’t feel comfortable running my classroom this way.” Third bullet: discuss how kids will feel more respected when you are able to verbalize how because of their level of responsibility and maturity, you are able to lower your classroom restrictions and allow them more freedoms. Would our students feel proud of themselves, yes or no?
  • When you are looking at this criteria, you DO NOT HAVE TO HAVE ALL OF THESE to be high level of freedom room. Highlight one or two such as Level of maturity and NO behavior problems
  • For example. Feel good about school
  • Qualifier: If you are teaching 29 kids in a closet, then you may need to really think about level of freedom regardless of how the kids feel about school.
  • 1) When someone is not teaching or speaking to the class. 2) When you need to sharpen your pencil. Medium Structure High Structure
  • Direct participants to this tool “Physical Space: Advantages & Disadvantages” and the accompanying handout that pictorially depicts various options for the physical layout of a room.
  • Sarah
  • Amy
  • Classroom management

    1. 1. Susan L. Mack, MA Steven N. Vitto, MA Muskegon ISD
    2. 2. <ul><li>Be Responsible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree try at least 3 things from today’s session </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be Respectful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off cell phones and take calls in hallway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit sidebar conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow Attention Getting Signal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be Safe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take care of personal needs </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Brandi Simonsen </li></ul><ul><li>Rob Horner </li></ul><ul><li>George Sugia </li></ul><ul><li>Ed Kame’enui </li></ul><ul><li>Geoff Colvin </li></ul><ul><li>Randy Sprick </li></ul><ul><li>Marzano </li></ul><ul><li>Steve Goodman </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Bechtal </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Brandi Simonsen </li></ul><ul><li>Rob Horner </li></ul><ul><li>George Sugia </li></ul><ul><li>Ed Kame’enui </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffrey Colvin </li></ul><ul><li>Randy Sprick </li></ul><ul><li>Marzano </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Partners A and B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First A tell B your name, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>District you work for and it’s location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your educational role, grade level, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why you are here/ what you hope to take back from today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Switch and B tell A </li></ul><ul><li>Share with others at your table </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>“ A Leader is best when people barely know that he exists;… </li></ul><ul><li>Not so good when people obey him or acclaim him;…. </li></ul><ul><li>Worse when they despise or don’t respect him. </li></ul><ul><li>Fail to honor people you lead, they fail to honor you… </li></ul><ul><li>But of a good leader, who talks little, when his work is done, his aim fulfilled, they will all say: </li></ul><ul><li>We did this ourselves!” </li></ul>Lao-Tsu, 604 BC
    7. 7. <ul><li>Consider your educational experience. How did teachers/principals manage behavioral errors when you were in school? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider your upbringing. How did your parents deal with inappropriate behavior? </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Scale of 1-10 </li></ul><ul><li>1 10 </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Through what lens do you see your students, classroom, behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Is teaching more or less stressful than in the past or than you thought it would be? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you handle frustration? </li></ul><ul><li>How SHOULD students act? </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Paraverbals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone of Voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What You Say </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Mindfulness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heightened sense of situational awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A conscious control over one’s thoughts and behavior relative to the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read the sentence on the next slide only once and count the number of F’s in it </li></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>With-it-ness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The disposition of the teacher to quickly and accurately identify problem behavior or potential problem behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roaming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Emotional Objectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic attitudes toward students and student teacher relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calm approach toward student behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A nonpersonalized perspective of the behavior of student(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional view of students as young learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not warm and gushy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not distant and aloof </li></ul></ul></ul>Eulogy
    15. 16. <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>“They can’t get your goat if they don’t know where it’s tied” </li></ul><ul><li>If you exhibit an emotional reaction, it is highly likely to be reinforcing to certain students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESPECIALLY for students who like power and control </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness & Self-talk – REHEARSE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am the adult” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am the professional” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I will stay calm” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ This is a troubled student and I need to help him/her” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hmm, what is the function of this behavior?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ 5 cleansing breaths” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Self time-out” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t really like what this kid is doing, but it’s my job to help him be successful” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What a challenge. I love challenges” </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Write down 7 things you know about PBS </li></ul><ul><li>A and B compare and explain your list, </li></ul><ul><li>Share list with others at your table </li></ul>
    18. 19. SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement Supporting Decision Making Integrated Elements
    19. 20. Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ALL SOME FEW
    20. 21. <ul><li>Leadership team </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior purpose statement </li></ul><ul><li>Set of positive expectations & behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation </li></ul>School-wide Sugai, Horner
    21. 22. <ul><li>Maximize structure in your classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively engage students in observable ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior . </li></ul><ul><li>(Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, & Myers Sugai, in preparation ) </li></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>Develop Predictable Routines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher routines : attention getting signal, volunteers, communications, movement, planning, grading, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seven critical times: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student routines : personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting, materials, homework, etc . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design environment to (a) elicit appropriate behavior and (b) minimize crowding and distraction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure adequate supervision of all areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designate staff & student areas . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating arrangements (groups, carpet, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><li>The level of student freedom should not be based on teacher preference or familiarity. </li></ul><ul><li>The level of student freedom should be based on student need. </li></ul><ul><li>When in doubt, always start with a higher level of direction and restriction. </li></ul>
    24. 25. High Level of Freedom Classroom Management Plan <ul><li>Small class size (22 or less) </li></ul><ul><li>Students demonstrate a higher level of maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Students tend to enjoy school </li></ul><ul><li>Parents are involved and supportive in education </li></ul><ul><li>No students with behavior problems or emotional impairments </li></ul>
    25. 26. Medium Level of Freedom Classroom Management Plan <ul><li>Medium class size (22 to 30) </li></ul><ul><li>Students demonstrate a moderate level of maturity </li></ul><ul><li>A mixture of attitudes toward school – most feel “okay” about it </li></ul><ul><li>Most parents are somewhat supportive of school </li></ul><ul><li>One or two students with behavior problems or emotional impairments </li></ul>
    26. 27. Low Level of Freedom Classroom Management Plan <ul><li>Larger class size (30 +) </li></ul><ul><li>Students demonstrate a lower level of maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Students tend to feel apathetic or negative toward school </li></ul><ul><li>Parents are uninvolved or antagonistic </li></ul><ul><li>Three or more students with behavior problems or emotional impairments </li></ul>
    27. 28. Level of Student Freedom Example: Sharpening your pencil <ul><li>High Level of Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>1) When someone is not teaching or speaking to the class. </li></ul><ul><li>2) When you need to sharpen your pencil </li></ul><ul><li>Medium Level of Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>1) When there is no line at the pencil sharpener. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Sharpen quietly with no talking. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Respect personal space of others along your way. </li></ul><ul><li>Low Level of Freedom/High Direction & Restriction </li></ul><ul><li>1) Always have two sharpened pencils for class. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Raise hand for permission before going to the sharpener. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Sharpen and return quickly and quietly to your area. </li></ul>
    28. 30. <ul><li>Establish </li></ul><ul><li>Teach </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul>
    29. 31. Establish Expectations <ul><li>3-5 Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively stated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short and simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligned with School wide Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it mean to Be Prepared? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does each behavior look like during different routines of the day? </li></ul></ul>
    30. 32. <ul><li>Too often, many assumptions are made about what students already know. </li></ul><ul><li>Good rule of thumb is to always assume ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, whenever there is doubt, make sure part of the intervention is a teaching intervention! </li></ul>Expectations
    31. 33. Teach Expectations <ul><li>Teach expectations in the context of each classroom routine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the rule and explain why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide examples and non examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role Play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide visual prompts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Actively involve students in the lessons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check for understanding </li></ul></ul>
    32. 34. <ul><li>Provide students with visual PROMPTS (posters, illustrations, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Use PRECORRECTION which includes verbal reminders, behavioral demonstrations rehearsals, or examples of rule-following or socially appropriate behaviors that are presented in or before settings where problem behavior is likely (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee) </li></ul>
    33. 35. Monitor students’ behavior in natural setting <ul><li>Move around </li></ul><ul><li>Scan </li></ul><ul><li>Interact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct </li></ul></ul>
    34. 36. Evaluate the effect of instruction <ul><li>Are the rules being followed? </li></ul><ul><li>If there are errors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is making them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are the erros occurring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of errors are being made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for patterns </li></ul></ul>
    35. 37. Establish Behavioral Expectations/Rules Teach Rules in the Context of Routines Prompt or Remind Students of Expected behavior A closer look... Monitor Student's Behavior in the Natural Context
    36. 38. Establish Procedures for Encouraging Rule Following Establish Procedures for Responding to Rule Violations Evaluate the effect of instruction These are things you should do in any school environment!!!
    37. 39. <ul><li>Provide high rates of opportunities to respond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary individual v. group responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase participatory instruction (enthusiasm, laughter) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider various observable ways to engage students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing on individual white boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choral responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other: ____________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link engagement with outcome objectives (set goals to increase engagement and assess student change CARs verbal/written) </li></ul>
    38. 40. <ul><li>Direct Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Assisted Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Class-wide Peer Tutoring </li></ul><ul><li>Guided notes </li></ul><ul><li>Response Cards </li></ul>
    39. 41. <ul><li>Specific and Contingent Praise </li></ul><ul><li>Group Contingencies </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Token Economies </li></ul>
    40. 42. <ul><li>Error Corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Differential Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Planned ignoring </li></ul><ul><li>Response Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Time out from reinforcement </li></ul>