Assessment And Treatment Of Challenging Behaviors

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a review of functional assessment and behavior intervention processes with emphasis on students who present defiant behavior

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Assessment And Treatment Of Challenging Behaviors

  1. 1. Assessment and treatment of Challenging Behaviors Using Positive Approaches “Breaking Down the Walls of Defiance” Presented by Steven Vitto, M.A., BTC. CTCII Muskegon Area Intermediate School District
  2. 2. The Evolution of Adversarial Relationships and Subversion <ul><li>As aberrant behaviors begin to surface an unhealthy communication paradigm emerges </li></ul><ul><li>A phone call home, a detention slip, a suspension </li></ul><ul><li>THE STAGE IS SET </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Reaction Continuum <ul><li>“ My son wouldn’t do that!! </li></ul><ul><li>“ I will punish him.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ What do you expect me to do?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ You guys are always kicking him out!! </li></ul><ul><li>At this point a shift begins and the parent and school are at risk for developing an adversarial relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>THE FIRST SIGNS </li></ul><ul><li>“ He says other kids were doing the same thing </li></ul><ul><li>and nothing happened to them” </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Downward Spiral <ul><li>Without evidenced based decision making the school continues to respond in the only way they know how-punishment and exclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Without proper supports, the parent becomes trapped in a dilemma. Do I blame myself, my child, or the school? </li></ul><ul><li>And a day comes when the parent begins to blame the school, and the real damage begins… </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Johnny Learns <ul><li>Johnny is becoming increasingly dis-enfranchised with school </li></ul><ul><li>Johnny figures out that he if he tells his parents he was picked on, singled out, overly or repeatedly punished, then his parents will begin to focus on the school rather than his behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>It becomes increasing probable for Johnny to misrepresent the school. He escapes punishment and takes the focus off of him. </li></ul><ul><li>By blaming the school, the parents avoid blame, and are relieved of the feeling of helplessness, </li></ul><ul><li>The end result: a parent who rescues, defends, accuses </li></ul><ul><li>a child who has a escape card-any time he wants to use it. </li></ul>
  6. 6. When Co morbidity Sets In <ul><li>The child with Social Maladjustment receives a diagnosis of ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>The parent looking for something to explain all of the child’s behaviors focuses on the ADHD diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>The parents use the ADHD diagnosis to defend the child’s behavior at school </li></ul><ul><li>Once again the child makes a connection. If I get in trouble I can use my disability </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know when this is happening? </li></ul><ul><li>The child will say my disability caused the behavior! </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge: to separate ADHD behavior and learned behavior. </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE SOLUTION <ul><li>1 . DON’T RELY ON A PUNISHMENT AT HOME FOR A BEHAVIOR THAT OCCURS AT SCHOOL-THE PHONE CALL </li></ul><ul><li>2. WHEN YOU MEET, HAVE ALL THE PLAYERS IN THE ROOM TOGETHER </li></ul><ul><li>3. DESIGNATE ONE COMMUNICATION POINT PERSON </li></ul><ul><li>4. HAVE THE PLAN CLEARLY STATED </li></ul><ul><li>5. DOCUMENT, DOCUMENT, DOCUMENT!! </li></ul><ul><li>6. AGREE TO ADVOCATE, AGREE TO DISAGREE BUT NEVER NEVER IN FRONT OF THE CHILD!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>7. FOR THE PARENT THAT DOESN’T FOLLOW THROUGH, FOCUS ON THE POSITIVES!!!! </li></ul>
  8. 8. A functional assessment doesn’t leave treatment selection to chance Ms. Jones gambles Jenny’s Education on a hunch Let’s see what I can do to get Jenny to behave!!
  9. 9. What is the Function of the Behavior? <ul><li>Obtain … </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Items/Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid… </li></ul><ul><li>Peer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is the function of Eddie’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Know </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior Intervention Planning. Sopris West
  11. 11. What is the function of Eddie’s behavior? <ul><li>Avoid Task or Activity </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior Intervention Planning. Sopris West
  12. 12. What is the function of Shane’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Know </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior Intervention Planning. Sopris West
  13. 13. What is the function of Shane’s behavior? <ul><li>Avoid Task or Activity </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior Intervention Planning. Sopris West
  14. 14. Shane: Avoid Activity
  15. 15. What is the function of Tracy’s behavior?
  16. 16. TRACY’S MOTIVATION <ul><li>Peer attention </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul>
  17. 17. What is the function of Sarah’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain Items/Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Task or Activity </li></ul>Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning
  18. 18. What is the function of Sarah’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul>
  19. 19. What is the function Scott’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain Items/Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Peer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Know </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>
  20. 20. What is the function Scott’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Items/Activities </li></ul>
  21. 21. What is the function Billie’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain Items/Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior Intervention Planning. Sopris West
  22. 22. What is the function Billie’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Peer Attention </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior Intervention Planning. Sopris West
  23. 23. The Grocery Store <ul><li>What is the function of Johnny’s behavior? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Function <ul><li>Obtain tangible </li></ul>
  25. 25. What is the Function of the Behavior? <ul><li>Obtain … </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Items/Activities (tangible) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (seeking) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid… </li></ul><ul><li>Peer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (defensive) </li></ul>
  26. 29. Control
  27. 30. What is the Function of the Behavior? <ul><li>Obtain … </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Items/Activities (tangible) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (seeking) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid… </li></ul><ul><li>Peer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (defensive) </li></ul>
  28. 32. Initial Line of Inquiry
  29. 33. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents . Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
  30. 34. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern. Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
  31. 35. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern. Events with a discrete onset and offset, that occur immediately before the challenging behavior (e.g., task demand, teacher direction, social interaction) Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
  32. 36. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern. Events with a discrete onset and offset, that occur immediately before the challenging behavior (e.g., task demand, teacher direction, social interaction). “Make it Happen” Events that may occur before and/or during the targeted response that causes the student to respond to a “typical” situation in an “atypical” way. Specific conditions, events, or activities that make the problem behavior worse? (missed meds, academic failure, conflicts at home, lack of sleep, missed meals, poor interactions with peers/teacher(s), school/classroom behavioral expectations unclear… Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
  33. 37. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. Those events that occur after the behavior (e.g., peer attention, escape task) or as a result of the behavior (e.g., time out, suspension, detention, …) What usually happens after the behavior occurs? (e.g., teacher’s reaction, other students’ reactions, power struggle …) An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern. Events with a discrete onset and offset, that occur immediately before the challenging behavior (e.g., task demand, teacher direction, social interaction) Events that may occur before and/or during the targeted response that causes the student to respond to a “typical” situation in an “atypical” way. Specific conditions, events, or activities that make the problem behavior worse? (missed medication, history of academic failure, conflict at home, missed meals, lack of sleep, history of problems with peers… Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
  34. 38. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. Obtain Escape or Avoid Those events that occur after the behavior (e.g., peer attention, escape task) or as a result of the behavior (e.g., time out, suspension, detention, …) What usually happens after the behavior occurs? (e.g., teacher’s reaction, other students’ reactions, power struggle …) An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern. Events with a discrete onset and offset, that occur immediately before the challenging behavior (e.g., task demand, teacher direction, social interaction) Events that may occur before and/or during the targeted response that causes the student to respond to a “typical” situation in an “atypical” way. Specific conditions, events, or activities that make the problem behavior worse? (missed medication, history of academic failure, conflict at home, missed meals, lack of sleep, history of problems with peers… Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
  35. 39. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. Obtain Escape or Avoid Those events that occur after the behavior (e.g., peer attention, escape task) or as a result of the behavior (e.g., time out, suspension, detention, …) What usually happens after the behavior occurs? (e.g., teacher’s reaction, other students’ reactions, power struggle …) An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern. Events with a discrete onset and offset, that occur immediately before the challenging behavior (e.g., task demand, teacher direction, social interaction) Events that may occur before and/or during the targeted response that causes the student to respond to a “typical” situation in an “atypical” way. Specific conditions, events, or activities that make the problem behavior worse? (missed medication, history of academic failure, conflict at home, missed meals, lack of sleep, history of problems with peers… Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
  36. 40. Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis ٭
  37. 41. Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence When you wake up Christmas morning and realize that Santa came, but only left you a lump of coal and you begin to cry and beat up your sister, and then your dad whips you with his new Christmas belt. You’ve been romping on your sister all year long You received a lump of coal You begin to cry and hit your sister Your dad whips your butt with his new Christmas belt What function? Obtain sensory
  38. 42. Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence The football game is coming on in 2 minutes. Your significant other asks you to wash the dishes. You happily oblige. After one minute, you have broken two glasses and one dish. Your significant other pushes you out of the way and says, “ Just let me do them.” You sigh and go watch the game . You know if you pretend you can’t do something she will do it for you The football game is coming on and your spouse asks you to wash dishes You break two dishes and a glass Your spouse takes over and washes the dishes herself What function? Avoid activity
  39. 43. When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers make multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful What function? Avoid difficult tasks
  40. 44. From Hypothesis to Strategies when this occurs… because… Function Reduction/ Punishment Strategies Reinforcement Strategies: Alternative Behaviors: Long Term Skills: Class Behavioral Expectations Alternative/ Competing Behavior Skills: Teaching Strategies: Long Term Desired Skills: Teaching Strategies: Fast trigger strategies Slow trigger Strategies Given these circumstances Slow Triggers Fast Triggers the person does… Problem Behavior in order to… Get/Avoid
  41. 45. Building DJ’s Hypothesis(es) to the Function(s) <ul><li>in order to… </li></ul><ul><li>Gain peer attention/ interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminate/Avoid undesired peer interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Cope with frustration of other students unwilling to play/interact with him </li></ul><ul><li>person does… </li></ul><ul><li>Hits </li></ul><ul><li>Pinches </li></ul><ul><li>Grabs another person with both arms </li></ul><ul><li>Spits on another person </li></ul><ul><li>(Sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>scowls/grimaces and clinches fists before engaging in one of the other behaviors) (May cry or scream after behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>when this occurs…. </li></ul><ul><li>Other students unwilling to play/interact with Dominick </li></ul><ul><li>Standing in line near someone with whom he does not get along </li></ul><ul><li>Other students teasing him </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Coffey being out of sight </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured time </li></ul><ul><li>(playground, transitioning in line from or to classroom) </li></ul><ul><li>Given these circumstances… </li></ul><ul><li>Sickness </li></ul><ul><li>Missed meals </li></ul><ul><li>Missed medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts with certain peers </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Coffey being absent </li></ul>
  42. 46. Hypothesis Statement <ul><li>Given circumstance when DJ is </li></ul><ul><li>sick, or has missed meals, missed medicine, had conflicts with certain peers and/or when Mrs. Coffey is absent, and </li></ul><ul><li>when other students are unwilling to play/interact with him, when he is standing in line near someone with whom he does not get along , or when other students are teasing him and Mrs. Coffey is out of sight (often during unstructured times, DJ will hit, p inch. grabs others, spit on others, in order to gain peer attention, terminate/avoid undesired peer interactions, as a coping mechanism with frustration of other students unwilling to play/interact with him </li></ul>
  43. 47. DJ's Postive Behavior Support Recommendations <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom System for Rule Infractions: </li></ul><ul><li>-loose 1 st </li></ul><ul><li>card </li></ul><ul><li>-loose 2 nd </li></ul><ul><li>card </li></ul><ul><li>-loose 3 rd </li></ul><ul><li>card </li></ul><ul><li>-miss play </li></ul><ul><li>time </li></ul><ul><li>-sad note </li></ul><ul><li>home </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis Level – Goes to ISS for no more than one hour </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal praise </li></ul><ul><li>Hugs </li></ul><ul><li>Positive PEP cards </li></ul><ul><li>Stickers </li></ul><ul><li>Treasure Box </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Teach DJ to use self-management strategy to cope with frustration when other student(s) are not willing to play/interact with him or when the students tease him. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach DJ to initiate peer interaction appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Teach DJ to avoid/terminate peer interaction appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Fast Trigger Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and use T-charts to teach rules for line and playground </li></ul><ul><li>Provide guidance to substitute teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Teach DJ to move places in line </li></ul><ul><li>Role play appropriate peer attention getting/interaction skills </li></ul><ul><li>Role play appropriate avoidance/termination of peer interaction skills </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and use social stories to let DJ know that when Mrs. Coons is not close to him what he should do </li></ul><ul><li>Slow Trigger </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Call home if DJ has a fever or is throwing up </li></ul><ul><li>Let DJ lie down </li></ul><ul><li>Provide snacks/ food if DJ is hungry </li></ul><ul><li>Use cooperative groups/teams/ structures </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and use social stories to let DJ know that Mrs. Coons is absent and what happens when she is absent </li></ul>
  44. 48. <ul><li>COMPETING </li></ul><ul><li>PATHWAYS </li></ul>
  45. 49. Competing Behavior Model alternative, functionally equivalent behavior Long-term desired behavior Setting Events/ Slow Triggers Antecedents/Fast Triggers Desired Behavior Problem Behavior Replacement Behavior Reinforcing Consequence Reinforcing Consequence
  46. 50. Competing Behavior Model Setting Event Antecedent Desired Behavior Problem Behavior Replacement Behavior Reinforcing Consequence Reinforcing Consequence Academic engagement Anger Control Self Management Request to leave class/school Verbal & Physical Aggression Profanity Limited group of friends Lack of sleep Peer negative comments about size/physique or character Adult directions/ comments provided in officious, chiding, or condescending fashion Escape current demands/ situation Personal satisfaction Passing grades
  47. 51. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (WRITING) Function Behavior R
  48. 52. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (WRITING) REQUEST A BREAK X Behavior Function R
  49. 53. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (SPECIFICALLY WRITING) ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (SPECIFICALLY WRITING) REQUEST A BREAK SWEARING !?!? X X EXTINCTION 1 2 R R R R
  50. 54. Replacement Behavior <ul><li>Components: </li></ul><ul><li>* Identify functionally equivalent replacement </li></ul><ul><li>behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>* Replacement Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>(teaching and maintaining) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the replacement behavior effective and efficient for the student to use? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Response Effort : how difficult is it for the person to perform the behavior? (physically and/or cognitively) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 55. Replacement Behavior <ul><ul><li>Replacement Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify a plan for instruction in the replacement behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify plan for systematically adjusting the use of the replacement behavior requirements over time (based on data and reliant upon instruction) </li></ul></ul>Horner and Sugai, 2006
  52. 56. Reinforcement History <ul><li>Has reinforcement been used as a means of acknowledging approximations of desired behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Has reinforcement been used as a means of control, leading to resentment, and loss of motivation? </li></ul>
  53. 57. The spirit of reinforcement <ul><li>Tommy </li></ul>
  54. 58. Preferred Activities and Reinforcers <ul><li>Activities the student has identified, or demonstrated to be highly motivating </li></ul><ul><li>Items the student actively seeks out and/or are known to be reinforcing </li></ul><ul><li>Involve the student in reinforcer identification </li></ul><ul><li>FOR THE OPPOSITIONAL STUDENT, IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT HE TAKES PART IN DEVELOPING THE PLAN!!! </li></ul>
  55. 59. Interventions <ul><li>Interventions should: </li></ul><ul><li>Be linked to the results of a data-based functional assessment that answers the question </li></ul><ul><li>“ WHY is the referred problem occurring?” </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention Plans should identify: </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation steps and needed resources </li></ul><ul><li>Time-frame needed before outcomes will be seen </li></ul><ul><li>How implementation integrity and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>will be evaluated </li></ul>
  56. 60. Behavior Mantra: “ It is easier to prevent a behavior from occurring than to deal with it after it has happened.”
  57. 61. If you’ve told a child a thousand times and she/he still doesn’t understand, then it is not the CHILD who is the slow learner! Anonymous
  58. 62. Barriers to Successful BIPS <ul><ul><li>not including all team members (including parents and the student) in the development, implementation and evaluation of the plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>having too vague a definition of a target behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>incomplete measurement or data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an inaccurate hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inappropriate interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a lack of skill or support to carry out the interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>failing to take into account other issues (like environment, culture, mental health, physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>health, drug use, out of school activities, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that are affecting the student's behavior. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 63. The Behavior-Instruction Connection Procedures for Academic Problems Procedures for Behavioral Problems *Assume the student has learned *Assume student refuses to cooperate the wrong way *Assume student has been taught *Assume student knows what is right (inadvertently) the wrong way and has been told often enough *Diagnose the problem *Provide more negative consequences withdraw student from normal context *Adjust presentation, use effective *Provide more negative consequences instructional strategies, provide maintain removal from normal context feedback, practice & review *Assume student has learned the skill *Assume student has learned his/her lesson Frequent Errors
  60. 64. Interventions based on Function of Behavior <ul><li>Once the function for the problem behavior is identified, we can then: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach and encourage an alternative behavior that serves the same purpose (function) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate or reduce the “pay-off” for the problem behavior </li></ul></ul>
  61. 65. Common Individual and System Responses to Problem Behavior <ul><li>Clamp down on rule violators </li></ul><ul><li>Extend continuum of aversive consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Improve consistency of use of punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Establish “bottom line” </li></ul><ul><li>In-school suspension </li></ul><ul><li>Zero tolerance policies </li></ul><ul><li>Security guards, student uniforms, metal detectors, surveillance cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension/Expulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusionary options (e.g. Alternative programs) </li></ul>
  62. 66. According to Research, the LEAST EFFECTIVE responses to problem behavior are: <ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment (Gottfredson,1997; Lipsey, 1991; Lipsey & Wilson, 1993; Tolan & Guerra, 1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusion is the most common response for conduct-disordered, juvenile delinquent, and behaviorally disordered youth (Lane & Murakami, 1987) but it is largely ineffective. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 67. Why Then, Do We Educators, Resource Officers, and Counselors Employ These Procedures? <ul><li>When WE experience aversive situations, we select interventions that produce immediate (rather than sustained) relief. We tend to focus on our concerns, not the student’s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove the student. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove ourselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify the physical environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign responsibility for change to student and/or others. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 68. What results from these responses? <ul><li>Punishing problem behaviors without a school-wide system of support is associated with increased: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vandalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>truancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tardiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dropping out (Mayer, 1995; Mayer & Sulzer-Azaroff, 1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fosters environments of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occasions and reinforces antisocial behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifts ownership away from school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens child-adult relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming </li></ul></ul>
  65. 69. Traditional Approaches to Dealing with Difficult Behavior <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion </li></ul>
  66. 70. Challenge #3
  67. 71. Research on Coercion <ul><li> Coercive interchanges are much more frequent in the families of aggressive children. </li></ul><ul><li> The aversive behavior of one person is usually responded to with aversive behavior of the other person. </li></ul><ul><li> The mother is the focus for the majority of coercive behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li> When mothers give in or comply with the child’s coercive behavior, such behavior immediately decreases. </li></ul><ul><li> Mothers of children with behavior problems are more likely to provide attention following deviant behavior. </li></ul><ul><li> Mothers of problem children are more likely to provide commands. </li></ul><ul><li> Mothers of problem children administer more frequent punishment. </li></ul><ul><li> Parents of problem children utilize more punishment than parents of non-problem children. </li></ul><ul><li>Kazdin, 1985 </li></ul>
  68. 72. <ul><ul><li>Social skills training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic and curricular restructuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral interventions (Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsey, 1991, 1992; Lipsey & Wilson, 1993; Tolan & Guerra, 1994) </li></ul></ul>According to Research, the MOST EFFECTIVE responses to problem behavior are:
  69. 73. Antecedent * <ul><li>Pay close attention to: </li></ul><ul><li>The activity </li></ul><ul><li>The adult(s) </li></ul><ul><li>The peer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>The location/environment </li></ul><ul><li>The demand or request </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing is not an option!!! </li></ul></ul>
  70. 75. <ul><li>Deal with behavior problems </li></ul><ul><li>Separate students with a high probability or history of having behavioral problems </li></ul><ul><li>Relocate the student, relocate others </li></ul><ul><li>Change physical environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Move the locale of the activities </li></ul><ul><li>Use of warnings and loss of privileges may be necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Only when procedures to increase positive behavior are combined with those to decrease negative behavior do teachers achieve the best results in the classroom. </li></ul>Antecedent Interventions
  71. 76. Antecedent Interventions <ul><li>Deal with Difficult Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Provide frequent non-contingent attention and interaction </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fix” difficult tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Build behavioral momentum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for 2-3 likely behaviors before an unlikely behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prompt incompatible, desired behavior </li></ul>
  72. 77. Three Classes of Prevention <ul><li>1. Environmental Enhancements </li></ul><ul><li>2. Teaching Students Replacement Skills </li></ul><ul><li>3. Enhancing Staff Competencies and </li></ul><ul><li>Approach Strategies </li></ul>
  73. 78. The Horse Whisperer “I’ve heard you help people with horse problems” <ul><li>“ Truth is, I help horses with people problems” </li></ul>Tom Booker, The Horse Whisperer 1998
  74. 79. HORSE SENSE? <ul><li>Many teachers and administrators believe their schools need help with student behavior problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Truth is, our students need help with school problems. </li></ul>
  75. 80. The 1-7% <ul><li>We take them home with us every day. </li></ul><ul><li>Our family knows them without ever having met them. </li></ul><ul><li>We dream about them. </li></ul><ul><li>They learn how to push our buttons. </li></ul><ul><li>They can take us down a road we don’t want to travel. </li></ul><ul><li>They make us think that maybe we should have gone into marketing or real estate. </li></ul><ul><li>They are extremely difficult to like at times… </li></ul>
  76. 81. Our most challenging children <ul><li>May not respond to traditional consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Will require more support and change on our part </li></ul><ul><li>Will need a significant positive relationship at school </li></ul><ul><li>Will need another way to find acceptance in the school environment </li></ul><ul><li>May be resistant to strategies to develop self control </li></ul>
  77. 82. What does “Positive” mean? <ul><li>Climate of Mutual Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship Driven </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Self Control </li></ul><ul><li>Clear Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge Desired Behaviors </li></ul>
  78. 83. Five Conditions of Potential Impact <ul><li>Setting Event Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Behavior Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence Strategies </li></ul>
  79. 84. Generating & Prioritizing Recommendations <ul><li>Select interventions that will make the problem behavior irrelevant (e.g., preventive, slow and fast trigger strategies) </li></ul><ul><li>Select interventions that will make the problem behavior inefficient (e.g., disregard, consequences to discourage challenging behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>Select interventions that will make the problem behavior ineffective (e.g., teach alternative competing strategies and reinforce, ensuring alternative behavior is as, or more, effective and efficient than challenging behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify long/longer term desired behaviors and teaching strategies to teach them. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an effective strategy to monitor and evaluate outcomes. </li></ul>
  80. 85. Role-play <ul><li>Provide student with opportunities to “Practice for Mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for practice must be positive practice </li></ul><ul><li>New skills need 45 to 70 positive practice opportunities to move to long-term memory </li></ul>
  81. 86. Acknowledge Appropriate Behavior <ul><li>Make a habit of noticing appropriate behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Be genuine and personal </li></ul><ul><li>Use positive behavior as an opportunity to develop a positive relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid pitting good behavior against “bad” behavior </li></ul>
  82. 87. Ratio of Corrective Feedback <ul><li>5 to 7 : 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Positives Negative </li></ul>
  83. 88. Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90% Academic Systems Behavioral Systems <ul><li>Intensive, Individual Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Students </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment-based </li></ul><ul><li>High Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive, Individual Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Students </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment-based </li></ul><ul><li>Intense, durable procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted Group Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Some students (at-risk) </li></ul><ul><li>High efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid response </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted Group Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Some students (at-risk) </li></ul><ul><li>High efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid response </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>All students </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive, proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>All settings, all students </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive, proactive </li></ul>
  84. 90. Strategies for Defiance The I-ASSIST MODEL <ul><ul><ul><li>I-Isolate the young person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A- Actively listen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S-Speak Calmly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S-Statements of Understanding proceed requests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I- Invite student to consider positive outcomes and behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S- Space reduces pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T-Time helps students to respond to requests </li></ul></ul></ul>Cornell University. 2006
  85. 91. OTHER DIFFUSION STRATEGIES <ul><li>Managing the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Prompting </li></ul><ul><li>Caring Gesture </li></ul><ul><li>Hurdle Help </li></ul><ul><li>Redirection </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Planned Ignoring and Positive Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Time Away </li></ul>
  86. 92. Physical Management Concerns <ul><li>FBA/BIP ??? reviewing use-formal or informal </li></ul><ul><li>Indication: imminent risk of safety to individual students or others </li></ul><ul><li>Reoccurring Behavior: FBA.PBSP </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Student is resistant or persisting in dangerous behavior – </li></ul><ul><li>NO INSTRUCTIONAL CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Restraint </li></ul><ul><li>(Immobilizing extremities) </li></ul><ul><li>For safety- aggression, violence </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Restraints </li></ul><ul><li>(Using Devices to immobilize extremities or restrict </li></ul><ul><li>movement- seatbelts, harnesses. Wrist cuffs, wraps) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Management </li></ul><ul><li>a. Forcing Compliance-e.g...., pick up the toys, forced exercise, forced </li></ul><ul><li>participation, forced naps, forced eating, forced toileting </li></ul><ul><li>b. Blocking access to a preferred or restricted activity </li></ul><ul><li>c. Physical Transports -e.g., caring a resisting student in from outside, carrying a </li></ul><ul><li>student to the office, carrying a student to time-out) </li></ul>
  87. 93. Student is Under Verbal Control <ul><li>Physical Escorts </li></ul><ul><li>(Brief holding of student with minimal contact for purposes of directing a student </li></ul><ul><li>from point A to point B) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Helping a student do something he wants to do but is physically incapable or limited </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence Based Programs: CPI/TCI-Other </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Other Interventions outside the context of CPI/TCI </li></ul><ul><li>Need written procedural guidelines re: when and how these interventions will be utilized and how their use will be approved and evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>All forms of seclusion restraint/management- a debriefing requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Seclusion- an emergency seclusion plan is required </li></ul><ul><li>Grey areas that often involve physical restraint or management: coming in from recess or denying recess, coming to activities, giving up an item, denying access to recess, the computer, or another preferred activity, leaving an preferred activity, removing a privilege, going to time-out </li></ul>
  88. 94. How to get someone to leave <ul><li>Consider focus of anger </li></ul><ul><li>Problem or solution </li></ul><ul><li>Remember your goal </li></ul>
  89. 95. Seclusion Provisions <ul><li>Time-out concerns- Seclusion should not be used as a punishment or as a substitution for less restrictive alternative “In a time-out setting, a student’s movement is not physically restricted.” </li></ul>
  90. 96. Establishing a Relationship Based Approach Reinforcement should be a celebration of effort
  91. 97. OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANCE DISORDER
  92. 98. “ AN ATTACHMENT FORMS BETWEEN INFANT AND PRIMARY CAREGIVER SOMETIME DURING THE INFANT’S FIRST TWO YEARS OF LIFE.”
  93. 99. Attachment is the “lasting psychological connectedness between human beings.”
  94. 100. “ The quality of our attachment acts as a foundation for our future.”
  95. 101. The Basic Function of Secure Attachment <ul><li>Learn basic trust and reciprocity. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the environment with feelings of safety and security which leads to healthy cognitive and social development. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the ability to self-regulate, which results in effective management of impulses and emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a foundation for the formation of identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a prosocial moral framework, which involves empathy. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate the core belief system. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a defense against stress and trauma. </li></ul>
  96. 102. “ AN ATTACHMENT DISORDER OCCURS WHEN THE ATTACHMENT PERIOD IS DISRUPTED OR INADEQUATE, LEAVING THE CHILD WITH THE INABILITY TO FORM A NORMAL RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHERS AND CAUSING AN IMPAIRMENT IN DEVELOPMENT.”
  97. 103. Characteristics or Symptoms of Attachment Disorder: <ul><li>Superficially charming: uses cuteness to get her or his way. </li></ul><ul><li>Cruel to animals or people. </li></ul><ul><li>Fascinated by fire/death/blood/gore. </li></ul><ul><li>Severe need for control over adults even over minute situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulative-plays adults against each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in making eye-contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of affection on parental terms yet overly affectionate to strangers. </li></ul><ul><li>Bossy. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows no remorse---seems to have no conscience. </li></ul><ul><li>Lies and steals. </li></ul><ul><li>Low impulse control. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of cause/effect thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Destructiveness to self, others and material things. </li></ul>
  98. 104. What the research says about overcoming the effects of insecure or interrupted attachment. <ul><li>Prognosis is Tenuous </li></ul><ul><li>High Risk for Interpersonal Problems </li></ul><ul><li>High Risk for Not Responding to Traditional Behavioral Treatment Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>High Risk for Oppositional Defiance </li></ul><ul><li>Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>High Risk for Conduct Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Age of Intervention is a significant variable </li></ul><ul><li>Most Frequently Identified Protective Factors include: Intelligence, Proximity, and Constancy </li></ul>
  99. 105. <ul><li>Oppositional defiant children: </li></ul><ul><li>possess a strong need for control, and will do just about anything to gain power.  </li></ul><ul><li>deny responsibility for their misbehavior and have little insight into how they impact others </li></ul><ul><li>socially exploitive and very quick to notice how others respond - then use the responses to his advantage in family or social environments, or both. </li></ul>
  100. 106. Let’s Make a Deal <ul><li>“ You need to finish your math before recess.” . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Ask rather than tell - “What do you need to do before recess?” </li></ul><ul><li>Need to feel in control </li></ul><ul><li>It’s your choice - you control if you do your math before recess or . . . </li></ul>
  101. 107. Public, Blatant Violation of Rules <ul><li>“ Remember to raise your hand before speaking.” . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Planned ignoring for the moment </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid power struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Address violation later, privately </li></ul><ul><li>Teach students about planned ignoring </li></ul>
  102. 108. Having the Last Word <ul><li>Need for control </li></ul><ul><li>Let them have the last word </li></ul><ul><li>Use planned ignoring </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with behavior later, privately </li></ul><ul><li>If they have the last word and then get back to work - who really wins? </li></ul>
  103. 109. Staff Splitting <ul><li>“ But Mrs. Smith doesn’t . . .” </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the purpose of this behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Put the focus back on the student - not the adult </li></ul><ul><li>Teach students that rules change across adults </li></ul>
  104. 110. Refusal to Comply <ul><li>“ You can’t make me.” </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid asserting your control </li></ul><ul><li>“ You’re right - I can’t make you . . . </li></ul><ul><li>The only person who can control your behavior is you. I hope you make a good decision/choice.” </li></ul>
  105. 111. Additional Suggestions <ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Time limits </li></ul><ul><li>Choices </li></ul><ul><li>Saving Face </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the right ?s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What needs to be done before recess? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT - Don’t you think you need to do your math before recess? </li></ul></ul>
  106. 112. Teacher Behavior that  Power Struggles <ul><li>Threatening student </li></ul><ul><li>Responding emotionally </li></ul><ul><li>Confronting publicly </li></ul><ul><li>Responding quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Offering bribes </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to convince </li></ul><ul><li>Put downs </li></ul>
  107. 113. Teacher Behavior that  Power Struggles <ul><li>Providing directives + choices </li></ul><ul><li>Set pre-determined consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Listen before reacting </li></ul><ul><li>Use calm voice + manner </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Walk away before getting too hot </li></ul>
  108. 114. Power Struggle Reduction Plan <ul><li>Partner or team </li></ul><ul><li>Take over for one another </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-determine consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Establish negotiable + non-negotiable rules </li></ul><ul><li>After getting hooked - reflect on why </li></ul><ul><li>Provide frequent reinforcement to student </li></ul>
  109. 115. Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Don’t threaten - use consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Do state clearly desired + undesired behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be inconsistent or wishy-washy </li></ul><ul><li>Do stay calm, cool, collected </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t take it personally </li></ul><ul><li>Do teach compliance </li></ul>
  110. 116. It is important to distinguish between a won’t problem and a can’t problem <ul><li>Can be difficult to assess </li></ul><ul><li>Treating a can’t problem with punishment can cause distrust and alienation </li></ul><ul><li>Treating a won’t problem with punishment and reward programs can result in deceit and manipulation </li></ul>
  111. 117. Contra-Indicated Behavioral Strategies for the Oppositional Child <ul><li>Ultimatums </li></ul><ul><li>Strict Boundaries: Drawing the Line in the Sand </li></ul><ul><li>Counts, Warnings, Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged Eye-Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Infringing on Personal Space </li></ul><ul><li>Social Disapproval </li></ul><ul><li>Judgmental Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Response Cost and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Strict Boundaries or Contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension and Detention, Progressive Discipline </li></ul>
  112. 118. Underlying Systems of Control in School <ul><li>The use of reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Response Cost-loss of privileges, loss of points, loss of access to reinforcing events, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictive classroom rules and boundaries-e.g., “ No going in my desk.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ No going into this area.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ No talking while in line.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sitting with both both feet on the floor.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Raising your hand before talking.” </li></ul><ul><li>Expecting immediate compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension, Detention, and other forms of punishment </li></ul>
  113. 119. Social Maladjustment and Emotional Impairment are two distinct behavioral disorders.
  114. 120. Students with conduct disorder engage in deliberate acts of self-interest to gain attention or to intimidate others. They experience no distress or self-devaluation or internalized distress.
  115. 121. <ul><li>Maladjusted/Conduct Disorder students: </li></ul><ul><li>perceive themselves as normal </li></ul><ul><li>are capable of behaving appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>choose to break rules and violate norms. </li></ul><ul><li>view rule breaking as normal and acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>are motivated by self-gain and strong survival skills </li></ul><ul><li>lack age appropriate concern for their behavior </li></ul><ul><li>displayed behavior which may be highly valued in a small subgroup </li></ul><ul><li>display socialized or unsocialized forms of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>due not display anxiety unless they fear being caught </li></ul><ul><li>intensity and duration of behavior differs markedly </li></ul><ul><li>from peer group </li></ul>
  116. 122. Students with Emotional Impairment engage in involuntary patterns of behavior and experience internalized distress about their behaviors.
  117. 123. <ul><li>Educational options for Emotionally Impaired and Socially Maladjusted students often parallel. </li></ul><ul><li>Small class size, individualized programming, modified curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Work study, adjusted school hours, vocational programming, shorten academic periods and alternative placement. </li></ul>
  118. 124. For the child with an Emotional Impairment, diffusing a crisis will often involve reducing anxiety. For the child with Conduct Disorder and effective response should increase anxiety Barkley, 2005
  119. 125. Our most challenging children <ul><li>May not respond to traditional consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Will require more support and change on our part </li></ul><ul><li>Will need a significant positive relationship at school </li></ul><ul><li>Will need another way to find acceptance in the school environment </li></ul><ul><li>May be resistant to strategies to develop self control </li></ul>
  120. 126. To Reach the 1-7% <ul><li>Abandon ineffective practices. Resist inclination to exclude. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate what the child deserves and what he needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Realize that he/she needs our support and forgiveness the most. </li></ul><ul><li>Reframe who they are. </li></ul><ul><li>Think “outside the box.” </li></ul><ul><li>Abandon expectation of a quick fix </li></ul><ul><li>Need a 5:1 reinforcement ratio, with meaningful incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Need peer support. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to undermine harmful mentors </li></ul>
  121. 127. Ross Greene’s Three Basket Method <ul><li>Three goals with this method: </li></ul><ul><li>1. To maintain adults as authority figures. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Teach skills of flexibility and frustration </li></ul><ul><li>tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Awareness of the child’s limitations. </li></ul>
  122. 128. Three basket method: How it works <ul><li>Behaviors are divided into three baskets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basket A -are non-negotiable behaviors- usually fall into the safety and rights of others category. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These behaviors are those that are important enough to endure a “meltdown” over. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child must be capable of successfully exhibiting this behavior on a fairly consistent basis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basket B - These behaviors are important but can be worked on over time. They are not behaviors worth inducing a “meltdown” over. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basket C - These behaviors are those that could be ignored without any significant repercussions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  123. 129. Advantages of this Treatment Approach <ul><li>Breaks behaviors down into three approachable categories. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes communication and problem solving techniques over rewards and punishments. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches frustration tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>Absolves blame while keeping the child’s self-esteem in tact. </li></ul>
  124. 130. Limitations of the 3-basket method <ul><li>It is ideal to make this work that all parties; teachers, parents, support staff be able to work together. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Greene is careful to point out that even though there are some issues that the non-medical approach addresses more effectively than the medical approach there are indeed some factors medicine addresses better than the non-medical approach. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For those children who need medication it will make it more difficult to teach frustration tolerance when there is also an organic matter. </li></ul></ul>
  125. 131. THE SPIRIT OF DATA COLLECTION <ul><li>Data needs to be used for decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection methods need to be user friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Data Collection needs to have the goal of benefiting students </li></ul><ul><li>Data needs to take place in a spirit of trust and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Data should never be used to evaluate staff, to compare classroom, to compare administrators, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Bad data should be viewed as inaccurate good data </li></ul>
  126. 132. Monitor the Faithfulness of Implementation of the Plan <ul><li>Identify any training and resources needed to implement plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an action plan that includes specific objectives/ activities, persons responsible, and time lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice elements of plan and establish protocol for crisis plan or emergency procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Debrief whenever significant behaviors occur or staff when escalatory behavioral patterns emerge </li></ul>
  127. 133. Guidelines for Making Intervention Decisions <ul><li>1.Determine the kind of data to collect </li></ul><ul><li>according to critical dimension(s) of the target behavior (e.g., frequency, duration, magnitude). </li></ul><ul><li>2.Collect data until you are confident </li></ul><ul><li>that you have an accurate picture </li></ul><ul><li>of the target behavior (and its context). </li></ul>
  128. 134. Guidelines for Making Intervention Decisions (cont’d) <ul><li>3.Record data on a graph to allow visual examination of student behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Allow about 3-5 weeks for the novelty of change itself to dissipate (i.e., “washout”) and for impact of intervention to emerge. </li></ul>
  129. 135. Guidelines for Making Intervention Decisions (cont’d) <ul><li>5.Make decisions that take into account the direction, trend, and variability of the data in relation to desired changes in the behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>6.Make decisions according to </li></ul><ul><li>frequency, severity, and persistence </li></ul><ul><li>of the behavior. </li></ul>
  130. 136. Guidelines for Making Intervention Decisions <ul><li>7.Make intervention decisions about </li></ul><ul><li>every 3-4 weeks, more often </li></ul><ul><li>depending on severity of behavior and </li></ul><ul><li>intrusiveness and complexity of the </li></ul><ul><li>intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>8.If data shows progress toward goal, </li></ul><ul><li>continue intervention. </li></ul>
  131. 137. Reasons to Modify a Plan <ul><li>The student has reached his/her behavioral goals & objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a change in student placement. </li></ul><ul><li>The original intervention plan is not producing positive changes </li></ul><ul><li>The students behaviors are deteriating </li></ul><ul><li>New problem behaviors have emerged </li></ul><ul><li>Someone is being hurt or placed in danger </li></ul>
  132. 138. Reasons to request outside support <ul><li>Problems with Program Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Political Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple programs lacking effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict, distrust, or hostility between and home and school </li></ul><ul><li>Staff disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>Staff as significant setting event </li></ul>
  133. 139. Possible Components of Intervention Plan <ul><li>All of these areas can impact behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>academic skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social/interpersonal skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-management skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problem solving skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>language skills </li></ul></ul>
  134. 140. Social Skills Deficits <ul><li>1. Social skills deficit - student does not possess the skills. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Social skills performance deficit - student possesses the skills but lacks the motivation to engage in them. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Self-control deficit - student is unable to learn the skills due to conflicting emotional responses. </li></ul>
  135. 141. Social Skills Deficits (cont’d) <ul><li>4. Self-control performance deficit - student possesses the skills but is unable to use them due to conflicting emotional responses. </li></ul>
  136. 142. FATHERS <ul><li>The Importance of a Positive Male Role Model </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics on Fathers </li></ul>Vitto, 2006
  137. 143. [email_address]

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