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Carol Quirk: Positive Behavior Supports


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Presentation by Carol Quirk, Co-Executive Director at Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Education, given in during her visit to Yekaterinburg, Russia sponsored by the US Consulate General in Yekaterinburg.

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Carol Quirk: Positive Behavior Supports

  1. 1. Positive Behavior Supports School-Wide Class-Wide Individual Student
  2. 2. Professional Development in Autism Center Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Behavior = Communication and is influenced by: Unmet emotional needs (basic/long term) Biological issues (e.g., depression, anxiety) Unmet needs or desires (immediate) Difficult demands/challenges Fears
  3. 3. Professional Development in Autism Center Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Behavior is Communication A person may have a need for: Attention Avoidance/escape All behavior is about: Power and control
  4. 4. Jamie Burke, Student Syracuse, NY “Bad behavior, my friends, is just violent speech”
  5. 5. Professional Development in Autism Center Maryland Coalition for Inclusive What is problem behavior? • Results in exclusion – Classes – Social groups – Community settings • Impedes social relationships • Results in reduced quality of life (person/family) • Requires a plan to resolve!
  6. 6. When behavior interferes with personal relationships and endangers inclusion: We need to figure out: • WHY the person uses the behavior, • WHAT they get out of it, and • How they can communicate the same thing in an acceptable way
  7. 7. Functions of Behavior Get/Obtain (I want) Escape/Avoid (I don’t want) Object/Activity Social/Attention Sensory
  8. 8. Setting Events Triggers Behavior Consequence Behavior Sequence
  9. 9. Professional Development in Autism Center Maryland Coalition for Inclusive When behavior interferes with personal relationships and endangers inclusion: We need to analyze the function of and influences on the behavior to: • design support strategies to prevent the behavior, • develop an response plan for when the behavior does occur, and • teach the student “replacement” behavior or alternative behavior to use in the same situation
  10. 10. Functional Behavior Assessment A team process For gathering information To design a behavior plan
  11. 11. Functional Behavior Assessment • Who is this Student • Define the Behavior of Concern • Gather Information About the Behavior of Concern • Identify the Setting Events and the Triggers • Develop a Hypothesis • Make a Plan • Use the Plan • Reconsider the Plan THE TEAM
  12. 12. Functional Behavior Assessment It enables us to understand • why the person uses the behavior, • what influences the need to use the behavior, • how to decrease this need and • how to increase the person’s use of alternatives when the need does occur.
  13. 13. Professional Development in Autism Center Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Start with the Student • What is valued in the Student’s life • What about the student is valued by others? • Clarify the behavior: – Individual behaviors – Behavior sequences – Response classes
  14. 14. Antecedent events  Stimuli that precede & “trigger” or occasion behavioral events  Occurs before response & signals or occasions response • When told to be quiet, Talia yells • When a peer teases the way she walks, Nadia is may throw her books • When sitting next to Malia, Alexander hits her
  15. 15. Setting Events Unique situations that make problem behavior more intense or more likely to occur (e.g., illness, fatigue, hunger, social conflict). – Work completion is less important to Anton after he has had an argument with her friend before class, or – Raisa yells when she hasn’t had enough sleep night before, or – Peer attention and talking is distracting when Yulia isn’t feeling well
  16. 16. Triggers • Setting events may be considered “slow” triggers – things that are going on in the background of the person’s life. – Environmental (light, noise, heat, proximity) – Physical (tiredness, medication, illness) – Instructional (task difficulty, content, materials) – Interpersonal (type of interaction from others) – Control (extent of choices and predictability of routine) • Fast triggers are those things that seem to cause the behavior to happen NOW.
  17. 17. Peer provocation Triggers
  18. 18. Triggers Being yelled at by adults
  19. 19. Triggers Work that is too difficult
  20. 20. Consequence events  Stimuli that follow & maintain or increase likelihood of a behavioral event.  Presented contingent upon performance of a response – Whenever Yolanda raises her hand & smiles, her teachers call on her. – When Irinia uses refuses to do her work, her teacher gives her more attention. – When Alek destroys his homework, his mother asks the teacher to help him the next day.
  21. 21. COLLECT DATA! • When the behavior is likely to occur • When the behavior is NOT likely to occur • Continue looking at setting events and triggers as part of the assessment
  22. 22. Good FBA Questions • When is the behavior likely to occur? • What specific events or factors seem to contribute to the student’s behavior? • What function(s) does the behavior serve for the student? • What might the student be communicating with the behavior? • When is the student most successful, and therefore less likely to engage in the behavior? • What other factors might be contributing to the student’s behavior?
  23. 23. Behavior Analysis • A-B-C data (anecdotal charting about what happens each time the behavior occur) • Frequency counts (counting each time the behavior occurs during a specific period) • Duration (how long does the behavior go on when it does occur) • Level of independence (how many & what kind of cues does the person need before they display the behavior)
  24. 24. Professional Development in Autism Center Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Sample chart Setting: When, where, who, what activity? What happened before the behavior? What exactly did the student do and say What did staff, students do; what changed?
  25. 25. Event Sampling Frequency or duration of behavior is recorded during a specific period of time. The specific interval could be a classroom period or a specific time of day. It is appropriate for measuring behaviors that are discreet; that is, they begin and end in a clearly observable way. The events could be tabulated by marking the frequency during the targeted time or a yes/no occurrence during the targeted time. Mark each time behavior occurs in class Date: Date: Date: Math Science
  26. 26. Time Sampling For frequent/multiple behaviors. For example, if a student made disruptive noises with his/her voice and hands during classes, a particular time period could be divided into short intervals (10 or 20 seconds for example). The recorder indicates whether or not the behavior occurred during that time interval at all (yes or no). Behavior: Yes or NO? Date: Date: Date: Math Recess
  27. 27. Professional Development in Autism Center Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Develop a Hypothesis When (trigger) happens, this student is does (behavior) in order express (function). This is more likely to occur when (setting event)… … and test it
  28. 28. Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Following events that maintain behaviors of concern Preceding events that trigger or occasion Set of related behaviors of concern Infrequent events that affect value of maint. conseq. “Best guess” about behavior & conditions under which it is observed Directly guides development of BIP Testable Hypothesis
  29. 29. Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Lack of peer contact in 30 minutes. Do difficult math assignment. Noncompliance, profanity, physical aggression, Avoid task, remove from class. Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Points, grades, questions, more work. Do work w/o complaints. Summary Statement Acceptable Alternative Ask for break, ask for help. Why is function important? Because consequences compete!! Function
  30. 30. Professional Development in Autism Center Maryland Coalition for Setting Events Unstructured social time Triggering Antecedents Peers try to engage Billy in conversations. Maintaining Consequences AVOID peer interactions Problem Behavior Turns eyes away, does not respond verbally, pulls sweater over his head. Desired Alternative Appropriate Verbal response And wave Walk away Acceptable Alternative Walk away Typical Consequence AVOID peer interactions Summary Statement
  31. 31. Making a Behavior Plan It is necessary to develop prevention support strategies to decrease the likelihood that the behavior will occur. AND It is often helpful to teach students alternative ways to express these needs in more typical ways (replacement behaviors). AND If the behavior does occur, you’ll need a response plan to minimize its negative impact on the student and others.
  32. 32. SUPPORTS Things that will be done to decrease the likelihood of the behavior occurring. Changing the environment to prevent the behaviors from occurring and reinforcing other ways to communicate the same function. Rearranging the environment so that the challenging behavior is no longer effective, efficient, or relevant
  33. 33. Professional Development in Autism Center Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Planning Supports: • Changes to the physical environment – e.g., changing lighting, noise levels • Curriculum modifications to support the student’s learning style – e.g., use of manipulatives, visual materials, written directions • Accommodations – e.g., AlphaSmart for writing tasks, visual schedules, graphic organizers, repetition of directions, warnings for changes in routine • Communication supports – e.g., use of augmentative communication, print supports The supports will be specific to the situation in which the behavior occurs. Strategies used at school will be different from those used at home.
  34. 34. Professional Development in Autism Center Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Increase opportunities for choice-making. • Within tasks/activities/lessons • With materials to be used • With people to work with • With places • When to do work/activity • When student can stop work/activity
  35. 35. RESPONSE PLAN • This behavior has been a very effective way for the student to communicate his or her needs, or it wouldn’t be used. • There are times when the student will exhibit the challenging behavior. • How will staff respond when the behavior does occur? …to minimizes the behavior and redirects the student to the current task at hand.
  36. 36. Parts of the Response Plan: Who: General educators, special educator, assistant/para educator, cafeteria staff, etc. Will do what: (Least intrusive first) Who will help: And if that doesn’t work… (what do we do next?)
  37. 37. Fundamental Rule “You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors that the person should perform instead of problem behavior”
  38. 38. TEACHING PLAN • Replacement behaviors should accomplish the same goal for the student, (but in a more conventional and acceptable way. • The new behavior MUST serve the same FUNCTION!
  39. 39. Guidelines for Teaching Plans:  Provide planned opportunities to practice the new behavior  Reinforce the new behavior immediately when it occurs  Use repetition (repeated practice) in functional, realistic situations  Use cues (visual cues, gestural cues, or verbal cues) to prompt the new response as necessary  Be able to be consistently implemented  Be revisited and adjusted, particularly in the first few weeks of implementation
  40. 40. Team Planning = Success When a team works together, they are more likely to come up with an accurate plan in a quicker time frame!
  41. 41. Behavior Supports School-Wide and Class-Wide
  42. 42. Individually Designed Behavior Interventions Individually Designed Academic Interventions Targeted Group Behavior Interventions Targeted Group Academic Interventions
  43. 43. School-Wide Expectations and Rules Clear & explicit Reasonable Positively worded Few in number Posted and Visible
  44. 44. Encourage & Reinforce Expected Behaviors • Use Positive Reinforcement • Be Specific • Be consistent • 4:1 Positive to Negative Interactions
  45. 45. Build a Classroom Community • Explicit conversations • Celebrations • Games • Ask all students to give and get support
  46. 46. To Conclude • Work from a person-centered, function- based approach • Focus on adult behavior • Utilize data to make decisions • Give priority to academic success • Teach & acknowledge behavioral expectations