Individual Assessment and Intervention Jane E Prochnow
The nature of teacher and student behaviour is extremely complex and variable.  <ul><li>Factors contributing to the comple...
<ul><li>When the behaviour of students in the classroom become too difficult, a RTLB can be called into the situation to o...
Understanding behaviour includes: <ul><li>Observation, </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment in the classroom context, </li></ul><u...
In observation, our first question is: <ul><li>What is going on here? </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by, what does it mean?  A...
This section is about functional behaviour analysis including: <ul><li>Conducting observations, </li></ul><ul><li>Collecti...
All behaviour has a function. <ul><li>The focus of functional behaviour analysis is the function or purpose of the difficu...
FBA is a rigorous, time-consuming process if done well . <ul><li>Scott, et al. (2004) discuss how the demanding methodolog...
<ul><li>Awareness of antecedents is the first step toward creating a positive and preventative classroom environment. </li...
Observing and collecting data <ul><li>Shippen, Simpson, and Crites (2003) present an accessible and practical guide throug...
<ul><li>The clearer we are regarding specifically what teacher and student behaviours we are interested in,  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Generally learners who require individualised interventions (Tier 3), do so because they have not been responsive ...
<ul><li>Third, careful examination of and attention to the learner’s reactions to the intervention/s is key to testing the...
How can we maintain and generalize positive change? <ul><li>Both occur through use of  </li></ul><ul><li>Careful planning,...
Maintain and generalize positive change: <ul><li>Create a positive classroom atmosphere where all the students feel valued...
Problem solving when the behaviour does not change <ul><li>Review earlier decisions and data which guided the choice of in...
At times a situation needs to be “put right” or “restored”. <ul><li>Three questions guide a restorative approach to behavi...
Restorative practices <ul><li>When relationships have broken down all persons take responsibility for what happened and co...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

D2b2

3,602 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,602
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3,133
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

D2b2

  1. 1. Individual Assessment and Intervention Jane E Prochnow
  2. 2. The nature of teacher and student behaviour is extremely complex and variable. <ul><li>Factors contributing to the complexity include: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher and student behaviour, </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom context, </li></ul><ul><li>Wider environment including the community, </li></ul><ul><li>Family, friends, siblings, and peers, </li></ul><ul><li>Needs, demands, expectations, attitudes and pressures, </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement and punishments, and </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of interaction that occur in the classroom. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>When the behaviour of students in the classroom become too difficult, a RTLB can be called into the situation to offer expertise, ideas, an unencumbered view of the behaviours, and suggestions for interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>The RTLB should be able to support the teacher to begin to unpackage and understand the learner’s behaviours. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Understanding behaviour includes: <ul><li>Observation, </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment in the classroom context, </li></ul><ul><li>Learner’s abilities, strengths, and challenges, </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s abilities, strengths, and challenges, </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention options, </li></ul><ul><li>And, importantly, a realistic idea of what can change, </li></ul><ul><li>What will change, and </li></ul><ul><li>What is workable for the teacher, learner, and school. </li></ul>
  5. 5. In observation, our first question is: <ul><li>What is going on here? </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by, what does it mean? And </li></ul><ul><li>What functions do the behaviours of interest serve for the players in the interaction? </li></ul><ul><li>To answer these questions we begin a functional assessment of the interactions taking place in the classroom. </li></ul>
  6. 6. This section is about functional behaviour analysis including: <ul><li>Conducting observations, </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting data on behaviours, </li></ul><ul><li>Using the data to plan interventions for difficult behaviour, </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing interventions appropriate for the student, teacher and context, </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining and generalizing positive behaviour changes, and </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting on problem solving when the interventions are minimally successful or not successful. </li></ul>
  7. 7. All behaviour has a function. <ul><li>The focus of functional behaviour analysis is the function or purpose of the difficult behaviour the student is exhibiting. </li></ul><ul><li>This information will enable us to tailor individual interventions for the student. </li></ul>
  8. 8. FBA is a rigorous, time-consuming process if done well . <ul><li>Scott, et al. (2004) discuss how the demanding methodologies of FBA can be relaxed so that it can be put into practice in classrooms by educators. </li></ul><ul><li>Conroy and Stichter (2003) discuss examining antecedents to behaviours and using antecedent and functional assessment in the natural classroom setting. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Awareness of antecedents is the first step toward creating a positive and preventative classroom environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent attention to antecedents, environment, interactions, attitudes and relationships can make creating and maintaining a positive classroom appear deceptively simple. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Observing and collecting data <ul><li>Shippen, Simpson, and Crites (2003) present an accessible and practical guide through the steps for conducting a FBA. </li></ul><ul><li>The data should reflect the learner’s and teacher’s behaviours. </li></ul><ul><li>The data should be presented such that everyone can understand the data and the behaviours they reflect. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The clearer we are regarding specifically what teacher and student behaviours we are interested in, </li></ul><ul><li>the more accurate our data collection, </li></ul><ul><li>the better we can understand what is occurring, </li></ul><ul><li>the more useful our recommendations for interventions, and </li></ul><ul><li>the higher the likelihood of effectively bringing about change. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Generally learners who require individualised interventions (Tier 3), do so because they have not been responsive to class-wide (Tier 1) or small group (Tier 2) interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>First to consider in planning an intervention is what we want the behaviour/s to do: increase or decrease? </li></ul><ul><li>Second, hypotheses regarding the behaviour and environment guide individualizing interventions. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Third, careful examination of and attention to the learner’s reactions to the intervention/s is key to testing the hypotheses and positively changing the behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth, was the intervention implemented with fidelity? </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth, was data accurately collected? </li></ul><ul><li>Sixth, did behaviour change in a positive way? </li></ul>
  14. 14. How can we maintain and generalize positive change? <ul><li>Both occur through use of </li></ul><ul><li>Careful planning, </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedents and consequences, </li></ul><ul><li>Contingencies put in place in the initial situation will be put in place in subsequent situations, </li></ul><ul><li>Self-management strategies are useful and preferable, and </li></ul><ul><li>Natural and variable consequences promote behaviour change maintenance. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Maintain and generalize positive change: <ul><li>Create a positive classroom atmosphere where all the students feel valued, </li></ul><ul><li>important, </li></ul><ul><li>appreciated, and </li></ul><ul><li>feel like they have something to contribute, and </li></ul><ul><li>feel like something they say or do will be positively noted. </li></ul><ul><li>Use praise, acceptance, humour, high expectations, clear directions, preventive monitoring and regard liberally. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Problem solving when the behaviour does not change <ul><li>Review earlier decisions and data which guided the choice of intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine intervention fidelity. </li></ul><ul><li>Was there enough time? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the intervention of sufficient intensity? </li></ul><ul><li>Use reflective questions as a guide and checklist when working through an unsuccessful intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge that not all behaviours, interactions, and environments are available to change. </li></ul>
  17. 17. At times a situation needs to be “put right” or “restored”. <ul><li>Three questions guide a restorative approach to behaviour: </li></ul><ul><li>What has happened? </li></ul><ul><li>Who has been affected and how have they been affected? </li></ul><ul><li>What needs to be done to make things right again? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Restorative practices <ul><li>When relationships have broken down all persons take responsibility for what happened and commit to making things right again in restorative practice. </li></ul><ul><li>This requires careful preparation and commitment. </li></ul><ul><li>Restorative practices can be used in a preventive way to restore the leaner to be a meaningful and contributing part of the class, school, and culture such that resistant behaviours do not occur. </li></ul>

×