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Behavior Einsteins, Positive Behavior Support


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Behavior Einsteins, Positive Behavior Support

  1. 1. Be A Behavior Einstein: The Science of PBS in the Classroom By Kate Ahern, M.S.Ed.
  2. 2. Insanity <ul><li>“ The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results”. </li></ul>-Albert Einstein
  3. 3. In other words…. <ul><li>If you always do what you’ve always done your always gonna get what you always get. </li></ul><ul><li>And let’s face it </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>You don’t have a magic wand! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Without magic we turn to science.
  6. 6. What is Positive Behavior Support? <ul><li>PBS is a context for the scientific process of application of behavior analysis </li></ul><ul><li>PBS values dignity and human rights </li></ul><ul><li>PBS focuses on creating a positive environment </li></ul><ul><li>PBS uses functional assessment </li></ul><ul><li>PBS uses interventions based on data </li></ul><ul><li>PBS is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>educative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>functional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PBS believes in lifestyle enhancement to improve the individual’s quality of life </li></ul>
  7. 7. Three Levels of Support Image from
  8. 8. PBS Breakdown Positive Behavior Supports Primary Positive Behavior Supports (Everyone) Secondary Positive Behavior Supports (At-risk) Tertiary Positive Behavior Supports (Those with Challenging Behaviors)
  9. 9. A Word about Behavior… <ul><li>Behavior is </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable and observable (and not caused by a physiological process) </li></ul><ul><li>Learned </li></ul><ul><li>Serves a purpose (functional) </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual </li></ul><ul><li>Habitual and therefore frequently difficult to change – one month for every year of existence </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Does somebody need some PBS techniques? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Top Five Evidence Based Practices for Classroom PBS <ul><li>Maximize structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations . </li></ul><ul><li>Actively engage students in observable ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior . </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior . </li></ul><ul><li>(Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, & Myers Sugai, in preparation) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Maximize Structure <ul><li>Routine, routine, routine </li></ul><ul><li>Routines for you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pick volunteers or group students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assign/collect/grade homework </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take lunch count, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Routines for kids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do they? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signal/sign out for the rest room </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transition from place to place/activity to activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand in work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions, comment, participate in groups </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Attendance Routines
  14. 14. Helper/Job Routines
  15. 15. Schedule Routines
  16. 16. Homework Routines
  17. 17. Classroom Organization <ul><li>Is furniture set up for ease of movement? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you make eye contact with students at all times? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the room minimize distraction? </li></ul><ul><li>Do students know which areas are for the teacher only? </li></ul><ul><li>Do students know how to set up their chairs/desks for different learning activities? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Substitute Organization
  19. 19. Classroom Library
  20. 20. Classroom Layout
  21. 21. <ul><li>What are the rules? </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>How do we make them so students will follow them? </li></ul>
  22. 23. Classroom Rules <ul><li>Your rules should explain “what’s up”. They should be: </li></ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed Upon </li></ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Short </li></ul><ul><li>Understandable </li></ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul>
  23. 24. From /images/classrules.jpg
  24. 25. From:
  25. 26. From
  26. 27. From
  27. 28. R espect O thers S elf E nvironment
  28. 29. Rules for Other Places <ul><li>Some other events may require special rules. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arrival or dismissal, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indoor recess </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>substitute teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fire/emergency drills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assemblies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>field trips </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be sure to decide on them, post them and teach them ahead of time . </li></ul>
  29. 30. Which one is easier to understand?
  30. 31. How could you re-write these rules?
  31. 32. Rules Rules <ul><li>Teach rules within the context of routines </li></ul><ul><li>Instruct, Model, Practice, Praise </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt or remind students about the rules before entering a natural context </li></ul><ul><li>Use visual cues to remind students of rules </li></ul><ul><li>Actively supervise and monitor behavior and provide prompt feedback </li></ul>
  32. 33. Actively Engage Learners <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Because we like them! </li></ul><ul><li>Also because they are much less likely to engage in negative behaviors if they are busy learning! </li></ul>
  33. 34. How to Actively Engage Learners <ul><li>Vary who responds (indivs, group, pairs) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide plenty of opportunities for response </li></ul><ul><li>Use enthusiasm and humor </li></ul><ul><li>Consider various observable ways to engage students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory/visual signals (bells, buzzers, aye/nay or holding up yes/no, true/false cards) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing on individual white board or magnadoodle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choral responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create Ownership (our room, instead of my room, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Offer choices (do any twenty problems) </li></ul><ul><li>Link engagement with outcome objectives (set goals to increase engagement – i.e. if everyone has a holds up an answer for the next one I’m going to knock one question off your homework, group contingencies) </li></ul>
  34. 35. Actively Engage Learners! Noisemakers Gameshow Style Buzzers Individual Response Boards and Cards Gestures
  35. 36. Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior and respond to inappropriate behaviors <ul><li>Primary supports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What we do for all kids! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Supports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What we put in place for kids with few, low impact behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What we put in place for kids who are at risk of developing more serious behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tertiary Supports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interventions put into place for students with high levels of behavioral need </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. The Bottom of the Triangle All Kids!
  37. 38. We have routines. We have rules. What else do we need? <ul><li>We need to provide a system to reward the group for meeting our expectations. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Group Contingencies
  39. 40. Three types of group-oriented contingencies Source: (Maag, 1999). Type Description Pro Con Independent Group-Oriented Contingency Each student earns reward based on their own behavior. “ To each his/her own.” Each student earns reward based on their own behavior. Peer pressure is unlikely to be harnessed. Dependent Group-Oriented Contingency Reinforcement of entire group is contingent upon one student’s behavior. “ One for all.” <ul><li>The target student becomes “hero”. </li></ul><ul><li>Peers may root the target student on. </li></ul>The target student may get negative attention if he/she fails to earn the reward. Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency Reinforcement of the group is contingent on the behavior of the whole class. “ All for one.” Appropriate peer pressure which occurs naturally in the classroom is used to encourage positive behavioral choices. Scapegoating may occur. One student may sabotage earning the reward. Interdependent Group- Oriented Contingency Variation Reinforcement of the group is contingent on the behavior of the whole class. Each time a member of the group is seen to meet a group expectation the group receives credit towards a contingency. Appropriate peer pressure which occurs naturally in the classroom is used to encourage positive behavioral choices. No one student can be Responsible for group not meeting goal. Highly dependant on the motivation of the teacher/leader.
  40. 41. Classroom Contingencies
  41. 42. Marble Jar Procedure Take two (preferably non-breakable) jars and one bag of marbles (or some other small object) Every time the class meets a contingency (i.e. ready for lunch in 1 minute or quiet when the bell rings) move a marble or two from the full jar to the empty jar. When all of the marbles are moved the class gets a prize (i.e. drop everything and read, a fieldtrip, no spelling sentences, a nature walk)
  42. 43. <ul><li>Links Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Using paper strips, paper clips or some other kind of link attach a link to the chain each time you catch a child, group of children or the class doing good. When the chain is an agreed upon length the class gets a prize (no homework, longer recess, five points on the next quiz, a chocolate math day, a game day, a party) </li></ul>
  43. 44. From Other Classroom Contingency Ideas
  44. 45. From
  45. 46. From
  46. 47. School Wide Contingencies!
  47. 49. Ideas for upper grades <ul><li>A section of the board for each period, marked “compliments – do not erase”, a tally mark is given for each time “caught doing good”, prize when a certain number earned </li></ul><ul><li>One of those pre-printed chart posters with a line for each period, proceed as above </li></ul><ul><li>Other ideas? </li></ul>
  48. 50. Be Careful of Response Cost! Red/Yellow/Green Card Systems are Response Cost Response Cost is the loss of a privilege because of an action or behavior. RC is very popular right now, but most teacher don’t know they are using it. Landing on the lowest level can be seen as permission to increase negative behavior. Also, studies have shown that the response cost systems generally lose power over time.
  49. 51. But why show we catch them doing good? Shouldn’t they just be good with out rewards? Ask me the difference between bribes and rewards .
  50. 52. The Bad News <ul><li>Studies show 80% of students are behaving correctly at any given time in our schools, </li></ul><ul><li>But, only 2-4% of students who are behaving correctly receive any positive feedback! </li></ul>
  51. 53. The Good News <ul><li>Studies show 80% of students are behaving correctly at any given time in our schools, </li></ul><ul><li>But, only 2% of students who are behaving correctly receive any positive feedback! </li></ul><ul><li>However, we can improve the behavior of 80% of our students by praising just one student for behaving correctly! </li></ul><ul><li>Catching student being good works, </li></ul><ul><li>that’s why we should do it! </li></ul>
  52. 54.
  53. 55. Positive Feedback 101 <ul><li>There is a time and place for generic compliments but improving behavior calls for a more methodical process of providing positive feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the persons name </li></ul><ul><li>Be specific . </li></ul><ul><li>Label as well as praise. </li></ul><ul><li>(Terry, I like how you held the door open. Way to show respect to your friends! Keep it up, Terry!) </li></ul><ul><li>You might want to keep in mind: </li></ul><ul><li>A few experts say to try to end with encouragement towards the next level of accomplishment. (Sean, I see you are on number eight. I love how hard you are working. Any minute now and you will be done, Sean!) </li></ul><ul><li>The latest studies show that children receive more long term benefit from praise and encouragement of effort rather than intelligence (or other talent). </li></ul>
  54. 56. Ways To Say &quot;Very Good&quot; <ul><li>Now you have it! </li></ul><ul><li>GREAT! </li></ul><ul><li>Keep working – you're getting better. </li></ul><ul><li>You make it look easy. </li></ul><ul><li>That's the right way to do it. </li></ul><ul><li>You're getting better every day. </li></ul><ul><li>You're really growing up! </li></ul><ul><li>Nice going. </li></ul><ul><li>SENSATIONAL! </li></ul><ul><li>That's the way to do it. </li></ul><ul><li>That's better. </li></ul><ul><li>Best yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Wonderful! </li></ul><ul><li>That's better than ever. </li></ul><ul><li>I appreciate your hard work. </li></ul><ul><li>Now that's what I call a fine job! </li></ul><ul><li>You must have been practicing! </li></ul><ul><li>You're doing beautifully. </li></ul><ul><li>Right on! </li></ul><ul><li>Good remembering! </li></ul><ul><li>You did a lot of work today! </li></ul><ul><li>You certainly did well today. </li></ul><ul><li>You're doing fine. </li></ul><ul><li>You are really learning a lot. </li></ul><ul><li>You outdid yourself today! </li></ul><ul><li>SPLENDID! </li></ul><ul><li>Good going! </li></ul><ul><li>MARVELLOUS! </li></ul><ul><li>You're doing the best you can! </li></ul><ul><li>Good job. </li></ul><ul><li>You've got that down pat! </li></ul><ul><li>TREMENDOUS! </li></ul><ul><li>Good thinking! </li></ul><ul><li>Keep on trying! </li></ul><ul><li>I've never seen anyone do it better. </li></ul><ul><li>I like that. </li></ul><ul><li>I'm very proud of you. </li></ul><ul><li>I think you've got it now. </li></ul><ul><li>You figured that out fast. </li></ul><ul><li>That's really nice. </li></ul><ul><li>You're right. </li></ul><ul><li>CLEVER! </li></ul><ul><li>That's great! </li></ul><ul><li>Way to go. </li></ul><ul><li>Now you have the hang of it! </li></ul><ul><li>You've done a great job. </li></ul><ul><li>Congratulations, you got it right </li></ul><ul><li>You're beautiful. </li></ul><ul><li>That's RIGHT! </li></ul><ul><li>You remembered. </li></ul><ul><li>That gives me a happy feeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Well, look at you go! </li></ul><ul><li>DYNAMITE! </li></ul><ul><li>EXCELLENT! </li></ul><ul><li>That's the best ever. </li></ul><ul><li>FINE! </li></ul><ul><li>SUPERB! </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it up! </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing can stop you now! </li></ul><ul><li>That's GOOD! </li></ul><ul><li>When I'm with you I feel like singing! </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD WORK! </li></ul><ul><li>I'm proud of the way you worked today. </li></ul><ul><li>You're really working hard today. </li></ul><ul><li>You've just about got it. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent effort! </li></ul><ul><li>Your hard work is paying off! </li></ul><ul><li>THAT'S IT! </li></ul><ul><li>Congratulations! </li></ul><ul><li>That's quite an improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>You are doing that much better today. </li></ul><ul><li>I sure am happy you're my daughter/son/student, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>You're learning fast. </li></ul><ul><li>Good for you! </li></ul><ul><li>Couldn't have done it better myself. </li></ul><ul><li>You really make being a teacher fun. </li></ul><ul><li>One more time and you'll have it. </li></ul><ul><li>You did it that time! </li></ul><ul><li>That's the way! </li></ul><ul><li>SUPER DUPER! </li></ul><ul><li>You haven't missed a thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep up the good work. </li></ul><ul><li>PERFECT! </li></ul><ul><li>You're really going to town! </li></ul><ul><li>TERRIFIC! </li></ul><ul><li>Much better! </li></ul><ul><li>You've just about mastered that! </li></ul><ul><li>OUTSTANDING! </li></ul><ul><li>You did that very well. </li></ul><ul><li>FANTASTIC! </li></ul><ul><li>You're really improving. </li></ul><ul><li>Fabulous! </li></ul><ul><li>Way to go! </li></ul><ul><li>Awesome! </li></ul><ul><li>I always get the best students! </li></ul>
  55. 57. How do we teach good behavior? <ul><li>Instruct </li></ul><ul><li>Model </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Praise </li></ul>
  56. 58. Secondary Support Middle Tier
  57. 59. Features of Secondary Support (in school wide PBS) <ul><li>Targeted group interventions are implemented through a flexible, but systematic, process. Key features of Secondary Prevention interventions include: </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous availability </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid access (72 hr) </li></ul><ul><li>Very low effort by teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with school-wide/classroom expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible intervention based on assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Functional assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate resources (admin, team), weekly meeting, plus 10 hours a week </li></ul><ul><li>Student chooses to participate </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous monitoring of student behavior for decision-making </li></ul>
  58. 60. Features of Secondary Support (adapted for a classroom) <ul><li>Targeted group interventions are implemented through a flexible, but systematic, process. Let’s make it work in our classrooms, in a non-school wide PBS building: </li></ul><ul><li>Available quickly and easily </li></ul><ul><li>Very low effort by teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with classroom expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Implemented by all classroom staff </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible intervention based on assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Functional assessment (but less intensive) </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate resources (to prevent teacher burn out) </li></ul><ul><li>Student chooses to participate </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous monitoring of student behavior for decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher knows how to access more intervention if needed </li></ul>
  59. 61. Ideas for Secondary Supports <ul><li>Breakfast club (invited students meet before school for bagels and support) </li></ul><ul><li>Homework group (students who are missing assignments attend to catch up or stay caught up) </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch Bunch (group to encourage friendship) </li></ul><ul><li>Homework buddies (students are matched to support each other via phone, e-mail, instant message and/or collaborative document websites {Google Documents, Ajax13} with assignments) </li></ul><ul><li>Passing Partners (students who have trouble getting to the next class are partnered with a student who is able to get there on time) </li></ul><ul><li>Peer tutors </li></ul>
  60. 62. Where do I turn for support in creating secondary PBS interventions? <ul><li>Guidance or adjustment counselor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakfast or Lunch Bunch (social skills group) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Librarian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Book club </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework club </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study skills group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly lunch with the principal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nurse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy habits group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disability Coping Skills group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other same-grade teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the groups grade wide and share the effort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who else? </li></ul>
  61. 63. Tertiary Support The top of the Triangle!
  62. 64. Tertiary Support <ul><li>Now it’s time for some serious science! </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Behavior Analysis is the process of defining, determining the function of and changing a behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot change a behavior with out defining what it is we want to change! </li></ul>
  63. 65. How would you define this?
  64. 66. Determining the function of a behavior <ul><li>How do we do this? </li></ul><ul><li>Gut instinct (not very reliable also, research shows if we are wrong we will increase the negative behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>Or we complete some kind of Functional Behavioral Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Competing Pathways Chart </li></ul><ul><li>ERASE </li></ul><ul><li>ABC Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Functional Behavior Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Scatter Plot </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial forms </li></ul>Meaning we find out WHY the behavior is occurring. Or WHAT the behavior is telling us.
  65. 69. Need to make the FBA fast and easy? <ul><li>Remember </li></ul><ul><li>ERASE Problem Behavior (From Dr. Terry Scott; University of Oregon) </li></ul><ul><li>E xplain - What is the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>R eason - What is he/she getting out of it or avoiding? </li></ul><ul><li>A ppropriate - What do you want him/her to do instead? </li></ul><ul><li>S upport - How can you help this happen more often? </li></ul><ul><li>E valuate - How will you know if it works? </li></ul>
  66. 70. ERASE Explain Please define the problem behavior. Reason What is the probable reason for this behavior? Appropriate What should the child do instead? Support What can I do to make the appropriate behavior happen more? Evaluate How will you know if you are meeting your goal?
  67. 71. ABC Chart <ul><li>A-B-C Data Sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Student:_________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted Behavior:________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Date/Time </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent – include activity, staff, setting, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior – include intensity and duration </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence – include staff, setting, and sequence of events </li></ul><ul><li>Staff Initials </li></ul>Time/Date: Setting: Antecedent: Behavior: Consequence: Staff Initials:
  68. 72. Interactive FBA <ul><li>Free Excel based advanced ABC computer program from </li></ul><ul><li>Allows data collection on three behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically create graphs and suggests possible functions </li></ul><ul><li>Download the directions first! </li></ul>
  69. 73. What it comes down to is Behavior is to… <ul><li>Get </li></ul><ul><li>Adult attention </li></ul><ul><li>Peer attention </li></ul><ul><li>A tangible object </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasant sensory stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>A physical need met </li></ul><ul><li>What else? </li></ul><ul><li>Get away from </li></ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul><ul><li>Physical demands </li></ul><ul><li>Pain/unpleasant sensory stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Unpleasant social situation </li></ul><ul><li>What else? </li></ul>
  70. 74. <ul><li>If a child can’t read… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We teach him. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If a child can’t write… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We teach him. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If a child can’t count… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We teach him. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If a child can’t behave… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We punish him? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers Teach. </li></ul></ul>
  71. 75. So what now that we know why, what are we going to do about it? <ul><li>We are going to teach a positive alternative (instruct, model, practice, praise). </li></ul><ul><li>We are going to reward appropriate behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>We are going to avoid rewarding inappropriate behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Basically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach new or alternative behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce positive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop reinforcing negative behavior </li></ul></ul>
  72. 76. Conferencing <ul><li>Also called a life space interview </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose is to give a directive and/or to determine what is bothering the student </li></ul><ul><li>The Behavior Doctor’s Guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be quick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be quiet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be gone </li></ul></ul>
  73. 77. Planned Ignoring <ul><li>Also known as extinction </li></ul><ul><li>If the function of a behavior is attention, then not giving the reinforcement of attention will decrease the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>So, we ignore </li></ul><ul><li>But – this will not work if </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We stop to early because of an “extinction burst” (temporary increase in the behavior before it decrease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others are not “in on” the planned part of the planned ignoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The function of the behavior is escape </li></ul></ul>
  74. 78. Proximity Control <ul><li>Using distance to influence the behavior of another person </li></ul><ul><li>For example: standing next to a student who has trouble with transitions when you announce there will be a fire drill or walking towards the young ladies who are chatting in the back of the room </li></ul><ul><li>A note: Preferential seating does not always mean the front row! </li></ul>
  75. 79. Signal Control <ul><li>Also called preventative cueing </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a student can indicate to a teacher that he or she needs help or a break (a proactive measure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A teacher can signal to a student that he or she needs to change his or her behavior (also a proactive measure) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I.e. signing break, moving name tag to the other side of the desk, pulling earlobe, hand sign with eye contact </li></ul>
  76. 80. Differential Reinforcement <ul><li>This is the process of rewarding (reinforcing) a behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DRO Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior rewarding a child for not displaying the target behavior i.e. not getting out of his seat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRA Differential Reinforcement of an Alternative Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRI Differential Reinforcement of an Incompatible Behavior rewarding a child for displaying a behavior that cannot be displayed with the target behavior (i.e. keeping his hands on his lap (target behavior is nose picking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DR L/H Differential Reinforcement of a Lower or Higher Rate of Behavior rewarding a child for displaying the target behavior less or more than a set level (I will give let you lead the line if you get out of your seat less than twice this period.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simply said </li></ul><ul><ul><li>you reward what you want! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and don’t reward what you don’t want! </li></ul></ul>
  77. 81. Contract <ul><li>Also known as “Let’s make a deal!” </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, “If _____ does ____, then I, the teacher will _________. Signed ____ and _____ .” </li></ul><ul><li>Both research and I have found these to be very effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be oral or written </li></ul><ul><li>Can double as a sheet for collecting tokens towards the reward </li></ul>
  78. 82. Glasses Contract <ul><li>If I, Terry G., wear my glass for five days then Kate will burn me a new CD from her iTunes. </li></ul><ul><li>Terry 1/05/04 Kate 1/05/04 </li></ul>
  79. 83. Token Economy <ul><li>Works for the gets and the get aways </li></ul><ul><li>Students earn a token (symbols such as a checkmark or objects such as tickets, punches on a card, stickers) for meeting behavior expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Token can be used to “purchase” something i.e. prize or non-tangible reward </li></ul><ul><li>Tokens cannot be taken away once earned (this is response cost and proven not to work over time) </li></ul>
  80. 84. What can you use as tokens? <ul><li>Poker chips </li></ul><ul><li>Stars </li></ul><ul><li>Loops for mini looms </li></ul><ul><li>Bracelets </li></ul><ul><li>Stickers </li></ul><ul><li>Checkmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Coupons </li></ul><ul><li>Punches on a card </li></ul><ul><li>Nuts and bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Puzzle pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Wedges (i.e. Trivial pursuit or sections of a clock) </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks, shells, other natural objects </li></ul><ul><li>Bottle caps </li></ul><ul><li>Bookmarks </li></ul>Tip: if you have students who will counterfeit tokens put some kind of mark on them so you know what is real or keep them in the room at all times.
  81. 85. What can they earn? <ul><li>The Gets </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch with the teacher (principal) </li></ul><ul><li>Extra recess/gym class/library time/computer time etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Stickers </li></ul><ul><li>Something from a prize box </li></ul><ul><li>Food/Candy (be careful) </li></ul><ul><li>Fieldtrip </li></ul><ul><li>Order lunch out </li></ul><ul><li>Costume jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Coupons </li></ul><ul><li>School supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Time with friends </li></ul><ul><li>Gift cards (for school store or local store some can be purchased for $1-5.00) </li></ul><ul><li>Keychains </li></ul><ul><li>Freebies from conferences, stores </li></ul><ul><li>Good note/phone call/e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>The Get Aways </li></ul><ul><li>No/less homework </li></ul><ul><li>Free pass to be five minutes late </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure time during class (computer/music) </li></ul><ul><li>Choice to sit in a bean bag chair or rocking chair instead of seat </li></ul><ul><li>Time with friends (not working) </li></ul><ul><li>One point on final grade or a test </li></ul><ul><li>A coupon to hand in an assignment late </li></ul><ul><li>A “lifeline” to work with a partner on a hard assignment </li></ul><ul><li>A chance to do an assignment in an alternate format (in pen/pencil, typed/not typed, don’t show your work) </li></ul><ul><li>Free time </li></ul><ul><li>Good note/phone call/e-mail </li></ul>
  82. 86. Some Things That May Not Work So Well <ul><li>Response Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student loses a privilege for an inappropriate behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works well at first, effectiveness fails over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time Out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusionary time out (removing child) is often a reward (escape for the “get aways” and may involve negative attention that the “gets” like) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students loses learning time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-exclusionary time out may work better (could be a section of the classroom with desk, materials, etc., set off by short bookcase or file cabinets where child cannot injure others but still has to work) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Detention/Suspension/Expulsion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May give peer attention and approval as well as negative, but still reinforcing, adult attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May create a self-fulfilling prophecy of “the bad kid” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives escape </li></ul></ul>
  83. 87. A Word About Aversives <ul><li>From the Latin meaning to &quot;turn away” </li></ul><ul><li>Aversives might be understood as quick application of discomfort or pain in response to challenging behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp criticisms, slaps, offensive sounds or sprays, social humiliation, removal or desired object, shock, and isolation are aversive applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Aversives often fail to work. When they do work, their effectiveness diminishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides making the person avoid, fear or loathe the punisher, potential physical harm, and other negative side effects (often psychological like trauma, PTSD, depression and learned helplessness) aversive actions do not teach desirable behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>From </li></ul>
  84. 88. There is a proverb which says, “If you’ve told a child 1000 times to do something and they don’t do it…it isn’t the child that is a slow learner.”
  85. 89. Resources <ul><li>Association of Positive Behavior Support – </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Doctor – </li></ul><ul><li>Center on Positive Behavior Inteventions and Supports – </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Management Online Training </li></ul><ul><li>Kansas Institute for Positive Behavior Support – </li></ul><ul><li>I want to thank Dr. Riffel for sharing her materials and ideas free of charge to be shared with other teachers. </li></ul>
  86. 90. Bonus Material: The One Sentence Intervention <ul><li>From The Love and Logic Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Should increase self-esteem within three weeks </li></ul><ul><li>The Love and Logic Institute offers a $100 guarantee on this intervention </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  87. 91. Here’s what you do: <ul><li>Notice something neutral , then walk-away. </li></ul><ul><li>Do this twice a week. </li></ul><ul><li>For three weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>I noticed you like Dale Ernhardt, I noticed that. </li></ul><ul><li>I noticed you wore blue today, I noticed that. </li></ul><ul><li>I noticed your Red Sox hat, I noticed that. </li></ul>
  88. 92. Bonus Material II <ul><li>Probably So. </li></ul><ul><li>Probably So. </li></ul><ul><li>Probably So. </li></ul><ul><li>Probably So. </li></ul><ul><li>Probably So. </li></ul><ul><li>Probably So. </li></ul><ul><li>Probably So. </li></ul><ul><li>Smile. </li></ul><ul><li>Nice try! </li></ul>