Practical Behavior Management


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Practical Behavior Management- outline of "Tough Kids"

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Practical Behavior Management

  1. 1. Practical Behavior Management: Classroom & Parent-based Procedures Sheridan Ed Psy 896 February 17-24, 1999
  2. 2. Characteristics of Behavioral Disorders (“Tough Kids”) <ul><li>Argumentative </li></ul><ul><li>Defiant </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Tantrum behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Rule breaking behaviors </li></ul>The problem with these behaviors is one of degree; they are behavioral excesses
  3. 3. <ul><li>King pin behaviors (see Rhode, Jenson, & Reavis): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>something that is central to the behavioral constellation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the axle around which the other behavioral excesses revolve” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For children with BD, what is the “kingpin?” </li></ul>Characteristics of Behavioral Disorders (“Tough Kids”)
  4. 4. King Pin Behavior: Noncompliance <ul><li>Defined as : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not following a direction within a reasonable time frame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>According to Rhode et al., arguing, tantrums, etc. are secondary to avoiding requests or required tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arguing or tantrums get the adult to rescind or withdraw the request >>> arguing, tantrum stops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coercive cycle : An aversive behavior forces/controls the adult to withdraw a request </li></ul>
  5. 5. Coercive Hypothesis (Patterson) <ul><li>Postulates that children learn to “get their own way” and escape or avoid parental criticism by escalating their negative behaviors, which in turn leads to increasingly aversive parent interactions </li></ul><ul><li>As this continues over time, the rate and intensity of parent and child aggressive behaviors are increased </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive patterns are thought to promote children’s antisocial behavioral development because they provide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforcement for oppositional, noncompliant behaviors, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>models of hostile and punitive interpersonal styles </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Contrast this to...
  7. 7. Noncompliance <ul><li>Most students comply to approximately 80% of adult requests </li></ul><ul><li>Tough kids comply to 40% or less </li></ul><ul><li>By-product of coercive cycle/noncompliance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deficits in academic achievement, social skills, and self-management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion Questions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does this relate to your work as consultants? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this suggest regarding target behaviors? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can noncompliance be defined & measured? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Positive Parenting <ul><li>Parenting styles that are responsive, affectionate, and proactive (“positive involvement”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>associated with lower levels of externalizing behavior problems (see Pettit, Bates, & Dodge, 1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proactive teaching (noncontrolling parent-initiated instructional exchanges and anticipatory guidance via these exchanges) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>affectionate positivity (emotional warmth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inductive control (reasoning and respecting the child’s point of view in disciplinary encounters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsiveness (sensitivity and appropriateness of parental actions) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Positive Parenting <ul><li>Provides a context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in which children’s social-emotional needs are met in emotionally supportive ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>whereby opportunities for misbehavior are minimized (via environmental engineering) and opportunities for compliance are maximized (via well-timed, situation-specific control) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that facilitates the learning of social skills that can be employed during peer interactions to prevent conflicts; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that facilitates the development of harmonious, affectively positive bond between parent and child, such that when control (discipline) is used by a parent, it is more effective </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Negative-Coercive vs. Positive-Proactive Styles <ul><li>Findings of Pettit et al. suggest that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the parenting constellation of high negative control and low parent involvement may provide a socializing context for the development of externalizing problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absence of positive parenting may contribute to the onset of externalizing problems, but it does not forecast subsequent increases in these behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>negative-coercive control, on the other hand, predicted initially high levels of externalizing problems, and continued increases in problems over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teachers’ and peers’ reactions help maintain or exacerbate externalizing problems such that children reared in coercive homes may become tracked into a pattern of increasingly aggressive interpersonal encounters at school </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Implications suggested by Pettit et al: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control episodes make up only a minority of all parent-child interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may be insufficient simply to help parents learn how to better control their children’s behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents must acquire more proactive skills and learn to anticipate their childrens’ social needs, to understand their frustrations, and to engage them in more enjoyable joint play </li></ul></ul>Negative-Coercive vs. Positive-Proactive Styles
  12. 12. Practical Strategies for Dealing with Noncompliance <ul><li>Maximize the chance that children will be successful : </li></ul><ul><li>Be positive and proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent noncompliance whenever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Be very clear about expectations </li></ul>
  13. 13. Proactive (Antecedent) Strategies <ul><li>Classroom & Home Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Good Rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep them to a minimum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the wording simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent basic expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the wording positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make rules specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make them observable & measurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post the rules in a public place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tie rules to consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always include a compliance rule </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What are Some Examples of Good Classroom Rules??
  15. 15. What are Some Examples of Good Household/Home Rules??
  16. 16. <ul><li>Increase Academic Engaged (Learning) Time </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the percentage of the day scheduled for academics (should be at least 70%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on-task time of the student (should be at least 85%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>success of the student once (s)he is academically engaged (should be at least 80%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why is ALT important, especially for “Tough Kids”? </li></ul><ul><li>How can ALT be identified and incorporated into CBC? </li></ul>Proactive (Antecedent) Strategies
  17. 17. <ul><li>Structure the Physical Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use Proximity Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “wandering reinforcer” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation and Encouragement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell them what you want, what will happen, and give them immediate positive feedback when you get it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul>Proactive (Antecedent) Strategies
  18. 18. Proactive (Antecedent) Strategies <ul><li>Hype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a big deal out of desired behaviors and anticipated reinforcers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre-correction Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate problem situations and provide instructions for behavior; link to anticipated reinforcers and reward immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Proactive (Antecedent) Strategies <ul><li>Discussion Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does the information presented in “The Tough Kid Book” relate to the TIES materials? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does Gettinger say about proactive classroom procedures? What examples does she provide? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can these be assessed and incorporated into consultation? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Increasing Compliance: Rules of Thumb <ul><ul><li>Use a statement, rather than a question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use proximity -- get close to child (within 3 feet) when giving a directive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a quiet, calm voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use eye contact -- look ‘em in the eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give the child time to comply (5-10 secs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue a command only twice, then follow through with a consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make one request at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the behavior you want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain calm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make more “start” (“do”) requests than “stop” requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbally reinforce compliance </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Practical Uses of Positive Reinforcement <ul><li>Consider important principles concerning schedules of reinforcement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous R+ --- reinforcing each occurrence of a desired behavior has what effect? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable R+ --- reinforcing every other, or every third (etc.) occurrence of a desired behavior has what effect? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermittent R+ --- reinforcing occurrences on a random schedule has what effect? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>When behaviors do not increase in relation to contingent delivery of assumed reinforcers, reinforcement has not occurred </li></ul><ul><li>What are some possible reasons that a reinforcement program may be ineffective? </li></ul><ul><li>What was provided was not reinforcing to the child </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of integrity (e.g., noncontingent delivery; inconsistent use) </li></ul><ul><li>How can consultants increase the efficacy of positive reinforcement? What systems can be used to increase the reinforcing nature of the reinforcers, and the integrity of delivery? </li></ul>Practical Uses of Positive Reinforcement
  23. 23. <ul><li>IFEED-AV Rules : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enthusiastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul></ul>Practical Uses of Positive Reinforcement
  24. 24. <ul><li>Shaping (“Baby Steps”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When child does not have the requisite skill to perform a target behavior (e.g., completing homework or chores), “shaping” the behavior is appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start where the child is now! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break the task down into small steps and reinforce each step upon appropriate completion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples at home and school?? </li></ul></ul>Practical Uses of Positive Reinforcement
  25. 25. <ul><li>Selective (Differential) Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that attention increases the behavior it follows!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So… attention to negative behaviors, particularly to the exclusion of attention to positive behaviors, will increase the negative behaviors… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples and Implications?? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasize the importance of reinforcing desired behavior! (Differentially attending to, or reinforcing, desired behaviors!) </li></ul>Practical Uses of Positive Reinforcement
  26. 26. <ul><li>Selective (Differential) Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Entails the reinforcement of alternative behaviors that are incompatible with the inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To use, always reinforce positive behaviors, particularly those that occur in place of or are incompatible with, undesired behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If target is noncompliance, “Sure I Will!” is incompatible ( see pp. 80-83; Rhode et al.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other examples?? </li></ul></ul>Practical Uses of Positive Reinforcement
  27. 27. <ul><li>Selective (Differential) Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Also requires Ignoring inappropriate, undesirable behavior(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency is the key! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect an extinction burst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>examples? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward at least 5 times for every ignore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>examples? </li></ul></ul></ul>Practical Uses of Positive Reinforcement
  28. 28. <ul><li>Unique & Practical Systems of Reinforcement : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mystery Motivators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chart moves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lotteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grab bags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, these increase the “incentive power” by enhancing anticipation, variety, intermittent schedule of reinforcement </li></ul></ul>Practical Uses of Positive Reinforcement
  29. 29. <ul><li>Other Systems : </li></ul><ul><li>Public Posting (Advertising for Success) </li></ul><ul><li>Contracting/Goal Setting (very useful in BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Home-Notes (extremely useful in CBC) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Management/Beeper Tapes (always useful) </li></ul>Practical Uses of Positive Reinforcement
  30. 30. <ul><li>Enhancing the Use of Incentive Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit target behaviors to 3 or 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start where you are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use back up reinforcers for noncompliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider reinforcer sampling (“taste success”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the system; allow the child’s input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be consistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the IFEED-AV rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the good; positively reinforce efforts toward the final goal (shaping) </li></ul></ul>Practical Uses of Positive Reinforcement
  31. 31. <ul><li>Enhancing the Use of Incentive Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build in fading reinforcers by pairing with praise, natural reinforcers, behavioral “traps” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary the rewards; use a reinforcement menu, consider using high frequency behaviors as reinforcers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine tune the program as necessary; remain in contact with consultees throughout plan implementation! </li></ul></ul>Practical Uses of Positive Reinforcement
  32. 32. What to Do If (When) They Don’t Comply <ul><li>Plan consequences in advance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember that consequences can be positive too (always positively reinforce compliance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective consequences are well-designed, realistic, objective, and have time limits & reasonable expectations (see p. 63) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use precision requests </li></ul>
  33. 33. * see p. 62 of Rhode et al. (1992) Precision Requests
  34. 34. <ul><li>Other procedures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>response cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Considerations when using aversive techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learn them well; ensure consultees know how to use them appropriately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use secondarily to positive procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make efforts to keep student engaged in classroom or academic activities whenever possible (e.g., “Bumpy Bunny Time Out;” “Sit and Watch Time Out;” “Interclass Time Out”) </li></ul></ul>What to Do If (When) They Don’t Comply