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PROJECT REPORT
ON
COMPUTER NETWORKING
AT
Guida IIHT Chandigarh
Under Guidance of
Mr. Sanjay SIngh
Prepared By
Surender Singh
B. Tech. ECE
5th Sem
Roll No 2511078
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
TABLE OF CONTENT
1. Introduction to Networking
Definition
Requirement of Networking
2. Types of Network
LAN (Local Area Network)
WAN (Wide Area Network)
3. Network Models
OSI Model
4. Cables
Twisted Cable
Coaxial Cable
Fibre Optic
5. Networking Devices
Network Interface Card
Hub
Switch
Router
6. IP Addressing
Introduction
Private IP
Masking
Subnetting
Example
7. LAN Solution
Requirement
Solution
Specification Sheet
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
8. Router
Internal Components
Network Interfaces
Configuring
Configuring using Console
Routing Protocols
RIP
IGRP
Access List
9. Firewall
Introduction
Technologies
Configuring
10. WLAN
Standards
Topologies
Infrastructure Network
Adhoc Network
11. Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
HIDS
NIDS
Techniques
12. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Channels
Interfaces
Functional Group
Reference Points
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING
Definition :-
A network is a system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or data
between users. A network can be defined by its geographical dimensions and by
which the user’s PC access it.
A network consists of a:
• The network operating system (Windows NT/2000TM/Xp) on the user’s
PC (client) and server.
• The cables connecting all network devices (user’s PC, server,
peripherals, etc.).
• All supporting network components (hubs, routers and switches, etc.).
Computer Network means an interconnected collection of
autonomous computers.
Requirement of Networking
Resource sharing- To make all programs, equipment, and especially data
available to anyone on the network without regard to the physical location of the
resource and the user.
High reliability- As all files could be replicated on two or three machines, so if
one of them is unavailable (due to hardware failure), the other copies could be
used.
Scalability- It is the ability to increase system performance gradually as the
workload grows just by adding more processors.
A computer network can provide a powerful communication medium along
widely separated employees.
The use of networks to enhance human-to-human communication will probably
prove more important than technical goals such as improved reliability.
These are the requirement with respect to companies but computer networking is
required even in the normal day to day life as we have to access the internet to
get information about what all new happening in the world, to have
communication with people staying far away using the e mail service.
These are the reasons that forced the inventerors to invent the networking
devices, models and protocols etc.
And the birth of Networking took place in 1844 when for the first
time Samuel Morse send the first telegraph message.
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
TYPES OF NETWORKS
LAN (LOCAL AREA NETWORK)
These are privately owned networks within a single building or campus of up to a
few a kilometers in size.
LAN’s are distinguished from other networks by three characteristics:
1) Their size.
2) Their transmission technology.
3) Their topology.
LAN’s are restricted in size, which means that the worst-case transmission time
is bounded and known in advance.
LAN’s often use a transmission technology consisting of a single cable to which
all the machines are attached.
LANs run at speeds of 10 to 100 Mbps, have low delays, and make very few
errors.
LAN SETUP
IEEE has produced several standards for LANs. These standards collectively
known as IEEE 802 .
IEEE802.3 (Ethernet), IEEE802.4 (Token Bus), IEEE802.5 (Token Ring)
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
WAN (WIDE AREA NETWORK)
It is a Computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area, often a
country or continent. Typically a WAN consists of two or more Local Area
Network.
Computers connected to WAN are often connected through public networks such
as telephone systems. They can also be connected through leased lines or
satellites. The largest WAN in existence is Internet.
WANs run at speed of maximum 2 to 10 Mbps.
WAN SETUP
For most WANs, the long distance bandwidth is relatively slow: on the order of
kilobits per second (kbps) as opposed to megabits per second (Mbps) for
local-area networks (LANs). For example, an Ethernet LAN has a 10 Mbps
bandwidth; a WAN using part or all of a T1 carrier has a bandwidth of 1.544
Mbps .
Three types of approaches are used to connect WANs:
1) Circuit switching, which provides a fixed connection (at least for the duration of
a call or session), so that each packet takes the same path. Examples of this
approach include ISDN, Switched 56, and Switched T1.
2) Packet switching, which establishes connections during the transmission
process so that different packets from the same transmission may take different
routes and may arrive out of sequence at the destination. Examples
of this approach are X.25, frame relay, and ATM.
3) Leased lines, which can provide a dedicated connection for private use
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
NETWORK MODELS
Layering Concepts and Benefits
Many benefits can be gained from the process of breaking up the functions or
tasks of networking into smaller chunks, called layers, and defining standard
interfaces between these layers. The layers break a large, complex set of
concepts and protocols into smaller pieces, making it easier to talk about, to
implement with hardware and software, and to troubleshoot.
The following list summarizes the benefits of layered protocol Specifications:
Humans can more easily discuss and learn about the many details of a protocol
specification.
Standardized interfaces among layers facilitate modular engineering.
A better environment for interoperability is created. One vendor can write
software that implements higher layers—for example, a Web browser—and
another can write software that implements the lower layers—for example,
Microsoft’s built-in TCP/IP software in its operating systems.
Reduced complexity allows easier program changes and faster product
evolution.
One layer uses the services of the layer immediately below it. Therefore,
remembering what each layer does is easier. (For example, the network layer
needs to deliver data from end to end. To do this, it uses data links to forward
data to the next successive device along that end-to-end path.)
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
OSI NETWORK MODEL
The OSI model describes how information makes its way from application
programs through a network medium to another application program in other
computer. It divides one big problem in to seven smaller problems . Each
problem is addressed by one of the seven layers of the OSI model.
Functions of Network Layers in Brief:
APPLICATION LAYER
•
•
•
•
•
Used for applications specifically written to run over the network
Allows access to network services that support applications;
Directly represents the services that directly support user applications
Handles network access, flow control and error recovery
Example apps are file transfer, e-mail, Net BIOS-based applications
PRESENTATION LAYER
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
•
•
•
•
•
Translates from application to network format and vice-versa
All different formats from all sources are made into a common uniform
format that the rest of the OSI model can understand
Responsible for protocol conversion, character conversion, data
encryption / decryption, expanding graphics commands, data compression
Sets standards for different systems to provide seamless communication
from multiple protocol stacks
Not always implemented in a network protocol
SESSION LAYER
•
•
•
•
•
Establishes, maintains and ends sessions across the network
Responsible for name recognition (identification) so only the designated
parties can participate in the session
Provides synchronization services by planning check points in the data
stream => if session fails, only data after the most recent checkpoint need
be transmitted
Manages who can transmit data at a certain time and for how long
Examples are interactive login and file transfer connections, the session
would connect and re-connect if there was an interruption; recognize
names in sessions and register names in history
TRANSPORT LAYER
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Additional connection below the session layer
Manages the flow control of data between parties across the network
Divides streams of data into chunks or packets; the transport layer of the
receiving computer reassembles the message from packets
"Train" is a good analogy => the data is divided into identical units
Provides error-checking to guarantee error-free data delivery, with on
losses or duplications
Provides acknowledgment of successful transmissions; requests
retransmission if some packets don’t arrive error-free
Provides flow control and error-handling
TCP, ARP, RARP;
NETWORK LAYER
• Translates logical network address and names to their physical address
(e.g. computer name ==> MAC address)
• Responsible for addressing and determining routes for sending
• Managing network problems such as packet switching, data congestion
and routing
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
•
•
If router can’t send data frame as large as the source computer sends, the
network layer compensates by breaking the data into smaller units. At the
receiving end, the network layer reassembles the data
Think of this layer stamping the addresses on each train car
IP; ARP; RARP, ICMP; RIP; OSFP;
DATA LINK LAYER
•
•
•
•
•
Turns packets into raw bits 100101 and at the receiving end turns bits into
packets.
Handles data frames between the Network and Physical layers
The receiving end packages raw data from the Physical layer into data
frames for delivery to the Network layer
Responsible for error-free transfer of frames to other computer via the
Physical Layer
This layer defines the methods used to transmit and receive data on the
network. It consists of the wiring, the devices use to connect the NIC to
the wiring, the signaling involved to transmit / receive data and the ability
to detect signaling errors on the network media
Logical Link Control
•
•
Error correction and flow control
Manages link control and defines SAPs
PHYSICAL LAYER
•
•
•
•
Transmits raw bit stream over physical cable
Defines cables, cards, and physical aspects
Defines NIC attachments to hardware, how cable is attached to NIC
Defines techniques to transfer bit stream to cable
IP ADDRESSING
Every machine on the internet has a unique identifying number, called an IP
Address. A typical; IP address looks like this:
216.27.61.45
IP ADDRESS is a 32-bit number, usually written in dotted decimal form, that
uniquely identifies an interface of some computer. This 32-bit number is divided
into 4 octets each separated by a decimal. Out so many values certain values
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
are restricted for use as typical IP address. For example, the IP address 0.0.0.0
is reserved for the default network and the address 255.255.255.255is used for
broadcast.
Each IP address is split into 2 sections:
1) Network address
2) Host address
Individual IP address in same network all have a different value in the host part of
address, but they have identical value in network part, just as in town there are
different street address but same ZIP code.
There are five IP classes:
Class A – This class is for very large networks, such as a major international
company. IP addresses with a first octet from 1 to 126 are part of this class. The
other three octets are each used to identify each host.
Net
54.
Host or Node
24.54.43
Loopback- The IP address 127.0.0.1 is used as the loopback address. This
means that it is used by the host computer to send a message back to itself. It is
commonly used for troubleshooting and network testing.
Class B- Class B is used for medium-sized networks. A good example is a large
college campus. IP addresses with a first octet from 128 to191 are part of this
class. Class B addresses also include the second octet as part of the Net
identifier. The other two octets are used to identify each host.
Net
145.24
Host or Node
53.198
Class C- Class C addresses are commonly used for small to mid-size business.
IP addresses with a first octet from192 to 223 are part of this class. Class C
addresses also include the second and third octets as part of Net identifier. The
last octet is used to identify each host.
Net
196.54.34
Host or Node
86
Class D- It is used for multicast. It has first bit value of 1, second bit value of 1,
third bit value of 1 and fourth bit value of 0. The other 28 bits are used to identify
the group of computers the multicast messages is intended for.
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
Net
224
Class E- It is used for experimental purpose only.
Net
240.
Host or Node
24.54.145
Host or Node
23.45.105
Private IP
It is not necessary that every time we make a network we are connected to some
ISP (Internet Service Provider). So in that case we require some private IP also
which can be used in indigenous networks .In each class a range of IP
addresses have been defined for this purpose
CLASS A
CLASS B
CLASS C
10.0.0.1 to 10.255.255.244
172.16.0.1 to 172.34.255.254
192.168.0.0/16
MASKING
Computers use a mask to define size of network and host part of an address.
Mask is a 32-bit number written in dotted decimal form. It provides us the network
address when we perform a Boolean AND of mask with the IP address. It also
define number of host bits in an address.
Class Size of
of network
address Part of
address,
in bits
A 8
B 16
C 24
Size of
Host
Part of
address,
in bits
24
16
8
Default Mask
for Each
Class of
Network
255.0.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.255.0
SUBNETTING
Basically it is a process of subdividing networks into smaller subnets.
In case we have 2-3 small networks but we cant buy IP address for each and
every network. So here we use the basic concept of SUBNETTING i.e using one
public IP address we will give them IP address and make them independent
networks. For this we take some bits of host address and use them for network
address so we have different independent networks
Address Format when Subnetting Is Used (class A,B,C resp.):
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
8
Network
24-x
Subnet
x
Host
16 16-x x
Network Subnet Host
24 8-x x
Network Subnet Host
And due to this mask changes to subnet mask and now the network address also
includes subnet address.
Example
If subnet mask is 255.255.240.0
And an IP address for a computer is given as 142.16.52.4
142.16.0.0 is network address
0.0.48.0 is the subnet address
0.0.4.4 is the host address of the computer
10001110.00010000.00110100.00000100 is ANDed with
11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000
and output is 10001110.00010000.00110000.00000000
here first two octets represents Network address and third octet represents
subnet address.
It can be compared with a postal address as there is only one ZIP code (Network
address), different streets (Subnet address), and different house number (Host
address).
Some terminologies
Networking models:
those are used with
Collision Domain- It is the group of PC’s in which collision will occur
when two PC will transmit data simultaneously.
Broadcast Domain- It is the group of PC’s those will receive same
broadcast message.
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection)- In this
protocol when a PC wants to transmit any packet it sense the carrier i.e the
path ,if no other PC is using the carrier then only it sends. If two PCs starts
sending data simultaneously collision will occur. Both PCs will wait for
some random time and then initiate the same process.
MAC (Media Access Control) . The IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) and 802.5
(Token Ring) are the MAC sub layers of these two LAN data-link protocols.
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
Burned-in address: The 6-byte address assigned by the vendor making
the card. It is usually burned in to a ROM or EEPROM on the LAN card and
begins with a 3-byte organizationally unique identifier (OUI) assigned by
the IEEE.
Locally administered address: Through configuration, an address that is
used instead of the burned-in address.
Unicast address: Fancy term for a MAC that represents a single LAN
interface.
PASSIVE COMPONENTS
Passive components are those devices which are used to provide connectivity
between different networking devices.
It includes
• Cables
• Patch Panel
• Patch Cord
• I/O box
• Racks
• RJ-45 Connectors
CABLES
There are different Cabling options depending on the access method :
Twisted pair
The wires are twisted around each other to
minimize interference from other twisted pairs in the cable.
Twisted pair cables are available unshielded (UTP)
or shielded (STP). UTP is the most common type
and uses a RJ-45 Connector.
Typical lengths are up to 100m.
Twisted pair network uses a star topology.
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
Coaxial
Coaxial cable uses BNC connectors.
The maximum cable lengths are around 500m.
Coaxial networks use a single bus topology
Fiber Optic
UTP and Co-axial cables are not capable for driving the data signals for long
distance i.e. UTP is capable of transmitting up to a distance 100 meters only By
using the Fiber cables it is possible to send the data about 10 kilometers. Fiber
optic cable uses SC, ST, LC connectors (most common in use is SC connector)
In fiber cables the data is converted to light signals and the signal is made to
propagate through the fiber cable. There are two types of Fibre optic cable
available.
1. Single mode: In this mode typical length is up to 12km and data rate is
1000Mbps. The core diameter is about 9.25 nm cable is known as 1000 base LX
cable.
2. Multi mode: This mode is further categorised in two:
1) SX: Typical length is up to 500m and data rate is 1000Mbps.
2) FX: Typical length is up to 220m and data rate is 10000Mbps
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
PATCH CORD
RACK
We have to mount the patch panel somehow. The best way is to buy a rack.
Basically, a rack is a pair of vertical rails with holes drilled in them so that we can
mount patch panels, hubs, and other network equipment. This made it easy to
access the back of the patch panel and other networking components.
Cabling Guidelines
The RJ-45 ports on the switch support automatic MDI/MDI-X operation, so wecan
use standard straight-through twisted-pair cables to connect to any other network
device (PCs, servers, switches, routers, or hubs).
We use only twisted-pair cables with RJ-45 connectors that conform to FCC
standards.
Connecting to PCs, Servers, Hubs and Switches
1. Attach one end of a twisted-pair cable segment to the device’s RJ-45
connector.
Making Twisted-Pair Connections
2. The port where we are connecting the RJ-45 is a network card, attach the
other end of the cable segment to a modular wall outlet that is connected
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
to the wiring closet . Otherwise, attach the other end to an available port
on the switch.
Make sure each twisted pair cable does not exceed 100 meters (328 ft) in length.
Wiring Closet Connections
Today, the punch-down block is an integral part of many of the newer equipment
racks. It is actually part of the patch panel. Instructions for making connections in
the wiring closet with this type of equipment follow.
1. Attach one end of a patch cable to an available port on the switch, and the
other end to the patch panel.
2. If not already in place, attach one end of a cable segment to the back of
the patch panel where the punch-down block is located, and the other end
to a modular wall outlet.
3. Label the cables to simplify future troubleshooting.
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
NETWORKING DEVICES
Networking devices do various kind of jobs like transferring the data to signals,
providing connectivity to different network devices, transferring the data in form of
packets or frames form one device to other. These are the central connections
for all the network equipments and handles a data type known as frame or
packet. Actually frames/ packet contain data and the destination address of
where it is going. When a frame is received, it is amplified and then transmitted
on to port of destination PC. But different networking components do this job in
diff form at diff layers.
NETWORK INTERFACE CARD
A Network Interface Card (NIC) is a circuit board that plugs into both clients and
servers and controls the exchange of data between them (A specific software
―driver must be installed depending on the make of the NIC. A physical‖
transmission medium, such as twisted pair or coaxial cable interconnects all
network interface cards to network hubs or switches. Ethernet and Token Ring
are common network interface cards. Today’s cards supports 10baseT and
100baseT with automatic recognition.
HUB
When the need for interconnecting more then 2 devices together then a device
known as hub comes to picture. Basically hub is a layer one device. i.e. it
operates on the physical layer of the OSI model. It is designed to do
broadcasting i.e when it gets any frame it broadcasts it to every port irrespective
that whether it is destined for that port or not. Hub has no way of distinguishing
which port a frame should be sent. Broadcasting results in lot of traffic on the
network which lead to poor network response. If two PC simultaneously transmit
there data packets and both are connected to a HUB, then collision will occur, so
we can say, it creates a single collision domain. On the other hand all PCs
connected to a hub will get a same message so a single broadcast domain will
be created.
A 100/1000 Mbps hub must share its bandwidth with each and every one of its
ports. So when only one PC is broadcasting, it will have access to the max
available bandwidth. If, however, multiple PC’s are broadcasting, then that
bandwidth will need to be divided between all of these systems, which will
degrade the performance. They are usually Half-Duplex in nature.
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
SWITCH
Hubs are capable of joining more than two PC but having some demerits like if
two PC would want to communicate at a time then there would be a collision and
the both PC would have to send the data once again. This shortcoming of Hub is
overcame by Switches. Switches are intelligent devices which work on the
Layer2 of the OSI model. Basically a switch keeps a record of MAC addresses of
all the devices connected to it. Using this information, it builds a MAC address
table. So when a frame is received, it knows exactly which port to send it to,
which increases the network response time.
Basic Working Principle of Switch.
1. At the time of initializing the switch the MAC address table is yet to be built
up. When a frame is send by some of the PC, it recognises the source
MAC address and update the MAC address table.
2. If the destination is available in the MAC table then forward to the
corresponding PC.
3. If the destination MAC address is not present in the table then forwards in
all the port available expect the incoming one. The designated PC will
respond for the data and it will send the acknowledge for the data
received. This acknowledged data will be examined by the switch and the
MAC address table would be up dated accordingly.
If two PC simultaneously transmit there data packets and both are connected to
a SWITCH, then collision will not occur, so we can say, it creates a multiple
collision domain.
The switch supports broadcast. Hence we can call switches create single
broadcast domain and multiple collision domains.
A 100/1000Mbps switch will allocate a full 100/1000 Mbps to each of its ports. So
regardless of the no of PC’s transmitting user will always have access to max
amt of bandwidth. They are usually Full-Duplex in nature.
Switches are of two types
1) Managed
2) Unmanaged
Managed switch supports SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
Different switching Principles:-
1. Store-and-forward:- The switch fully receives all bits in the frame (store)
before forwarding the frame (forward). This allows the switch to check the FCS
before forwarding the frame. (FCS is in the Ethernet trailer.)
2. Cut-through:- The switch performs the address table lookup as soon as the
destination address field in the header is received. The first bits in the frame can
be sent out the outbound port before the final bits in the incoming frame are
received. This does not allow the switch to discard frames that fail the FCS
check. (FCS is in the Ethernet trailer.)
3. Fragment Free:- This performs like cut-through switching, but the switch waits
for 64 bytes to be received before forwarding the first bytes of the outgoing
frame. According to Ethernet specifications, collisions should be detected during
the first 64 bytes of the frame; frames in error because of a collision will not be
forwarded. The FCS still cannot be checked.
Bridge is another device like switch which also operates basing on the MAC
address. But the Basic difference between the bridge and the switch is that
bridge works on software bases, but the switch works on hardware basic. The
Switch works on ASICs ( Application Specific Integrated Circuits)
ROUTER
Switch and the Hub can only interconnect devices in a single LAN. For
interconnecting two LAN or two or more different networks anther device known
as router is used. Its main job is to route ( sends ) packets to other networks and
to do the routing ( establishing paths between networks ) it uses the IP address.
A router is typically connected to at least two networks, commonly two LAN’s or
WAN’s or a LAN and its ISP’s network. Routers are located at gateways, the
places where two or more networks connect. Routers to determine the best path
for forwarding the packet are using forwarding tables.
It is a layer 3 device i.e it operates at network layer of OSI model. The working
principle of the router is totally different from a switch. Router makes a table
known as routing table, which contains all the IP address in the network, the
information for IP address router obtains directly ( all configured IP address on it )
or indirectly ( from neighbour routers ). When a packet is received it compares
the destination IP address of the packet with the available IP addresses in its
Routing table. If the IP address is not available in the routing table then it simply
discard the packet instead of flooding in all the ports like a switch.(Detailed
Information about router in chap )
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
Comparison between Hub, Bridge, Switch & Router
Feature
Number of
broadcast
domains
Number of
collision
domains
Forwards LAN
broadcasts?
Hub Bridge Switch Router
1 per
router
interface
1 per
router
interface
No
Segment
1
1
1
1 per
bridge
port
Yes
1
1 per switch
port
Yes
Yes; can be
optimized for
less
forwarding
Forwards LAN
multicasts
OSI layer used
when making
forwarding
decision
Internal
processing
variants
Frame/packet
fragmentation
allowed?
Multiple
concurrent
equal-cost paths
to same
destination
allowed?
N/A Yes No
N/A Layer 2
Store-
and-
forwardN/A
Layer 2
Store-and-
forward, cut-
through,
FragmentFree
Layer 3
Store-
and-
forward
N/A No No Yes
N/A No No Yes
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
LANSOLUTION
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENT
There is a company, which has 2 offices. And the offices are 200 meters apart.
The connectivity between these two offices is the main requirement to be fulfilled.
In each office there are three different departments each department at different
floor.
In building Ist
At each floor there are 20 users and also at 3rd floor there are 2 Servers.
In building IInd
At floor 1st and 2nd there are 20 users each. And at 3rd floor there are 40 users.
The bandwidth requirement of each user is 100 Mbps while the bandwidth
requirement for the server is 1 Gbps.
All floors must be connected to a central switch to be placed at IInd floor in office
2nd. And connectivity should be via optical fiber.
Everywhere there should be structured cabling.
Every switch should be provide with one GBIC slot for future connectivity of
server.
Every where smart and managed switch should be used.
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
SOLUTION
By looking at the requirement it is clear that we require a switch that has got 20
ports and also 2 GBIC slots (one for optical fiber connectivity and one free slot is
demanded for future use).
Keeping this point into consideration we can use HCL 24 Port Managed
Stackable Switch as this switch has got 24 ports and 2 GBIC slots and this switch
is managed switch also.
And with this 24 port switch we will use 24 port HCL made Patch Panel
And for connectivity of patch panel with switch we require 3 ft Patch Cord. As
structured cabling is must so we require UTP cable and I/O box and to connect
PCs with I/O box we require 7ft Patch Cord.
Here we will use Cat5e UTP cable because bandwidth requirement is 100 Mbps
This trend of connecting the users to the switch will be followed at each and
every floor but at floor 3rd of building IInd there are 40 user so here instead of 1
switch we require 2 switches.
At 3rd floor of building 1st 2 servers are also present whose bandwidth
requirement is 1Gbps. So now we have two options either to connect with UTP
cable or Fiber optic cable. But here we will use fiber optic as we are already
using it so thee is no need to waste money on UTP Cat 6 Cable. So here we will
simply use the fiber optic patch cord to connect the server to switch.
Now only one thing is left i.e. connection of switches to a central switch placed at
2nd floor of IInd building.
As the connection requirement is via optical fiber so we at central location we
require a switch having all its ports as GBIC slots and no of ports should not be
more than 8 as there are only 7 24 port switches in use (one optical cable line
from each switch)
Now here as the distance between the two offices is only 200 meters so here we
will use multimode optical fiber and that too FX type and as the cable is to be laid
in open so outdoor armored cable will be use.
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
ROUTER
ROUTER INTERNAL COMPONENTS
Like a computer, a router has a CPU that varies in performance and capabilities
depending upon router platform. It has typically 4 types of memory in it.:
ROM- It is used to store the router’s bootstrap startup program, operating system
software, and power-on diagnostic tests programs. We can also upgrade our
ROM
FLASH MEMORY- It holds operating systems image(s). Flash memory is
erasable, reprogrammable ROM. Our IOS software is present in this memory and
we can upgrade it also. Flash content is retained even when we switch off or
restart the router.
RAM- It is used to store operational information such as routing tables, router’s
running configuration file. RAM also provides caching and packet buffering
capabilities. Its content is lost when we switch off or restart the router. When we
configure the router at that time actually we are writing in RAM.
NVRAM- It is used to store the router’s startup configuration file. It does not lose
data when power is switched off. So the contents of startup configuration files are
maintained even when we switch off or restart the router.
ROUTER’S NETWORK INTERFACES
Ethernet or Token Ring interface are configured to allow connection to a LAN.
Synchronous serial interfaces are configured to allow connections to WANs.
ISDN BRI interfaces are configured to allow connection to an ISDN WAN.
All cisco routers have a console port that provides an EIA/TIA-232
asynchronous serial connection. Console port can be connected to computers
serial connection to gain terminal access to router.
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
Most routers also have an auxiliary port that is very similar to console port but,
is typically used for modem connection for remote router management.
CONFIGURING THE ROUTER
There are three methods for configuring the router:
1) Through console port:- The console port is used for configuring a router
locally with the help of a PC or a Laptop. The console port of the router is
connected to the serial i.e COM port of the router. The detailed
configuration is given in the section.
2) Through the AUX port:- The aux ( auxiliary ) port is accessed from a
modem located faraway from a router through the PSTN ( Public Switched
Telephone Network ) and the configuration is done.
3) Through Telnet:- Line vty ( virtual terminal ) 0 to 4 are used for the
configuring the router by telnet.
Configuring Router through Console port
We use HyperTerminal Program to open a console session and log into the
router locally. This console connection allows to connect to and to communicate
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
with router without having to connect to the network to which it belongs. Now, the
PC becomes the console that allows to enter commands and communicate
directly with the router. To set up a console session, we use the workstation’s
Windows HyperTerminal (terminal emulation) program. Now first of all we
configure the COM port settings, then log into the router to interact with the IOS
command line interface (CLI). These are the com port settings:
9600
8
N
1
On/off
After pressing enter or OK to accept these settings, we came across a blank
window. This is a session window.
The Following steps are adopted to access a router through the console port with
a Windows based PC.
Access Hyper terminal:- Start Menu  Programs  Accessories 
Communication  Hyperterminal
Connect to the device of the PC
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
COM 1 Setting
Hyper terminal Screen
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
After connecting the router that will boot and after booting the following
procedures will be adopted.
Router> enable
Now automatically prompt asking for password will appear on the screen like this:
Password:
Now write password over here. This is done to secure access to router. After this
Router#
will appear on the screen this shows that we are in privileged mode and now we
try to enter in configuration mode.
Router# configure terminal
This is done to enter configuration mode.
Now starts the configuration of router
Now we will assign IP address to each and very interface connected to router.
Subnet mask should be given with a proper care. Following steps are to be
followed:
For configuring ethernet interface:
Router# config terminal
Router (config)# interface ethernet 0
Summer Training Report On Computer Networking

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Ccna report

  • 1. PROJECT REPORT ON COMPUTER NETWORKING AT Guida IIHT Chandigarh Under Guidance of Mr. Sanjay SIngh Prepared By Surender Singh B. Tech. ECE 5th Sem Roll No 2511078 Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENT 1. Introduction to Networking Definition Requirement of Networking 2. Types of Network LAN (Local Area Network) WAN (Wide Area Network) 3. Network Models OSI Model 4. Cables Twisted Cable Coaxial Cable Fibre Optic 5. Networking Devices Network Interface Card Hub Switch Router 6. IP Addressing Introduction Private IP Masking Subnetting Example 7. LAN Solution Requirement Solution Specification Sheet Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 3. 8. Router Internal Components Network Interfaces Configuring Configuring using Console Routing Protocols RIP IGRP Access List 9. Firewall Introduction Technologies Configuring 10. WLAN Standards Topologies Infrastructure Network Adhoc Network 11. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) HIDS NIDS Techniques 12. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Channels Interfaces Functional Group Reference Points Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 4. INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING Definition :- A network is a system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or data between users. A network can be defined by its geographical dimensions and by which the user’s PC access it. A network consists of a: • The network operating system (Windows NT/2000TM/Xp) on the user’s PC (client) and server. • The cables connecting all network devices (user’s PC, server, peripherals, etc.). • All supporting network components (hubs, routers and switches, etc.). Computer Network means an interconnected collection of autonomous computers. Requirement of Networking Resource sharing- To make all programs, equipment, and especially data available to anyone on the network without regard to the physical location of the resource and the user. High reliability- As all files could be replicated on two or three machines, so if one of them is unavailable (due to hardware failure), the other copies could be used. Scalability- It is the ability to increase system performance gradually as the workload grows just by adding more processors. A computer network can provide a powerful communication medium along widely separated employees. The use of networks to enhance human-to-human communication will probably prove more important than technical goals such as improved reliability. These are the requirement with respect to companies but computer networking is required even in the normal day to day life as we have to access the internet to get information about what all new happening in the world, to have communication with people staying far away using the e mail service. These are the reasons that forced the inventerors to invent the networking devices, models and protocols etc. And the birth of Networking took place in 1844 when for the first time Samuel Morse send the first telegraph message. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 5. TYPES OF NETWORKS LAN (LOCAL AREA NETWORK) These are privately owned networks within a single building or campus of up to a few a kilometers in size. LAN’s are distinguished from other networks by three characteristics: 1) Their size. 2) Their transmission technology. 3) Their topology. LAN’s are restricted in size, which means that the worst-case transmission time is bounded and known in advance. LAN’s often use a transmission technology consisting of a single cable to which all the machines are attached. LANs run at speeds of 10 to 100 Mbps, have low delays, and make very few errors. LAN SETUP IEEE has produced several standards for LANs. These standards collectively known as IEEE 802 . IEEE802.3 (Ethernet), IEEE802.4 (Token Bus), IEEE802.5 (Token Ring) Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 6. WAN (WIDE AREA NETWORK) It is a Computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area, often a country or continent. Typically a WAN consists of two or more Local Area Network. Computers connected to WAN are often connected through public networks such as telephone systems. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. The largest WAN in existence is Internet. WANs run at speed of maximum 2 to 10 Mbps. WAN SETUP For most WANs, the long distance bandwidth is relatively slow: on the order of kilobits per second (kbps) as opposed to megabits per second (Mbps) for local-area networks (LANs). For example, an Ethernet LAN has a 10 Mbps bandwidth; a WAN using part or all of a T1 carrier has a bandwidth of 1.544 Mbps . Three types of approaches are used to connect WANs: 1) Circuit switching, which provides a fixed connection (at least for the duration of a call or session), so that each packet takes the same path. Examples of this approach include ISDN, Switched 56, and Switched T1. 2) Packet switching, which establishes connections during the transmission process so that different packets from the same transmission may take different routes and may arrive out of sequence at the destination. Examples of this approach are X.25, frame relay, and ATM. 3) Leased lines, which can provide a dedicated connection for private use Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 7. NETWORK MODELS Layering Concepts and Benefits Many benefits can be gained from the process of breaking up the functions or tasks of networking into smaller chunks, called layers, and defining standard interfaces between these layers. The layers break a large, complex set of concepts and protocols into smaller pieces, making it easier to talk about, to implement with hardware and software, and to troubleshoot. The following list summarizes the benefits of layered protocol Specifications: Humans can more easily discuss and learn about the many details of a protocol specification. Standardized interfaces among layers facilitate modular engineering. A better environment for interoperability is created. One vendor can write software that implements higher layers—for example, a Web browser—and another can write software that implements the lower layers—for example, Microsoft’s built-in TCP/IP software in its operating systems. Reduced complexity allows easier program changes and faster product evolution. One layer uses the services of the layer immediately below it. Therefore, remembering what each layer does is easier. (For example, the network layer needs to deliver data from end to end. To do this, it uses data links to forward data to the next successive device along that end-to-end path.) Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 8. OSI NETWORK MODEL The OSI model describes how information makes its way from application programs through a network medium to another application program in other computer. It divides one big problem in to seven smaller problems . Each problem is addressed by one of the seven layers of the OSI model. Functions of Network Layers in Brief: APPLICATION LAYER • • • • • Used for applications specifically written to run over the network Allows access to network services that support applications; Directly represents the services that directly support user applications Handles network access, flow control and error recovery Example apps are file transfer, e-mail, Net BIOS-based applications PRESENTATION LAYER Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 9. • • • • • Translates from application to network format and vice-versa All different formats from all sources are made into a common uniform format that the rest of the OSI model can understand Responsible for protocol conversion, character conversion, data encryption / decryption, expanding graphics commands, data compression Sets standards for different systems to provide seamless communication from multiple protocol stacks Not always implemented in a network protocol SESSION LAYER • • • • • Establishes, maintains and ends sessions across the network Responsible for name recognition (identification) so only the designated parties can participate in the session Provides synchronization services by planning check points in the data stream => if session fails, only data after the most recent checkpoint need be transmitted Manages who can transmit data at a certain time and for how long Examples are interactive login and file transfer connections, the session would connect and re-connect if there was an interruption; recognize names in sessions and register names in history TRANSPORT LAYER • • • • • • • Additional connection below the session layer Manages the flow control of data between parties across the network Divides streams of data into chunks or packets; the transport layer of the receiving computer reassembles the message from packets "Train" is a good analogy => the data is divided into identical units Provides error-checking to guarantee error-free data delivery, with on losses or duplications Provides acknowledgment of successful transmissions; requests retransmission if some packets don’t arrive error-free Provides flow control and error-handling TCP, ARP, RARP; NETWORK LAYER • Translates logical network address and names to their physical address (e.g. computer name ==> MAC address) • Responsible for addressing and determining routes for sending • Managing network problems such as packet switching, data congestion and routing Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 10. • • If router can’t send data frame as large as the source computer sends, the network layer compensates by breaking the data into smaller units. At the receiving end, the network layer reassembles the data Think of this layer stamping the addresses on each train car IP; ARP; RARP, ICMP; RIP; OSFP; DATA LINK LAYER • • • • • Turns packets into raw bits 100101 and at the receiving end turns bits into packets. Handles data frames between the Network and Physical layers The receiving end packages raw data from the Physical layer into data frames for delivery to the Network layer Responsible for error-free transfer of frames to other computer via the Physical Layer This layer defines the methods used to transmit and receive data on the network. It consists of the wiring, the devices use to connect the NIC to the wiring, the signaling involved to transmit / receive data and the ability to detect signaling errors on the network media Logical Link Control • • Error correction and flow control Manages link control and defines SAPs PHYSICAL LAYER • • • • Transmits raw bit stream over physical cable Defines cables, cards, and physical aspects Defines NIC attachments to hardware, how cable is attached to NIC Defines techniques to transfer bit stream to cable IP ADDRESSING Every machine on the internet has a unique identifying number, called an IP Address. A typical; IP address looks like this: 216.27.61.45 IP ADDRESS is a 32-bit number, usually written in dotted decimal form, that uniquely identifies an interface of some computer. This 32-bit number is divided into 4 octets each separated by a decimal. Out so many values certain values Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 11. are restricted for use as typical IP address. For example, the IP address 0.0.0.0 is reserved for the default network and the address 255.255.255.255is used for broadcast. Each IP address is split into 2 sections: 1) Network address 2) Host address Individual IP address in same network all have a different value in the host part of address, but they have identical value in network part, just as in town there are different street address but same ZIP code. There are five IP classes: Class A – This class is for very large networks, such as a major international company. IP addresses with a first octet from 1 to 126 are part of this class. The other three octets are each used to identify each host. Net 54. Host or Node 24.54.43 Loopback- The IP address 127.0.0.1 is used as the loopback address. This means that it is used by the host computer to send a message back to itself. It is commonly used for troubleshooting and network testing. Class B- Class B is used for medium-sized networks. A good example is a large college campus. IP addresses with a first octet from 128 to191 are part of this class. Class B addresses also include the second octet as part of the Net identifier. The other two octets are used to identify each host. Net 145.24 Host or Node 53.198 Class C- Class C addresses are commonly used for small to mid-size business. IP addresses with a first octet from192 to 223 are part of this class. Class C addresses also include the second and third octets as part of Net identifier. The last octet is used to identify each host. Net 196.54.34 Host or Node 86 Class D- It is used for multicast. It has first bit value of 1, second bit value of 1, third bit value of 1 and fourth bit value of 0. The other 28 bits are used to identify the group of computers the multicast messages is intended for. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 12. Net 224 Class E- It is used for experimental purpose only. Net 240. Host or Node 24.54.145 Host or Node 23.45.105 Private IP It is not necessary that every time we make a network we are connected to some ISP (Internet Service Provider). So in that case we require some private IP also which can be used in indigenous networks .In each class a range of IP addresses have been defined for this purpose CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 10.0.0.1 to 10.255.255.244 172.16.0.1 to 172.34.255.254 192.168.0.0/16 MASKING Computers use a mask to define size of network and host part of an address. Mask is a 32-bit number written in dotted decimal form. It provides us the network address when we perform a Boolean AND of mask with the IP address. It also define number of host bits in an address. Class Size of of network address Part of address, in bits A 8 B 16 C 24 Size of Host Part of address, in bits 24 16 8 Default Mask for Each Class of Network 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 SUBNETTING Basically it is a process of subdividing networks into smaller subnets. In case we have 2-3 small networks but we cant buy IP address for each and every network. So here we use the basic concept of SUBNETTING i.e using one public IP address we will give them IP address and make them independent networks. For this we take some bits of host address and use them for network address so we have different independent networks Address Format when Subnetting Is Used (class A,B,C resp.): Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 13. 8 Network 24-x Subnet x Host 16 16-x x Network Subnet Host 24 8-x x Network Subnet Host And due to this mask changes to subnet mask and now the network address also includes subnet address. Example If subnet mask is 255.255.240.0 And an IP address for a computer is given as 142.16.52.4 142.16.0.0 is network address 0.0.48.0 is the subnet address 0.0.4.4 is the host address of the computer 10001110.00010000.00110100.00000100 is ANDed with 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000 and output is 10001110.00010000.00110000.00000000 here first two octets represents Network address and third octet represents subnet address. It can be compared with a postal address as there is only one ZIP code (Network address), different streets (Subnet address), and different house number (Host address). Some terminologies Networking models: those are used with Collision Domain- It is the group of PC’s in which collision will occur when two PC will transmit data simultaneously. Broadcast Domain- It is the group of PC’s those will receive same broadcast message. CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection)- In this protocol when a PC wants to transmit any packet it sense the carrier i.e the path ,if no other PC is using the carrier then only it sends. If two PCs starts sending data simultaneously collision will occur. Both PCs will wait for some random time and then initiate the same process. MAC (Media Access Control) . The IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) and 802.5 (Token Ring) are the MAC sub layers of these two LAN data-link protocols. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 14. Burned-in address: The 6-byte address assigned by the vendor making the card. It is usually burned in to a ROM or EEPROM on the LAN card and begins with a 3-byte organizationally unique identifier (OUI) assigned by the IEEE. Locally administered address: Through configuration, an address that is used instead of the burned-in address. Unicast address: Fancy term for a MAC that represents a single LAN interface. PASSIVE COMPONENTS Passive components are those devices which are used to provide connectivity between different networking devices. It includes • Cables • Patch Panel • Patch Cord • I/O box • Racks • RJ-45 Connectors CABLES There are different Cabling options depending on the access method : Twisted pair The wires are twisted around each other to minimize interference from other twisted pairs in the cable. Twisted pair cables are available unshielded (UTP) or shielded (STP). UTP is the most common type and uses a RJ-45 Connector. Typical lengths are up to 100m. Twisted pair network uses a star topology. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 15. Coaxial Coaxial cable uses BNC connectors. The maximum cable lengths are around 500m. Coaxial networks use a single bus topology Fiber Optic UTP and Co-axial cables are not capable for driving the data signals for long distance i.e. UTP is capable of transmitting up to a distance 100 meters only By using the Fiber cables it is possible to send the data about 10 kilometers. Fiber optic cable uses SC, ST, LC connectors (most common in use is SC connector) In fiber cables the data is converted to light signals and the signal is made to propagate through the fiber cable. There are two types of Fibre optic cable available. 1. Single mode: In this mode typical length is up to 12km and data rate is 1000Mbps. The core diameter is about 9.25 nm cable is known as 1000 base LX cable. 2. Multi mode: This mode is further categorised in two: 1) SX: Typical length is up to 500m and data rate is 1000Mbps. 2) FX: Typical length is up to 220m and data rate is 10000Mbps Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 16. PATCH CORD RACK We have to mount the patch panel somehow. The best way is to buy a rack. Basically, a rack is a pair of vertical rails with holes drilled in them so that we can mount patch panels, hubs, and other network equipment. This made it easy to access the back of the patch panel and other networking components. Cabling Guidelines The RJ-45 ports on the switch support automatic MDI/MDI-X operation, so wecan use standard straight-through twisted-pair cables to connect to any other network device (PCs, servers, switches, routers, or hubs). We use only twisted-pair cables with RJ-45 connectors that conform to FCC standards. Connecting to PCs, Servers, Hubs and Switches 1. Attach one end of a twisted-pair cable segment to the device’s RJ-45 connector. Making Twisted-Pair Connections 2. The port where we are connecting the RJ-45 is a network card, attach the other end of the cable segment to a modular wall outlet that is connected Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 17. to the wiring closet . Otherwise, attach the other end to an available port on the switch. Make sure each twisted pair cable does not exceed 100 meters (328 ft) in length. Wiring Closet Connections Today, the punch-down block is an integral part of many of the newer equipment racks. It is actually part of the patch panel. Instructions for making connections in the wiring closet with this type of equipment follow. 1. Attach one end of a patch cable to an available port on the switch, and the other end to the patch panel. 2. If not already in place, attach one end of a cable segment to the back of the patch panel where the punch-down block is located, and the other end to a modular wall outlet. 3. Label the cables to simplify future troubleshooting. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 18. NETWORKING DEVICES Networking devices do various kind of jobs like transferring the data to signals, providing connectivity to different network devices, transferring the data in form of packets or frames form one device to other. These are the central connections for all the network equipments and handles a data type known as frame or packet. Actually frames/ packet contain data and the destination address of where it is going. When a frame is received, it is amplified and then transmitted on to port of destination PC. But different networking components do this job in diff form at diff layers. NETWORK INTERFACE CARD A Network Interface Card (NIC) is a circuit board that plugs into both clients and servers and controls the exchange of data between them (A specific software ―driver must be installed depending on the make of the NIC. A physical‖ transmission medium, such as twisted pair or coaxial cable interconnects all network interface cards to network hubs or switches. Ethernet and Token Ring are common network interface cards. Today’s cards supports 10baseT and 100baseT with automatic recognition. HUB When the need for interconnecting more then 2 devices together then a device known as hub comes to picture. Basically hub is a layer one device. i.e. it operates on the physical layer of the OSI model. It is designed to do broadcasting i.e when it gets any frame it broadcasts it to every port irrespective that whether it is destined for that port or not. Hub has no way of distinguishing which port a frame should be sent. Broadcasting results in lot of traffic on the network which lead to poor network response. If two PC simultaneously transmit there data packets and both are connected to a HUB, then collision will occur, so we can say, it creates a single collision domain. On the other hand all PCs connected to a hub will get a same message so a single broadcast domain will be created. A 100/1000 Mbps hub must share its bandwidth with each and every one of its ports. So when only one PC is broadcasting, it will have access to the max available bandwidth. If, however, multiple PC’s are broadcasting, then that bandwidth will need to be divided between all of these systems, which will degrade the performance. They are usually Half-Duplex in nature. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 19. SWITCH Hubs are capable of joining more than two PC but having some demerits like if two PC would want to communicate at a time then there would be a collision and the both PC would have to send the data once again. This shortcoming of Hub is overcame by Switches. Switches are intelligent devices which work on the Layer2 of the OSI model. Basically a switch keeps a record of MAC addresses of all the devices connected to it. Using this information, it builds a MAC address table. So when a frame is received, it knows exactly which port to send it to, which increases the network response time. Basic Working Principle of Switch. 1. At the time of initializing the switch the MAC address table is yet to be built up. When a frame is send by some of the PC, it recognises the source MAC address and update the MAC address table. 2. If the destination is available in the MAC table then forward to the corresponding PC. 3. If the destination MAC address is not present in the table then forwards in all the port available expect the incoming one. The designated PC will respond for the data and it will send the acknowledge for the data received. This acknowledged data will be examined by the switch and the MAC address table would be up dated accordingly. If two PC simultaneously transmit there data packets and both are connected to a SWITCH, then collision will not occur, so we can say, it creates a multiple collision domain. The switch supports broadcast. Hence we can call switches create single broadcast domain and multiple collision domains. A 100/1000Mbps switch will allocate a full 100/1000 Mbps to each of its ports. So regardless of the no of PC’s transmitting user will always have access to max amt of bandwidth. They are usually Full-Duplex in nature. Switches are of two types 1) Managed 2) Unmanaged Managed switch supports SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 20. Different switching Principles:- 1. Store-and-forward:- The switch fully receives all bits in the frame (store) before forwarding the frame (forward). This allows the switch to check the FCS before forwarding the frame. (FCS is in the Ethernet trailer.) 2. Cut-through:- The switch performs the address table lookup as soon as the destination address field in the header is received. The first bits in the frame can be sent out the outbound port before the final bits in the incoming frame are received. This does not allow the switch to discard frames that fail the FCS check. (FCS is in the Ethernet trailer.) 3. Fragment Free:- This performs like cut-through switching, but the switch waits for 64 bytes to be received before forwarding the first bytes of the outgoing frame. According to Ethernet specifications, collisions should be detected during the first 64 bytes of the frame; frames in error because of a collision will not be forwarded. The FCS still cannot be checked. Bridge is another device like switch which also operates basing on the MAC address. But the Basic difference between the bridge and the switch is that bridge works on software bases, but the switch works on hardware basic. The Switch works on ASICs ( Application Specific Integrated Circuits) ROUTER Switch and the Hub can only interconnect devices in a single LAN. For interconnecting two LAN or two or more different networks anther device known as router is used. Its main job is to route ( sends ) packets to other networks and to do the routing ( establishing paths between networks ) it uses the IP address. A router is typically connected to at least two networks, commonly two LAN’s or WAN’s or a LAN and its ISP’s network. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect. Routers to determine the best path for forwarding the packet are using forwarding tables. It is a layer 3 device i.e it operates at network layer of OSI model. The working principle of the router is totally different from a switch. Router makes a table known as routing table, which contains all the IP address in the network, the information for IP address router obtains directly ( all configured IP address on it ) or indirectly ( from neighbour routers ). When a packet is received it compares the destination IP address of the packet with the available IP addresses in its Routing table. If the IP address is not available in the routing table then it simply discard the packet instead of flooding in all the ports like a switch.(Detailed Information about router in chap ) Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 21. Comparison between Hub, Bridge, Switch & Router Feature Number of broadcast domains Number of collision domains Forwards LAN broadcasts? Hub Bridge Switch Router 1 per router interface 1 per router interface No Segment 1 1 1 1 per bridge port Yes 1 1 per switch port Yes Yes; can be optimized for less forwarding Forwards LAN multicasts OSI layer used when making forwarding decision Internal processing variants Frame/packet fragmentation allowed? Multiple concurrent equal-cost paths to same destination allowed? N/A Yes No N/A Layer 2 Store- and- forwardN/A Layer 2 Store-and- forward, cut- through, FragmentFree Layer 3 Store- and- forward N/A No No Yes N/A No No Yes Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 22. LANSOLUTION CUSTOMER REQUIREMENT There is a company, which has 2 offices. And the offices are 200 meters apart. The connectivity between these two offices is the main requirement to be fulfilled. In each office there are three different departments each department at different floor. In building Ist At each floor there are 20 users and also at 3rd floor there are 2 Servers. In building IInd At floor 1st and 2nd there are 20 users each. And at 3rd floor there are 40 users. The bandwidth requirement of each user is 100 Mbps while the bandwidth requirement for the server is 1 Gbps. All floors must be connected to a central switch to be placed at IInd floor in office 2nd. And connectivity should be via optical fiber. Everywhere there should be structured cabling. Every switch should be provide with one GBIC slot for future connectivity of server. Every where smart and managed switch should be used. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 23. SOLUTION By looking at the requirement it is clear that we require a switch that has got 20 ports and also 2 GBIC slots (one for optical fiber connectivity and one free slot is demanded for future use). Keeping this point into consideration we can use HCL 24 Port Managed Stackable Switch as this switch has got 24 ports and 2 GBIC slots and this switch is managed switch also. And with this 24 port switch we will use 24 port HCL made Patch Panel And for connectivity of patch panel with switch we require 3 ft Patch Cord. As structured cabling is must so we require UTP cable and I/O box and to connect PCs with I/O box we require 7ft Patch Cord. Here we will use Cat5e UTP cable because bandwidth requirement is 100 Mbps This trend of connecting the users to the switch will be followed at each and every floor but at floor 3rd of building IInd there are 40 user so here instead of 1 switch we require 2 switches. At 3rd floor of building 1st 2 servers are also present whose bandwidth requirement is 1Gbps. So now we have two options either to connect with UTP cable or Fiber optic cable. But here we will use fiber optic as we are already using it so thee is no need to waste money on UTP Cat 6 Cable. So here we will simply use the fiber optic patch cord to connect the server to switch. Now only one thing is left i.e. connection of switches to a central switch placed at 2nd floor of IInd building. As the connection requirement is via optical fiber so we at central location we require a switch having all its ports as GBIC slots and no of ports should not be more than 8 as there are only 7 24 port switches in use (one optical cable line from each switch) Now here as the distance between the two offices is only 200 meters so here we will use multimode optical fiber and that too FX type and as the cable is to be laid in open so outdoor armored cable will be use. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 24. ROUTER ROUTER INTERNAL COMPONENTS Like a computer, a router has a CPU that varies in performance and capabilities depending upon router platform. It has typically 4 types of memory in it.: ROM- It is used to store the router’s bootstrap startup program, operating system software, and power-on diagnostic tests programs. We can also upgrade our ROM FLASH MEMORY- It holds operating systems image(s). Flash memory is erasable, reprogrammable ROM. Our IOS software is present in this memory and we can upgrade it also. Flash content is retained even when we switch off or restart the router. RAM- It is used to store operational information such as routing tables, router’s running configuration file. RAM also provides caching and packet buffering capabilities. Its content is lost when we switch off or restart the router. When we configure the router at that time actually we are writing in RAM. NVRAM- It is used to store the router’s startup configuration file. It does not lose data when power is switched off. So the contents of startup configuration files are maintained even when we switch off or restart the router. ROUTER’S NETWORK INTERFACES Ethernet or Token Ring interface are configured to allow connection to a LAN. Synchronous serial interfaces are configured to allow connections to WANs. ISDN BRI interfaces are configured to allow connection to an ISDN WAN. All cisco routers have a console port that provides an EIA/TIA-232 asynchronous serial connection. Console port can be connected to computers serial connection to gain terminal access to router. Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 25. Most routers also have an auxiliary port that is very similar to console port but, is typically used for modem connection for remote router management. CONFIGURING THE ROUTER There are three methods for configuring the router: 1) Through console port:- The console port is used for configuring a router locally with the help of a PC or a Laptop. The console port of the router is connected to the serial i.e COM port of the router. The detailed configuration is given in the section. 2) Through the AUX port:- The aux ( auxiliary ) port is accessed from a modem located faraway from a router through the PSTN ( Public Switched Telephone Network ) and the configuration is done. 3) Through Telnet:- Line vty ( virtual terminal ) 0 to 4 are used for the configuring the router by telnet. Configuring Router through Console port We use HyperTerminal Program to open a console session and log into the router locally. This console connection allows to connect to and to communicate Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 26. with router without having to connect to the network to which it belongs. Now, the PC becomes the console that allows to enter commands and communicate directly with the router. To set up a console session, we use the workstation’s Windows HyperTerminal (terminal emulation) program. Now first of all we configure the COM port settings, then log into the router to interact with the IOS command line interface (CLI). These are the com port settings: 9600 8 N 1 On/off After pressing enter or OK to accept these settings, we came across a blank window. This is a session window. The Following steps are adopted to access a router through the console port with a Windows based PC. Access Hyper terminal:- Start Menu  Programs  Accessories  Communication  Hyperterminal Connect to the device of the PC Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 27. COM 1 Setting Hyper terminal Screen Summer Training Report On Computer Networking
  • 28. After connecting the router that will boot and after booting the following procedures will be adopted. Router> enable Now automatically prompt asking for password will appear on the screen like this: Password: Now write password over here. This is done to secure access to router. After this Router# will appear on the screen this shows that we are in privileged mode and now we try to enter in configuration mode. Router# configure terminal This is done to enter configuration mode. Now starts the configuration of router Now we will assign IP address to each and very interface connected to router. Subnet mask should be given with a proper care. Following steps are to be followed: For configuring ethernet interface: Router# config terminal Router (config)# interface ethernet 0 Summer Training Report On Computer Networking