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Data NetworksSharing data through the use of floppy disks is not an efficientor cost-effective manner in which to operate businesses.Businesses needed a solution that would successfullyaddress the following three problems:• How to avoid duplication of equipment and resources• How to communicate efficiently• How to set up and manage a networkBusinesses realized that networking technology couldincrease productivity while saving money. 3
Networking DevicesEquipment that connects directly to a network segment isreferred to as a device.These devices are broken up into two classifications.• end-user devices• network devicesEnd-user devices include computers, printers, scanners, andother devices that provide services directly to the user.Network devices include all the devices that connect the end-user devices together to allow them to communicate. 4
Network Interface CardA network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit boardthat provides network communication capabilities to andfrom a personal computer. Also called a LAN adapter. 5
RepeaterA repeater is a network device used to regenerate a signal.Repeaters regenerate analog or digital signals distorted bytransmission loss due to attenuation. A repeater does notperform intelligent routing. 7
HubHubs concentrateconnections. In otherwords, they take a group ofhosts and allow the networkto see them as a single unit.This is donepassively, without any othereffect on the datatransmission.Active hubs not onlyconcentrate hosts, but they 8also regenerate signals.
BridgeBridges convert network transmission data formats as well asperform basic data transmission management. Bridges, asthe name implies, provide connections between LANs. Notonly do bridges connect LANs, but they also perform a checkon the data to determine whether it should cross the bridge ornot. This makes each part of the network more efficient. 9
Workgroup SwitchWorkgroup switches addmore intelligence to datatransfer management.Switches can determinewhether data should remainon a LAN or not, and theycan transfer the data to theconnection that needs thatdata. 10
RouterRouters have all capabilities of the previous devices. Routerscan regenerate signals, concentrate multipleconnections, convert data transmission formats, and managedata transfers.They can also connect to a WAN, which allowsthem to connect LANs that are separated by great distances. 11
―The Cloud‖The cloud is used in diagrams to represent where theconnection to the internet is.It also represents all of the devices on the internet. 12
Network TopologiesNetwork topology defines the structure of the network.One part of the topology definition is the physicaltopology, which is the actual layout of the wire or media.The other part is the logical topology,which defines how themedia is accessed by the hosts for sending data. 13
Bus TopologyA bus topology uses a single backbone cable that isterminated at both ends.All the hosts connect directly to this backbone. 15
Ring TopologyA ring topology connects one host to the next and the last hostto the first.This creates a physical ring of cable. 16
Star TopologyA star topology connects all cables to a central point ofconcentration. 17
Extended Star TopologyAn extended star topology links individual stars together byconnecting the hubs and/or switches.This topology can extendthe scope and coverage of the network. 18
Hierarchical TopologyA hierarchical topology is similar to an extended star. 19
Mesh TopologyA mesh topology is implemented to provide as muchprotection as possible from interruption of service.Each host has its own connections to all other hosts.Although the Internet has multiple paths to any onelocation, it does not adopt the full mesh topology. 20
LANs, MANs, & WANsOne early solution was the creation of local-area network(LAN) standards which provided an open set of guidelines forcreating network hardware and software, making equipmentfrom different companies compatible.What was needed was a way for information to moveefficiently and quickly, not only within a company, but alsofrom one business to another.The solution was the creation of metropolitan-area networks(MANs) and wide-area networks (WANs). 21