6 the ear


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6 the ear

  1. 1. THE EAR ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 熊覌霞( VICKY XIONG) Otorhinolaryngology Hospital of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University Otorhinolaryngology Institute of Sun Yat-sen University Mobil : 13711227500 E-mail:xgx001@163.com
  2. 2. Temporal bone: Squamous portion(3) Tympanic portion(9,13) Mastoid portion(14) Petrous portion(20) Styloid process(11)
  3. 4. EAR: External ear; Middle ear; Inner ear
  4. 5. <ul><li>Auricle </li></ul><ul><li>External acoustic meatus </li></ul>The external ear
  5. 6. <ul><li>The external: </li></ul><ul><li>collection </li></ul><ul><li>To enlarge </li></ul><ul><li>To safeguard </li></ul><ul><li>To distinguish the direction </li></ul>Function
  6. 7. The middle Middle ear include: tympanic cavity, eustachain tube, tympanic antrum, mastoid process
  7. 8. Eardrum (Tympanic membrane) _ lateral wall of tympanic cavity tympanic cavity    :    like hexahedron.
  8. 9. lnner wall of tympanic cavity: Promontory vestibular window (oval window) cochlear window (round window) cochleariform procss
  9. 10. Back : aditus, incudial fossa, pyramidal eminence, mastoid Upper : tegmen tympanic Inferior: jugular vein Infront : semicanalis tube auditive, semicanalis tube of tensor tympani
  10. 11. Tympanic cavity include: *Ossicular chain malleus incus stapes *Ligament *Muscle tensor tympani muscle stapedius muscle
  11. 12. <ul><li>The middle : enlargement the sound </li></ul><ul><li>Eardrum : oval window </li></ul><ul><li>55mm 2 : 3.2mm 2 = ↑ 17 times </li></ul>Function
  12. 13. <ul><li>The middle : </li></ul><ul><li>ossicular chain : </li></ul><ul><li>malleus handle: incus long leg=1.3:1 </li></ul><ul><li>17×1.3=22.1times (27dB) </li></ul>Function
  13. 14. <ul><li>The middle : </li></ul><ul><li>muscle : protection </li></ul><ul><li>eustachain : </li></ul><ul><li>pressure balance ; </li></ul><ul><li>drainage; </li></ul><ul><li>protection (voice,infection) </li></ul>Function
  14. 15. The inner ear The inner (labyrinth): Osseous labyrinth (perilymph); Membranous (endolymph) include: cochlea vestibule semicircular canals ( lateral+ superior+ posterior)
  15. 16. Vestibule : utricle, saccule --- otolith membrane Membranous semicircular canals ---crista ampullaris
  16. 17. Cochlea: Scala vestibuli Scala media Scala tympani
  17. 18. -Line on the inner part of the basilar membrane,contains: Inner hair cell : *is connected to several afferent fibers of the cochlear nerver. *are the actual “hearing cells” which transform acoustic information into nerve pulses . Outer hair cell : *there are three to four times more outer hair cell than inner hair cell(near 12,000). *are viewed as the effector or “motor” of the cochlear amplifier. Support cell: Tectorial membrane: * connect the ciliated surfaces of the seneory cells. *cover the sensory cell region of the corti organ. Corti organ (Spiral organ)
  18. 19. Corti organ (Spiral organ) Inner hair cell outer hair cell
  19. 20. <ul><li>The cochlear : conduction + sense </li></ul><ul><li>Air conduction : </li></ul><ul><li>sound - the external - eardrum--ossicular chain </li></ul><ul><li>- the inner - acoustic.N - brain </li></ul><ul><li>Bone conduction : </li></ul><ul><li>under 800Hz- - translatory mode bone conduction </li></ul><ul><li>upper 800Hz- - compressional mode of bone conduction </li></ul>Function
  20. 22. PHYSIOLOGY- HEARING How we hear?
  21. 23. How we hear ?
  22. 24. PHYSIOLOGY -BALANCE The vestibule and semicircular canals form the peripheral balance organ. These have connections to the cerebellum and the eyes, and are important in the maintenance of posture and the ability to keep the eyes fixed when the head is moving.
  23. 25. PHYSIOLOGY -BALANCE Vestibule( utricle, saccule) --- linear acceleration Membranous semicircular canals --- angular acceleration
  24. 26. <ul><li>Acoustic nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Vestibule ( vestibular ganglion )- vestibular. N </li></ul><ul><li>Cochlear ( spiral ganglion )- cochlear.N </li></ul><ul><li>The vestibulocochlear nerve(cranial nerve Ⅷ) runs in </li></ul><ul><li>the internal auditory canal and the peripheral end organs </li></ul><ul><li>to the central nervous system(CNS) </li></ul>Nerve
  25. 27. <ul><li>Facial nerve </li></ul><ul><li>• Functional components of the facial nerve include: </li></ul><ul><li>– General efferents to facial muscles </li></ul><ul><li>– Secretomotor preganglionic efferents to the submandibular, lacrimal, and nasal glands </li></ul><ul><li>– Special sensory to taste receptors in the tongue and palate/nasal pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>– Somatic sensory to the skin of external auditory canal and concha </li></ul>Nerve
  26. 29. Symptoms and Signs Symptoms:
  27. 30. Symptoms and Signs Signs: * Battery auriscopes: * Viewing the eustachian tube orifice in the nasopharynx *Tuning fork tests (Rinne test, Weber test) *Audiometry *Vestibulometry *Radiology