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Inclusive education 302 s study notes

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Summary notes for exams for Barriers to Education

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Inclusive education 302 s study notes

  1. 1. Education Support Structures and it's relations at various levels National Level Provincial Level District Level School Level 1
  2. 2. NATIONAL LEVEL 1. PROMOTES AND PROVIDES EDUCATION FOR ALL 2. PROVIDES INCLUSIVE FRAMEWORK FOR THE COUNTRY 3. DEVELOPS POLICY ON INCLUSIVE EDUCATION 4. PROVIDES EDUCATION LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK 5. PROMOTES AND PROVIDES SCHOOLS WITH NATIONAL POLICIES AND THAT GOVERNS THE SCHOOLS 6. PROMOTES AND PROVIDES ADVOCACY AND INFORMATION OF PROGRAMS WHICH SUPPORT INCLUSION 7. GIVES SUPPORT AND GUIDELINES TO PROVINCE 8. COLLABORATES WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS, E.G NGO'S DPO'S, ETC 9. ALLOCATES PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES E.G. POST ESTABLISHMENT 2
  3. 3. PROVINCIAL LEVEL ALLOCATES FUNDS FROM NATIONAL FOR BUILDING OF SCHOOLS FACILITATES THE EMPLOYEMENT OF EDUCATORS AS PER SCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS IN LINE WITH THE NATIONAL REQUIREMENT CONTROLS AND MONITORS SCHOOL BUDGETS THROUGH DISTRICTS PROVIDES EXPERTS WHO ACTS AS CONSULTANTS THROUGH THE DISTRICTS ENSURES THAT POLICIES ARE IMPLEMENTED AS EXPECTED ENSURES THAT BUDGET/MONEY RECEIVED FROM CENTRAL GOVERNMENT/NATIONAL DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION IS PROPERLY SPENT 3
  4. 4. DISTRICT LEVEL 1. CO- ORDINATING LEARNING SUPORT 2. PROVIDE ILLUSTRATIVE LEARNING PROGRAMMES, LEARNING SUPPORT MATERIAL ASSESSMENT 3. EVALUATES SCHOOLS AND GIVE SUPPORT ACCORDINGLY 4. MOBILIZE CHILDREN WHO ARE UNABLE TO COME TO SCHOOL 5. ASSIST EDUCATIONAL CENTRE’S TO RECOGNIZE AND ADDRESS SEVERE LEARNING DIFFICULTIES AND TO MAKE ACCOMODATIONS FOR A RANGE OF LEARNING 6. PROVIDES GUIDELINES AND MANAGEMENT TO SCHOOL ON INCLUSION 7. FOCUS ON IN- SERVICE-TRAINING FOR TEACHERS WITH CHILDREN WHO EXPERIENCE BARRIERS TO LEARNING 8. EQUIP SCHOOLS WITH SKILLS 9. IDENTIFIES AND COORDINATES LEARNING NEEDS 4
  5. 5. SCHOOLLEVEL 1. ENSURES PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT 2. DEVELOPS STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS THE NEEDS AND BARRIERS OF LEARNING THROUGH THE SUPPORT FROM THE DISTRICT 3. SUPPORTS TEACHERS AND LEARNERS THROUGH THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE DISTRICT 4. IDENTIFIES AND ADDRESSES LEARNER AND INSTITUTIONAL NEEDS AND BARRIERS THROUGH SCHOOL-BASED SUPPORT TEAM 5. ESTABLISH NETWORKS THAT PROMOTE EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND PARENTS, AS WELL AS NGO’S; AND THE WELFARE 6. MONITOR STANDARDS OF LEARNING AND TEACHING IN CLASSROOMS 5
  6. 6. TERM INCLUSIVE: TERM MAINSTREAMING TERM INTERGRATION TERM INCLUSIVE EDUCATION INCLUSIVE EDUCATION 6
  7. 7. • 2 BODIES ( NCSNET= NATIONAL COMMITTEE AND TRAINING AND NCESS= NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION SUPPORT SERVICES ) POLICY WAS GIVEN TO THE MINISTER ON OCTOBER 1996 AND PUBLISHED IN 1998 • THE INCLUSIVE EDUCATION APPROACH EMERGED AS A KEY INTERNATIONAL POLICY AT THE WORLD CONFERENCE ON SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION 1994 IN SALAMANCA, SPAIN. • WHITE PAPER 6 WAS INTRODUCED DUE TO THE TWO BODIES JOINT REPORT THAT RECOMMENDED THAT THE EDUCATION SYSTEM SHOULD PROMOTE EDUCATION FOR ALL AND FOSTER THE DEVELOPMENT OF INCLUSIVE AND SUPPORTIVE CENTRES OF LEARNING THAT WOULD ENABLE LEARNERS TO PARTICIPATE ACTIVELY IN THE EDUCATION PROCESS SO THAT THEY COULD DEVELOP AND EXTEND THEIR POTENTIAL AND PARTICIPATE AS EQUAL MEMBERS OF SOCIETY. 7
  8. 8. Inclusive education involves the processes of increasing the participation of all learners in, and reducing their exclusion from cultures, curricula and communities. It involves the restructuring of policies and practice's in schools so that they can respond to the diversity of learners in their local community. That learners with barriers should not be vulnerable be exclusion due to the serious behavioural issues, impairments of various types, disabilities, and other learners from diverse. They should be accepted into a school as any ordinary learner. Inclusion is also concerned with improving schools for staff as well as for learners and that all learners have access to participation in school activities and cultures. All learners have a right to education in their local community and diversity should not be viewed as a problem to be overcome, but rather as a rich resource to support learning for all. It is concerned by including sustaining relationships between the schools and communities. 8
  9. 9. Inclusive education must recognise and respond to the diverse needs of their learners, by accommodating both different styles and rates of learning and ensuring quality education to all through appropriate curricula, organisational arrangements, teaching strategies, resource use and partnerships with their communities. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. 1. Acknowledges that all children and youth can learn and that all children and youth need support 2. Accepts and respects the fact that all learners are different in some way and have different needs which are equally valued and an ordinary part of our human experience 3. Enables education structures, systems and learning methodologies to meet the needs of all learners 4. Acknowledges and respects differences in learners, whether due to age, gender, ethnicity, language, class, disability, or HIV status. Is broader than formal schooling and acknowledges that learning also occurs in the home and community, and within formal and informal modes and structures. Is about changing attitudes, behaviour, teaching methodologies, curricula, and the environment to meet the needs of all learners Is about maximising the participation of all learners in culture and the curricula of educational institutions and uncovering and minimising barriers to learning Is about empowering learners by developing their individual strengths and enabling them to participate critically in the process of learning 11
  12. 12. Move towards inclusive Education Under the apartheid education system education for learners who experienced learning difficulties and learners with disabilities, was marginalized under-resourced and segregated. It was known as special education. These learners were known as learners with special education needs. Special education and support services were provided on a racial basis with the best resources going to the white learners. Special education and support services had been provided mainly for a small number of learners with special education needs, in special classes in ordinary schools or in special schools. In general, the curriculum and the education system had failed to respond to the varied needs of learners. This caused large numbers of learners to drop out of school, or be pushed out of school, or fail at school. Most learners with disabilities were either not in special schools or had never attended school. A few were in ordinary schools unable to adequately meet their needs. While some attention had been given to special needs and support in schools, other levels of education (for example, ECD) had been seriously neglected 12
  13. 13. • Curriculum adaptation is an ongoing dynamic process that modifies and adapts the prescribed program of studies to meet the learning requirements of a student with special needs. • It enables the teaching team to welcome learners of all abilities and ensures that every student is challenged to learn. • Inclusion of a student with special needs is the collective responsibility of the entire school community, not the sole duty of the classroom teacher or education assistant. • Curriculum adaptation is needed in every part in the student’s day. Learning, socialization, independence and safety are assured for the student when all school staff are aware of their teaching roles in the classroom as well as in the halls, library, gym, playground and lunchroom. • Educators are encouraged to be open about their feelings and concerns and to welcome input from fellow staff members, parents and other professionals 13
  14. 14. Curriculum adaptation adv’s 1.It is a learner centred approach 2.It works in accordance with the learners ability 3.It is based on the learners pace and style 4.It allows for flexibility or adjustment to suit the needs of the learner 5.It is responsive to the learners needs 6. It accommodates diversity 7. It helps the teacher to differentiate and accommodate the ability of the learner 8. It allows for small chunks of work according to the learners needs 14
  15. 15. Who are they? This is a support service which compromise of staff from provincial, district, regional and head offices and from special schools 1. To assist teachers in institutions in creating greater flexibility in their teaching methods and assessment of learning. They will also provide illustrative learning programmes, learning support materials and assessment instruments. 2. To evaluate programmes, diagnose their effectiveness and suggest modifications 3. Through supporting teaching, learning and management, they will build the capacity of schools, early childhood and adult basic education and training centres, colleges and higher institutions to recognise and address severe learning difficulties. And to accommodate a range of learning needs 4.To provide direct interventionist programmes to learners in a range of settings, and /serve as ‘consultive mentors’ to school management teams, classroom teachers and governing bodies 5. To foster the development of effective teaching and learning, primarily through identifying and addressing barriers to learning at all levels of the system. 6. To develop an ongoing support of local institutional-level support teams in schools, colleges, early childhood and adult learning centres. 7. To support the capacity building of schools/ education institutions; identifying and prioritising learning needs and barriers to learning in their local contexts 8. To identify the support needed to address these challenges, and pursuing these within a strategic planning and management framework 9. To provide indirect support to learners through supporting teachers and school management with particular focus on the curriculum and institutional development 10. To ensure that the teaching and learning framework and environment is responsive to the full range ofl earning needs 11. To provide direct learning support to learners where necessary and possible, where institutional level support teams are unable to respond to particular learning needs 15
  16. 16. School based support team: special schools as resource centres, a full service school/ordinary school Also known as institutional – level support team ( ILST) The ILST serves as a consultive forum for teachers at the school: 1. It provides mentoring functions 2. It is a link between the DBST and the school 3. It has the power to refer learners to the district for additional support 4. It has power to refer learners to the district for additional support 5. It Guides the school on inclusive education 6. It monitors the progress on learner development and teacher readiness 7. It Ensures parental involvement. 8. Develops strategies to address the needs and barriers of learning 9. Support teachers and learners 10. Identifies and addresses learner and institutional needs and barriers to learning 11. Establishes networks that promote effective communication between learners, teachers and parents, as well as NGO’s and the Welfare 12. Monitor standards of learning hand teaching in classrooms 13. Identify the schools needs Responsible for the provision of learning support together with teacher(s) involved in a particular learner’s teaching and learning. 16
  17. 17. National level District level School level Classroom level Provincial level District level reports back to P and N 17
  18. 18.  1. Discuss how a parent can become a resource to a teacher? (5 marks)  2. Discuss the similarities and differences between a special school and a full-service school. ( 10 marks)  3. Discuss the education support structure and it’s relationship at various levels: National, District, school and classroom. Give examples. ( 20 marks)  4. If you were a teacher with a learner with learning difficulty in your class, how would you address the challenge of learning barrier experienced by this learner? Give examples ( 20 marks) 18
  19. 19. 5. The teacher is key in creating the inclusive environment in the class. Discuss this statement giving examples ( 10 marks) 6. The principle is key to creating inclusive environment at the school. Discuss this statement giving examples. ( 10 marks) 7. Curriculum adaptation has many advantages in a classroom. Discuss this concept and give examples. ( 10 marks) 8. Special schools can become a great resource to the neighbouring schools. Discuss this idea of Education White Paper 6. Give examples. ( 10 marks) 9. Discuss briefly the core functions of a District based support team ( 5) 10. Special schools can become great resource centres to neighbouring schools. Discuss this idea, first raised in Education White paper 6 (10 marks) 11.Discuss the central findings of the NCSNET and NCESS report ( 10) 12. Discuss the characteristics of a full-service school ( 5 marks) 13. Discuss 5 reasons for the movement towards inclusive education ( 10) 14. Choose any extrinsic barrier and discuss it showing that if you were a teacher and have a learner with such extrinsic barrier in your class, how would you address the challenges of learning barriers experienced by this learner. (20 marks) 19
  20. 20.  A parent can become a great resource to a teacher because they are with the learner all the time and understand the learners strengths and weaknesses. They can lead the educator to find the exact nature of the barrier that a learner experiences. For example the situation the child lives in, such as past events, the course of how their child developed, health, home behaviour, emotional behaviour, personality, etc.  They can contribute to this process through informal and formal meetings with the teachers.  They monitor the learners progress and report back to the teacher.  They can be involved in activities such as parent- teacher associations, education committees, supervision of the library or reading groups, or social events, fundraising and classroom activities.  They can help with transporting learners to activities such as the Zoo, museum. 20
  21. 21. Special schools as resource centres Full Service schools 1. Learners in need of high intensity support 1. Learners in need of moderate levels of support 2. Their resources should be integrated into the district-based support team so that they can provide specialised professional support in curriculum, assessment and instruction to full- service schools and ordinary schools in the district. 2. Full service schools are first and foremost mainstream schools that provide quality education to all learners by supplying the full range of needs in an equal manner. 3. They should work together with the district-based support team in a co-ordinated manner so that specialised professional support can be provided to full- service and ordinary schools 3. They provide access to learners who require moderate levels of additional support, resources and programmes 4. They should support schools in the implementation of the strategy on screening, identification Assessment and support 4. They work in close collaboration with the district-based support team It stated in the Education White paper 6 that support would be given according to the level of needs of a learners who experience barriers to learning and not according to the impairment of those learners. Learners would be rated on a special scale from 1 ( low-intensity support) and 5 (high intensity support) by an assessment team. 21
  22. 22. 5. They provide specialised professional support in curriculum, assessment and instruction to neighbouring schools. This includes training of teachers regarding barriers to learning, management of inclusive classrooms, development of learning support material and assistive devices, guidance to parents, early childhood intervention and therapeutic support to learners with impairments in mainstream schools 5. To provide support in the school to learners and teachers by means of competent and experienced learning support educators whose tasks should include consulting and working with other teachers, parents, and various outside agencies to ensure success. To support neighbouring schools with knowledge, information and assistive devices regarding barriers to learning. 6. They assist in the mobilisation of children and youth who are outside the school system and who have no access to schooling 6. They are prepared to explore and address challenges of everyday school life through capacity building among educators and on-going institutional development and aiming at transforming the whole school 7. They should make their human and physical resources available to the community 7. It affords all learners in locality opportunities at school to realise their full potential by ensuring accessibility 8. They work collaboratively and draw on the expertise and resources of the community organisations and structures including disabled peoples organisations, parent organisations, teacher unions, and non-governmental organisations (NGO’s) 8.Aims at the inclusion in the way it is organised with regards to structure (physical layout), school policies, school practices, the way of educating, and culture of diversity. 9. They should work with the community on advocacy and awareness raising to change the negative attitudes towards learners with impairments 9. They should be aware that practices which exclude learners need to be addressed, removed or reduced so that learning and development can happen. It is an environment where educators are motivated and supported in their work, where learners feel a sense of belonging and are able to engage in the learning process. 10. They understand that barriers to learning are not only intrinsic to learners, but can also be extrinsic cultural and systematic 10. They understand that barriers to learning are not only intrinsic to learners, but can also be extrinsic cultural and systematic 22
  23. 23.  The educational support depends not only on the policy that a country adopts, but also on the way in which learning support is organised. We shall be discussing the organisation and it’s relationship between the various levels : The National level, District Level, school level and classroom level.  The National level consists of the following people the Minister of Education who determines the policy on inclusive education on transforming the whole education system and to put it into legislation. The Minister of Education employs advisory bodies which must decide how the education should be organised, how it should function and how there will be co-operation with other governmental departments. They delegate responsibility and do job descriptions. They then give guidelines to the nine provinces in this regard. They therefore focus on improving capacity of the education and training system in order to include learners that are most vulnerable by being excluded from the education system, which promotes and provides education for all learners. They must therefore empower mainstream-education to detect and address the causes and effects of barriers to learning in ordinary classrooms. In order for the Education system to work the minister appoints the NCSNET/NCESS to do research into the needs exising in the country, and they would report back to the minister and in turn the minister will adopt a framework for establishing such an education and training system and then develops an education legislative framework. They then provide the schools with national policies and that governs the school. They collaborate with other departments for example the Department of health for wheel chairs, the Ministry of Welfare and population development with regard to learners awaiting trial or who have already been placed within the judical system. 23
  24. 24. Provincial level: At this level there would be people employed who will be responsible for allocating allocating funds from the National level for school buildings. They will have to make sure that the central policy is actually implemented in the province, that all services in the provinces are properly co-ordinated and that the money that is given to them is spent cautiously on the correct facilities and that different projects that are deserving projects receive attention first. They monitor and control the school budgets through the districts. That they also need to provide experts who acts as consultants through the districts. District level: There are nine provinces and each province has been divided into districts. The role of The role of the support staff in a district office is to give professional support service on expertise to all higher education and local communities, targeting special schools and other primary schools and educational institutes. They also develop preventative and developmental programmes for learners. They provide illustrative learning programmes, learning support material for assessments. They also evaluate schools and give support where needed. They are also responsible to provide mobilization for children who are unable to come to school. They help other educational centre’s to recognize and address severe learning difficulties and to make accommodation's for a range of learning. For example making the curriculum more flexible to accommodate the learners needs. They provide guidelines and management to schools on inclusion. Providing support to learners where necessary and possible where the institutional-level support team is unable to respond to particular learning needs. 24
  25. 25. School level: Whether it is a special school as a resource centre, an ordinary school, or full-service school they need a support team which is responsible for the provision of learning support together with the teacher (s) involved in a particular learners teaching and learning. The ultimate responsibility of an institutional –level support team is to work with the district support team and other relevant support providers to identify and meet the needs of their specific school. It ensures the parental involvement. Develops strategies to address the needs and barriers of learning through support from the district. It supports teachers and learners through the involvement of the district. They identify and address learner and institutional needs and barriers through school-based support team. They establish networks that promote effective communication between learners, teachers and parents, as well as NGO’s and the welfare. They also monitor standards of learning and teaching in classrooms. 25
  26. 26. Classroom level: the class teacher needs to be the centre of the support team in the school. The learning support teacher should take responsibility for the organisation of this team. Experts from the community, special schools as resource centres, full-service schools and medical services should be included into the support team when necessary. The composition of the school support team is dependent on the size and needs of the school and the number of teachers available. It should consist of the learning support teacher who is competent and innovative and possesses good collaborative skills. The referring teacher, teachers who have expertise on the offer around the needs and/or challenges of learners. The principle or a member of the management team, any member of the district based support team, depending on the need of the learner, for example a learner who needs an occupational therapist. The parents of the learner. The learner representatives at senior, further education and or higher education levels. A specific member (s) of the district-based support team and of the special school/resource centre. Therefore each member should have a particular responsibility towards the team. For example, the learning support teacher acts as co-ordinater and facilities the meetings of the team. 26
  27. 27. Discussions should be kept clear and focussed. They should ensure that the goals set by the team are reached and reported on within a specific time frame. The referring teacher should first consult with the phase teachers and then with the institutional-level support team for advice on how to support the learner. Minutes are taken during the meetings and are kept in a safe place for future reference and copies of assessments, reports, and the teachers comments should be kept. The learners progress should be monitored. The phase representative coordinates phase meetings to discuss the learners barriers to learning, and coordinates support plans for the phase. The teachers rely on the parents who can provide valuable information about the learners development and wellbeing as well as his/her preferences, needs and strengths. The parents then can support the learner at home under the guidance of the institutional level support team, then the parents report back to the teacher and then the referring teacher reports back to the ILST. If the support is not sufficient or successful, relevant members of the DBST and other teachers, also from special schools as resource centres or the full-service school, can come and help support the referring teacher. Therefore it is important to have support from all levels as they are relying on each other and are there to help the learners achieve success in their learning to become lifelong learners in our society. 27

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