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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ 1.introduction

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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ 1.introduction

  1. 1. ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග් 01 mrspzfPAoh (01 Chapter)fu;a;d ixl,amh : YnzodrA: jsNd.h yd Ndr;Sh ft;sydisl miqnsu ( Metta Concept : Semantics & Indian historic background ) YnzofldaI ;`< fu;a;d hk mohg oS we;s jsjsO wrA:hka ms<snZojwjfndaOhla ,nd .ekSu m<uqfldgu jeo.;a fjz Metta hk jpkh iZoyd ixCIsma; md,s –bx.@Sis YnzofldaIfhys oelafjk wF:!h jkqfha ia;@S ,sx.drA:!h wZ.jk ( f.amity;benevolence ) amity yd benevolence hk jpk folhs1 –kammatthana, nt. –bhavana, f. cultivation of benevolenc.-yana, f. friendly feeling. –vihari, a.abiding in kindliness.tfiau fu;a;d hk wF:!h fok fuu Amity hk jpkh iZoydixCIsma; TlaiarAvz YnzofldaIfhys oelafjk f;areu jkqfha Friendship;Friendlyrelations hk us;@Fjh uQrA;su;a lsrSuhs2 Amity hk jpkh wF:! olajkafka o us;@Fjh ydus;@Ndjh wZ.jk Friendship yd Friendly hk f;areuz folhs3 TlaiarAvz YsIHhkaf.a mdrsNdIsl YnzofldaIfhys Metta yd Amity hkjpk folu wka;rA.; fkdfjz ta fjkqjg tys tu wF:!h f.k oSu msKsi olajd we;af;aFriend – Ship yd Friendly hk jpk folhs4 fuu jpk foflka tlla jQ Friend –Ship hk jpkfhys wF:!h f,i olajd we;af;a ( an instance,Period,of ) the feeling orrealation ship that exists between friends hkakhs tfiau fuys wfkla jpkh jQFriendly hk jpkfhys wF:!h f,i olajd we;af;a acting or ready to act as a friend;be friendly to / towards hk wrA:hhs tfukau bx.@Sis – md,s YnzofldaIfhys fuu Amity hk jpkfhys wF:!h f,ioelafjkqfha Metta yd Metti hk f;areuz folhs5 tfiau Amity hk jpkfhys wF:!h f,ibx.@Sis – isxy, YnzofldaIfhys oelafjkafka us;@lu" us;@Ndjh" iuZ.slu" idu.@sh"iud.@s;dj hk wF:!hka iuQyhhs6 tfukau fuu Amity hk jpkfhys wF:!h ;j;a bx.@Sisiy bx.@Sis – isxy, YnzofldaIhl oelafjkafka ( ami-ti ) n. Friendship ; agreement ;good-will f,ighs7 1
  2. 2. ;j;a bx.@Sis - isxy, YnzofldaIhl Amity hk jpkhg fok wF:!h jkafkaus;@Fjh" idud.@sh hkakhs8tfukau ;j;a bx.@Sis - isxy, YnzofldaIhl fuu Amity hkjpkfhys wF:!h us;@Fjh" hdZMlu jYfhka fmkajd oS ;sfnz9 ksrela;s iys; isxy, Ynzo fldaIfhys us;@" ffu;@sh yd fu;a;d hkqfjka Ynzo;`ku tlu wF:!fhys olajd ;sfnz fuhska us;@ ( ix us;@ ) hk jpkh uZ.ska hyZM yd ys;j;ahk f;areuz f.k fok nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz tfukau tu Ynzohu ysre fyj;a iQrAhhdweZ.jSu iZoyd mrAhdh kduhla f,i o Ndjs;hg f.k we;s nj o fmkajd oS ;sfnz fuhgwu;rj fu;a;d ( md fu;a;d ) hk moh ffu;@sh" ish,q i;aFjhka flfrys lreKdjoelajSu msKsi Ndjs;d jS ;sfnz tfukau .il kduhla oelajSu msKsi;a fuu fu;a;d kduhjHjydrhg f.k we;s nj tu YnzofldaIfhys fmkajd oS ;sfnz ta hgf;a jsfYaIfhkau iZ|=ka.i yeZoskajSu msKsi fuu jok Ndjs;hg f.k we;s nj olajhs tfiau tys fuu wF:!hkauf.k oSu msKsi fu;" ffu;@sh" fu;a ( ix ffu;@sh ) yd ffu;@sh hk jpk Ndjs;hg f.kwe;s nj o olajd ;sfnz10 iZ|=ka .i iqjZoj;a jDCIhls fnfyjska wd.usl lghq;` iZoydNdjs;dlrk iqjZo |@jHhka ;ekSu msKsi Wmfhda.S lr.kakd Ydlhls fuysoS fu;a;d hkYnzofhkao hul .`K iqjZo uQrA;su;a lsrSu msKsi fyj;a biau;` lsrSu;a" uD|=nj" T#IOShnj" uqyqK meyem;a lr,k iajNdjh jeks fudf<dla .`K jsfYaIhka ksrEmKh lsrSumsKsi fu;a;d Ynzoh iZ|=ka jDCIh wrNhd o jHjydr jS ;sfnk nj fuhska OzjskdrA:j;aflfrA 2
  3. 3. fu;a;d hk jpkfhys wF:!h md,s - isxy, YnzofldaIhl olajd we;af;affu;@sh f,ihs tys ia;@S ,sx.sl kdu moh fu;a;d f,i;a mqreI ,sx.sl kdu moh ffu;@ f dfu;a; f,i;a olajd we;11 tfiau fu;a;d jpkh fu;a kue;s kdu m@lD;sh uq,a fu;a fu;a d fu;alrf.k we;s jQ nj m@dfhda.sl isxy, YnzofldaIfhys olajhs12 tys wF:!h f,i ffu;@Slrkjd yd fu; olajd ;sfnz fu;a;d jpkh o kdu m@lD;shla f,ig tysu oela fjz fu; fu; fu;a djsfYaIKh kuz fu; hkakhs wF:!h ffu;@S hkakhs fu;a;d hk jpkh jsydrs hk fu;a djpkh iuZ. fhoS fu;a;d jsydrs hkafkys wF:!h ffu;@sfhka hqla; j hkak f,i olajd fu;a d;sfnz tfukau fu;a Ouz hk kdu m@lD;sfhka ffu;@S Ou!h yd ffu;@sh wF:!j;a flfrA fu;afu;a hk kdu m@lD;sh jHjydrfha oS fu;a mereuz ( kd m@ ) hkafkka ffu;@S mdrus;dj fu;a fu;ao" fu;a msrs;a ( kd m@ ) hkafkka lrKSh fu;a; iQ;@h o fu;a ndjkd ( kd ) hkafkka fu;a fu;a ndjkdffu;@S Ndjkdj o" fu;a fndai;a ( kd m@ ) hkafkka ffu;@s fndaOsiFjfhda" wkd.;fhys fu;afuf;a nq|=ka kuska nq|= jSug mereuz mqrkakdo" fu;a uqk ( kd m@ ) fuf;a nq|=yqo" fu;a is;a fu;a s fu;a ( kd m@ ) hkafkka ffu;@s iy.; is;"ffu;@sfhka hqla; ps;a;h o" fu;a iq;^ fu;a iq;`r fu;a( kd ) lrKSh fu;a; iQ;@ho woyiajk nj olajd ;sfnz ixialD; NdIdfjys fuu jpkh ffu;@ f,i uQ,sl iajrEmfhka we; thska ia;@S,sx.sl mohla jQ ffu;@S hk jpkh ksIamkak fjz YsIHhkaf.a ixialD; - bx.@SisYnzofldaIfhys fuu ffu;@ rEmh ( Ajective ) yd ffu;@S ( Feminine ) hk jpk fololajd we;13 fuys ffu;@S hk jpkhg wF:! ;`kla olajd ;sfnz bka m<uq wF:!h jkqfhaBelonging to a Friend hs fojeks wF:!h jkqfha Given by a friend f;jk wF:!h jkqfhaFriendly, Well - disposed, Amicable, Kind hkakhs tfiau fuu jpkh us;@ fojshdgkEluz olajk njo fuys jsia;r flfrA fuh ;yjqre lsrSu msKsi ixialD;-bx.@Sis YnzofldaIfha ( us;@ ) hkjpkfhys wF:!h mrSCId lr n,f;d;a ta iZoyd Friend ( iy<" iypr" ineZos" ydo"ysff;Is" ys;j;a" hdZM" hyZM" lreKdjka;" us;@" l`ZMm." wkql~," us;@j;a ), Amicable (iuZ.s iuzmkak" ys;j;a" iqyZo" us;@" us;@j;a ), Affectionate ( yqr;,a" ohdnr" fma@ujka;"ysff;IS" wdorKSh )" Kind ( <f;;a" ujzyia" ohdjka;" ohdnr" fidar;" f;;" f;;a"ldreKsl" lreKdjka;" l`,qKq" jrA.h" fidar;sh" fudaia;rh" wdldrh" cd;sh ), ABrahman Who has arrived at the higest state of human perfection. hk woyiaiuQyhla oS ;sfnk wdldrh oel.ekSug ,efnkq we;14 3
  4. 4. Y@S iqxu., YnzofldaIfhys ( isxy, - isxy,dF:! ) fuu jpkh fu;a jYfhka fu;aolajd ;sfnz tys wF:!h jkqfha ffu;@shhs15 fuysu fu;a l`ZMKq hk moh tlajr Ndjs;d jS;fnz tys woyi ffu;@sh yd lreKdj hkakhs16 .`Kfiak isxy, uyd wldrdosfhysfu;a; yd fu;a;d hk jpk folu ffu;@sh yeZoskajSu msKsi jHjydr lr ;sfnz17 fuhska fu;a fu;a dfu;a; hk jpkh iZoyd ffu;@S iy.; hk wF:!hg wu;rj fldgzgh yd .`osrsh hk wF:!follao oS ;sfnz fu;a;d hk jpkh iZoyd ffu;@sh yd iq|= iZ|=ka .i hk wF:! fol oS fu;a d;sfnz18 ls@ia;@shdks wd.usl Ynzo fldaIhla jq lf;da,sl m,a,sfhys TlaiarAvzYnzofldaIfhys hk Ynzo fldaIfhys fu;a;d Ynzoh Mithraism f,i olajd we; thskawoyia jS ;sfnkqfha o us;@Fjh hkakhs19 tfukau nhsn,fhys m@Odk fukau flaJ|@Shb.ekajSula jk fm@auh hk wF:!ho ksIamkak jSug mokuz jS ;sfnkqfha fuu us;@ ixl,amhnj meyeos,s fjz tfukau us;@ Ynzoh ( us;@hsiuz Mithraism ) fyj;a us;@ keue;swd.usljdoh olajd jsldYh jSu Tiafia nhsn,hg fuys wdNdIh oevsj n,md we;s njmeyeos,sj fmfkkakg ;sfnz kj n@s;dkH jsYajfldaIh hk fldaI .@J:fhys us;@ ( Mithra ) Ynzoh ms<snZojolajd we;af;a th ixialD; us;@ Ynzoh wkqj us;@dia f,i WpzpdrKh jk jpkhla f,ihs 4
  5. 5. tfiau ixialD; NdIdfjys us;@ jYfhka olajkqfha bka|= - BrdKSh mqrdjD;a;hkag wkqjwdf,dalfhys fojshd nj ie,fla fuu wf,dalfhys fojshd ms<snZo weoys,a, bkaoshdfjz isgjHdma; jQjla nj ms<s.efka kefZ.kysr isg b;du;a wE;ska msysgs ngysr m@foaY olajdu fuuweoys,a, jHdma; jQ nj;a thg miqnsuz jQfha bkaoshdfjz fuh fnfyjska m@p,s;j mej;s mej;sksid nj;a ;yjqre jS ;sfnz fuu weoys,a, jHdma; jS .sh ngysr m@foaYfha jQ rgj,a w;rskam@xYh" uy n@s;dkHh yd crAuksh hk rgj,a jsfYaIfhka iZoyka l< yelsh m<uqfjkau ffjosl us;@ ms<snZoj ,shejS we;af;a l@s mQ 1 400 g fmr isgh fuuus;@ jkaokh mrAishdfjys b;du;a oevsj uq,a nei f.k jHdma;j mej;sks bka miqj f,dalm@lg fy,ksla hqoaOfhysoS mrAishkajre jsiska wef,laiekav@shdj w;am;a lr.ekSfukawk;`rej uqZM uy;a wef,laiekav@shdj mqrdu fuu weoys,a, jHdma; jS .sfhah 3 jk yd 4 jkY; jrAI j,oS us;@ weoys,a, iuzmQrAKfhkau mdfya fuu m@foaYj, jHdma;j mej;s nji,lkq ,efnz tfiau Tjqka jsiska /f.k hk ,o fuu fu;a;d weoys,a, l@sia;shdks wd.fuyskj;u ixjrAOkh jSuz olajd m@Odk .Kfha m@;sjdosfhl` f,i frdau wOsrdchdf.a finZMkajsiska Ndjs;hg .kakd ,oS frdau wOscrdchka jQ flduvqia ( Commodus ) yd cq,shka (Julian ) hk fofokd us;@jdofhys ( Mithraism ) iudruzNlhka f,i oelafjz ;`kaishy;la osfhdlsiShdkqjre vekshqnz weoys,af,a isg ( vekshqnz weoys,a, mQj!fhys frdaufhys ;snQtla;rd wd.usl weoys,a,la f,i ie,lsh yelsh tu wd.usl weoys,a, jHdma; mej;sixialD;sh vekshqnz ixialD;sh f,io tu wd.usl ksldhlhska vekshqnz .`re l`,h f,ioyZ|=kajd ;sfnz ) us;@ olajd ta fjkqfjka jsydria:dkhla mdrsY`oaOshg m;a lr .;ay fuuvekshqnz weoys,a, fukau us;@ weoys,a,o wOsrdcHfhys wdrCIl Wml@uhla f,i Ndjs;hgf.k ;sfnz mqrdjD;a;j,g wkqj us;@f.a Wm; ms<snZoj olajd we;af;a wdf,dalfha meje;auwe;s lrkakd jQ foh f,ihs tfiau Yia;@hlska ikakoaOj tla milska .,d niskd Y`oaO jQ.x.djlska o" Y`oaO jQ .ila hg isgskakd jQ fmd<fjys orejd f,i th ta jsiskau wF:!l:khlr ;sfnz Tyq w;lska hIagshla /f.k isgsk mqoa.,hd f,i yd miqj ta uZ.ska urKh lrdiuzm@dma; lrkakd jYfhka o ( udrhd)" tfiau cSjs;h ,nd fokakd jYfhka o ( W;amdolhd) " f,dal jsIh ms<snZoj jDINhd jYfhkao ish,q jDCI,;djkaf.a ftYaprAhu;a M,orkakdjYfhkao yZ|=kajkq ,nhs us;@f.a jDINhd urd oeuSu ( l:dfjys mriamr jsfrdaOS jdlHhjekiSu) hk ixl,amh fy,ksla l,dfjys ckm@shu wF:!l:kh jS mej;sks us;@ weoys,a,;`< mQcd jsOSkaf.a idM,H;djh f,i ie,flk jDINhd urdoeuSu ( l:dfjys mriamrjsfrdaOS jdlHh jekiSu ) us;@ weoys,af,ys uQ,dlD;sh njg m;ajsh20 wdf,dalfhys fojshd f,i ie,flk us;@ iyhlfhl` jkqfha .@Sl iQrAhhdfojsfhl` f,i ie,flk fy,shia ( Helios iQrAhhd ) iuZ.hs tfiau th frdaudkq w,x>kSh 5
  6. 6. miajk iajrhhs Tyq ksrka;rfhka c,hg wOsm;sj c,h idrj;a lrkaksh jYfhkaoelafjk wkys;d ( Anahita ) fojZ.k iuZ. hq., jYfhka fhfoa21 fu;a;d hk mofhys jHdlrK jsNd.h msKsi wjOdkh fhduqlsrSu uZ.ska jd.a jsoHd;aul mCIfhka tys jsldYh wjfndaO lr.ekSu msKsi msgsjy,la ,efnz fuz uZ.ska fu;a;d hk moh ms<snZoj jvd;a wx. iuzmQrAK js.@yhlg fhduq jsh yelsh md,s NdIdfjz ‘fu;a;d(Metta)’hkqfjka yeZoskafjk jpkfha isxy, woyi ‘us;`renj’ hkakhs22 fuh md,sfha bF:s,sx. kdu mohla jk w;r wldrdka; m@:ud jsNla;s tal jpkfha ‘fu;a;d’ hkqfjka fu;afhfoa23 uz +t = fu hkqfjka oelafjkafka ug" uf.a hk woyihs ( wuzy – Ynzo p – P tl) fuys kdu Od;`j jkqfha fu;a;dh;s hkakhs fuhska wF:!j;a jkqfha ffu;@S lrhs yd fu;a fu;ais; m;`rejhs hk f;areuzh tfukau bF:s ,sx.drA:fhka fu;a;dhkd hk jpkh ffu;@S fu;a dhkdlsrSu hk wF:!fhka jHjydrfha fhfoa tfukau ;j;a jsfgl fu;a;d hk bF:s ,sx. joko fu;a dffu;@sh hk wF:!fhkau jHydr fjz md,s NdIdj ;`< ‘fu;a;d’hkqfjka fhfok fuu jpkhixialD; NdIdj ;`< ‘ffu;@S’hkqfjka tu wrA:fhkau Ndjs;d fjz24 we;euzjsg isxy,jHjydrfhyso tys ixialD;‘ffu;@S’hk rEmho fhfok nj oel .; yelsh25 bx.@SisNdIdfjz ‘Metta’ hk jpkfhka woyia lrk foh ‘Amity’ f,i olajd ;sfnz26 tys woyio us;@Fjh hkakhs ta wkqj md,sfha Bg oS we;s wrA:h jk ‘ffu;@S iy.;’ hkak fuz jpkhiZoyd Ndjs;d l< yels fydZou wF:!h nejz fmfka27 fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj wF:! olajk jsg lreKdj fyj;a ldreKslFjhms,snZoj o iZoyka l, hq;`uh ula ksid o h;a ffu;@shlska f;dr ldreKslFjh;a"ldreKslFjfhka f;dr ffu;@sh;a idrOrAu mCIfhka .;a l< mrudrA: jYfhka wrA: Y~kHjk nejsks ta wkqj kshu jYfhka ffu;@sfhys wF:! oelajSu ldreKslFjfhys miqnsu u; isgl< hq;` jkafka ffu;@sh yd lreKdjo" tfukau ffu;@sh yd uqos;dj o" ffu;@sh ydWfmaCIdj o wfkHdakH jYfhka iyfhda.fhka Wmhqla;h tfukau Wmfhda.s;duh jYfhka.;a l< wfkHdakHdOdr o jkafkah fuz ksid fu;a;d ixla,mh ms<snZoj wjOdkh olajk jsgth kshudldrfhka ksrEmKh flfrkqfha lreKdj uqos;dj yd WfmaCIdj hk fiiqidrOrAu ixl,amj, o .enzjSu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys oDIHudk jkafka kuz muKs fjk;af,ilska olajf;d;a wmg idrOrAu ixl,amhla jYfhka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys w.h udkjprAhdjkaf.ka jshqla;j .; fkdyels w;r tfia l<fyd;a th yqfola is;sjs,s ud;@ jQjlajkq we; kuq;a fu;a;d ixl,amh lsis jsfglj;a tfia jkafka fkdfjz huzlsis ixl,mhlaidrOu!hla f,i ie,lSug wjYHjk uQ,sl iq|=iqlu jkqfha tu ixl,amh ldhsl" jdpislyd udkisl jYfhka uqZM uy;a ffcj m@cdj jsIfhysu Okd;aul mCIfhka olajkakd jQ 6
  7. 7. Wmfhda.S;djhhs tfukau tu ixl,amh fiiq iudka;r ixl,am iuZ. taldnoaO;djhmsKsi olajkakd jQ keushdjhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys fuys huzlsis ixl,amhla idrOu!hlajSug olajk ,o iq|=iqluz ish,a, iuzmQrAKh fu;a;d ixl,amh thg iudka;r wfklaixl,am jQ lreKdj" uqos;dj yd WfmaCIdj iuZ. wfkHdakH jYfhka iuznJO;djhlafmkajhs fu;a;d ixl,amh yg .kqfha o isf;a wkHhka ms<snZoj ldreKsl yeZ.Sula fyj;alreKdjla" wkHhka iqL jsyrKh ms<snZo fiduzkila fyj;a uqos;djla" wkHhka ms<snZojjspdr mQrAjlj is;Sug m@udKj;a uOHia:;djhla fyj;a WfmaCIdjla" isf;ys we;s jsglmuKs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Ndr;Sh miqnsu ms<snZoj wOHhkhl ksr; jkafkl` yg us;@ fojsfhl` f,i ksrEmKh jkq oel.; yelsh fu;a;d ( us;a;" us;@ ) hkq Ndr;fha merKsu jHjydrhls bka|+-BrdKSh hq.fha oS fuz jpkh Ndjs;dl< njg idOl yuqfjz28 bka|+-BrdKSh f.da;@sl ckhd jsiska ;u f.da;@sl mqomQcd lghq;`j, oS fuu jok Ndjs;d fldg ;sfnz Tjqkaf.a f.da;@l psyakh f,i ie<l`kdjQ s wd.usl ixfla;h jYfhka iQrAhhd Ndjs;d fldg ;sfnz29 iQrAhhd yeZoskajSu iZoyd jHjydr lrkq ,enQfjz ‘us;@’hk jpkhhs30 fuu lreKg meyeos,s yd m@n, YdCIs wfjia;dfjys yd mrAishdkq wd.usl ixl,amj,oS;a oel.; yelsh31 tys oS us;@ uZ.ska ksrEmKh jkafka wksjdrAhfhkau iQrAh foaj;djdh iQrAhhdf.a wdf,dalu;a nj us;@ hkafkka woyia lr ;sfnz wdf,alh wZ|=r |=re lr th wE;g m,jd yrshs tfukau ukqIHhd ;`< olakg ,efnk ish,qu wZ|=re is;sjs,s |=re 7
  8. 8. fldg m,jd yer Tjqka ;`< iudcuh taldnoaO;djh we;s lrjSu ixfla;j;a lsrSu msKsius;@ hkak Ndjs;d lr ;sfnz32 kuq;a ksrela;drA:h wkqj wfjia;dfjys us;@ hkakg ,nd|=ka woyi wod,jpkh js.@y fldg ,nd .; fkdyels nj fmfkkakg ;sfnz iD.a fjzofhys fuz jpkhus;`re nj f.k oSu msKsi jHjydr jS ;sfnz ta wkqj wfjia;dfjys fuu jpkh iydhlfyda us;@Fjh hkak f.k oSu msKsi jHjydr l,d jsh yelshs33 wdfjzia;sl .@J:hkays us;@jsYajdifhys wdrCIlhd f,i yeZoskajS we; fuu fojshdf.a ldreKsl iajrEmh o fjzofhysksrka;rfhka u iZoyka jS we; taa ksid uq,a wjia:dfjys us;@ hk jpkfhka woyia lrkakgwe;af;a iajNdj Ou!h yd iajNdj Ou!h wdrCId lsrSu msKsi ksrka;rfhkau fidhd n,dlghq;` lrkakd jQ iQrAh foj;djd ;`< .enzjQ w;sYh uD|= fudf<dla ldreKsl iajNdjh njmeyeos,sh34 fuys iajNdj Ou!h hkakg iuia; ffcj m@cdj o wka;rA.; cSjS" wcSjSmrsirh nejz ie,ls,a,g .ekSu jeo.;ah fuhska weZ.fjkqfha uq,a ld,fha oS mgkau udkjhdish ffcj m@cdj yd iuia; mrsirh ms<snZo olajk ,o ldreKsl us;@YS,S wdl,amfhys h:diajNdjhhs " us;@ fojsfhda l;d lruska usksiqka l@shdYS,S lr;s us;@ fojsfhda mD:sjsh wyiord isgs;a us;@ fojsfhda msh fkdfy<k weiska ck;dj ksrSCIKh lr;s us;@ fojshdg 35.sf;,a nyq, hd.h mqojq " we;euzjsg oS us;@ uZ.ska mD:sjsh yd wyi ord isgsk iajrEmhla olajd we;af;aiajNdj Ou!fhys pu;aldr ckl iajrEmh ksrEmKh fldg oelajSu Wfoid fukau thlsishuz j.lSuz iy.; wdl,amhlska iuia; ffcj m@cdjf.au hym; Wfoid lghq;` lrknejz fmkajSug jsh yelsh ;ukaf.a hym; Wfoid lghq;` lrk iajNdjOu!h keue;s us;@g;uka jsiska o m@;Hqmldr l< hq;` nejz fmkajd oS we;af;a us;@g hd. l< hq;` wdldrhoelajSfuks idudkHfhka .sf;,a tod ffjosl iudcfhys by< fmf,a m@KS; wdydrhla f,iie,lsks tnZ|= wdydrhlska us;@ hd.fhka mqokakg kshu fldg ;snSu uZ.ska wF:!j;a jkqfhaus;@ ixl,amh flfrys ffjosl ckhd oelajQ iuzNdjkdjhs "wdos;H ( us;@ ) fojshks" hfula Tng ( Tfnz ) kshuhg wkqj m@Kduh lr;a o"us;@ fojshks" ta kefik iq,q hd. mQcdj ms<s.kq uekjs Tn jsiska Wmldr lrkq ,enqfha fkdkefikafkah mrojkq fkd ,nkafkah Tyq fj; uE;ska lror fkdths wE;ska o fkdths" 36 fuys us;@g ;j;a mH!dh kduhla oelafjhs ta wdos;H hkakhs fuh o us;@jHjydrh fukau m@p,s; jQjls us;@ keue;s iajNdj Ou!hd fj; huz lsisfjl` l<.`Ki,ld o ta mqoa.,hd o iajNdj Ou!fhys .enzjkakd jQ wmQrAj uysuh fya;`fjka wdrCId 8
  9. 9. lrfokq ,nk nj fuhska meyeos,s lr oS ;sfnz nq|=iufhys iZoyka jk " Ouzfuz yfjdarlaL;s Ouzupdrs " ( Ou!fhys yeisfrkakd ta Ou!h jsiskau iqrCIs; lrkq ,nhs ) hk Ouzjelsfhka lshfjkqfha o fuhg uZola iudk uq;a Bg jvd mqZM,a wF:!hls fuz wkqj iajNdjOu!hg ( uq,a ld,fhys Ou!h jYfhka ms<s.kakd ,oafoa iajNdjslFjh yd uqiq jqkq cSjs;hla.; lsrSuhs ) wkql~,j ;u osjs fmfj; ilia lr.kakd ,o ;eke;a;dj iajNdj Ou!huZ.skau iqrCIs; lr,k njg fuhska lshfjz "f,v frda. j,ska us|=Kq" ( Tn fj; ) ms|=Kq wdydrfhka i;`gg m;a jk" jHdma;jQ mD:sjsh mqrd ia:djr jQ" wdos;Hf.a ( us;@ fojshkaf.a ) kshufhys neZoS isgsk wms us;@ 37fojshkaf.a fydZo ysf;ys /fZouq " iajNdjslFjh wdrCId lruska thg wk`l~, fjuska .; lrkakd jQ osjs fmfjf;ys iajNdjh fuhska fy,s fjz tkuz uqZM uy;a cSj wcSj f,dalh flfrys us;@Fjh m;`rejd jsiSu fuys oS iajNdjslFjh f,i f.k we;s njhs us;@ fojshkaf.a fydZo ys; ;ukag ,efnkafka tjsg nj ffjoslhska l,amkd fldg we; fuh tla;rd wdldrhlska iajNdjslju ffcj iqrCIs;;djh we;s lr,Su msKsi yd iudc idrOu! ( Social Values ) j, m@Njh iksgqyka lrk jeo.;a iJOs ia:dkhls us;@ fyda us;@Fjh we;s lr.ekSu uZ.ska fuf,dj ishZM fokdgu iuZ.s iuzmkakj jdih l< yels ;ekla njg mrsjrA;kh lr.ekSu iZoyd Tjqka jsiska orK ,o idOdrK m@h;akfhys iajNdjh fuz ;`,ska wmQrejg fy,s fmfy,s fjz fuys meyeos,sju hd.h jsia;r fldg we;af;a i;`ka urd lrk ysxidjdoS ns,s mQcdjla jYfhka fkdj wdydr mdk muKla mqod is|= lrkq ,nk mQcdjla jYfhks mQrAj ld,Sk jYfhka wdruzNl hq. j,oS hd. hkafkys kshu iajrEmh o fuhska uQrA;su;a lr fmkajhs wdruzNl hq.j, oS hd. hkqfjka woyia lrk ,oafoa ;uka fukau wka 9
  10. 10. who wdydr mdk j,ska i;mjd Tjqkaf.a us;@Fjh ms<s.ksuska i;`gska hq;`j osjs f.jSu njfuhska fmfka ienjskau us;@ foaj;djd msoSfuz kshu l@uh jYfhka Tjqka jsiska ms<s.kq,enqfha o fuu l@uhhs ffjoslhka m@Odk jYfhka wdydrhg .kq ,enqfjz lsrs" .sf;,a" OdkH" t<j,qiy m<;`re muKs uia udxY wdydrh iZoyd Ndjs;d l< njg iZoyka fkdfjz we;euz jsgloS mYapd;a ld,Skj hd.hka iZoyd i;`ka urd ns,s mQcd lrk isrs; wdruzN jQ miqj kuz tuhd. lrk ,o i;`kaf.a uia wdydrh iZoyd .kakg we;ehs Wml,amkh l< yelsh38 tfiauia jrA. Ndjs;d lrk ,o kuz nyq, jYfhka ta iZoyd Ndjs;d lrkakg we;af;a yrla uianj lsj yelafla hd. iZoyd Ndjs;d lrkq ,o m@Odku i;ajhd .jhd jSu ksihs us;@foaj;djd msoSu iZoyd hd.hka meje;ajSfuz oS m@Odk jYfhkau Ndjs;hg .kq ,enQ uOHidrjrA.hka jQ fidau mdkh ms<sfh< lrkq ,enQfjz fidau me,Egsh wUrd bka Wlyd .kq ,nkhqI jrA.hlsks idudkH wjia:djkays mdkh lsrSu iZoyd fjk;a OdkH jrA.hlska ms,sfh<lrk ,o fjk;a uOHidr jrA.hla Ndjs;d lrk ,oS " mQcdrAN" w;Hka; lreKdkajs;" fuz us;@ kuz" ukd md,khla mj;ajkjsOdhl rfcla bmso isgS b;ska wms ta Y`oaOjka;hdf.a fydZo ysf;ys l,HdK jQ ohdfjys 39/fouq " ishZM .`Khka w;r us;@ .`Khu m@Odk jk nj fmkajd oSu msKsi fuysjsOdhl rfcla hk jHjydrh Ndjs;hg f.k ;sfnz tfukau fuys ;j;a jsfYaIhla oolakg ,efnz tkuz us;@ ixl,amh jvd;a mqZM,a iajrEmhlska hq;`j Ndjs;hg f.k we;swdldrh fuysoS olakg ,efnkafka w;Hka; lreKdkajs;" l,HdK jQ ohdj" fydZo ys;" Y`oaOnj" mQcdrAN hk wF:!hka us;@ ixl,amhg wdfoaY lr olajd we;s fyhsks mqZM,a jYfhka.;al< us;@ ixl,amfhys l@udkQl~, jHdma;sh fuhska oela fjz nq|= iuh ;`< n@yau jsyrKhkays lreKd yd fu;a;d ixl,am folla jYfhkaf.k js.@y l< o fuys oS us;@ ixl,amhgu tu ixl,am foflysu .`Khka wdfrdamKh lrwe;s wdldrh wkqj lsh yelafla uq,a ld,Sk ukqIHhd iuia; mrsirh yd ffcj f,dalh w;rish meje;au ;yjqre lr,Su wrUhd us;@ ixl,amhkaf.ka Tyq wfmaCId lrk ,o .`KjsfYaIhka uQrA;su;a lr oelajSfuz wNs,dIh fmroers lrf.k Tyq jsiskau us;@ ixl,amhksmehqKq njhs tfiau fiiq .`K jsfYaIhka we;s lr,Sug fuz m@Odk .`Kh jk us;@ixl,amh msysg jQ fyhska thg m@OdkFjh ,nd fokakg we;s njhs tfiau hful` ;`<us;@Fjh yg .kqfha wkHhka jsIfhys Tyq ;`< we;s lreKdj fya;` fldg f.kh tfukaulreKdj yg .efkkqfha ish,q ffcj m@cdj jsIfhys mqoa.,fhl` ;`< we;s us;`re njke;fyd;a ys;j;a nj flaJ|@ fldg f.kh fuz ksid ffu;@sh yd lreKdj .`Kdx. folla 10
  11. 11. f,i jsia;r lrkq ,enqj;a ta folu wF:!j;a jkafka ienjskau huzlsis mqoa.,fhl`f.a isf;ysta .`Kdx. folu frdamKh jS we;s jsglh ;jo m@cdj md,kh lrkakg iq|=iq rdcH md,lfhl` ;`, ;snsh hq;` jQ .`Khkaw;r m@Odku .`Kh f,i fuz us;@ .`Kh ;snsh hq;` nj o fuz uZ.ska fmkajd fohs rgjeishdflfrys ohdfjka hqla;" tfiau ish,a,ka flfrys tlf,i fydZo ys; me;srjsh yels"rgjeishka ish orejka f,i i,ld Tjqka jsIfhys w;Hka; ldreKslFjh me;srjsh yels"l@shdjkaf.ka mdrsY`oaO wej;`uz mej;`fuka iukajs;" il,jsO ck;djgu mQcdrAN f,iwNHka;r.; .`K iuqodhlska iukajs; jQ md,lfhla ms<snZoj bZ.shla fuz ;`<ska imhhs thi;HjYfhkau md,lfhl` i;` jsh hq;` .`K iuqodh fuz hehs fmkajd fok w;rjHx.drA:fhka ixfla;hla f,i o Ndjs;d fjz fuhska ixfla;j;a jkqfha OrAusIaGFjhhs thksIamqoa., jQjla jk w;r lsishuz mrudorAYS iudc idrOu! moaO;shla weZ.fjhs ixfla;hlaf,i .ekSfuz oS mYapd;a ld,Sk pl@jrA;s ixl,amfhys uQ, nSchka fuz ;`<ska ksrEmKh jkqoel.; yelsh "ck;dj Wkka|= lruska w;Hka; lreKdjka; .dhl ( us;@ )" fY@aIaG wdos;Hg( us;@g ) m@Kdufhka <Z.d jsh hq;` fuz m@KS; hd. msfoaksh ta w;Hka; m@YxidrAN us;@gw.aksfhys mqojq " fuys oS us;@ ixl,amh w;Hka; lreKdjka; .dhl f,i ;j;a jsfYaIKmohlska hqla;j yeZoskajS ;sfnz fuys .dhl hkq .dhkd lrkakd hk wF:!hhs fuhskafmfkkafka us;@f.a lreKdjka; Ndjh .S;j;a iajrEmhlska hqla;j oelajSu msKsi fm<Uqkqnjhs us;@ ixl,amfhys wdfjzzok mCIh .enzjkakd jQ iaks.aO iajrEmh .dhl hkafkkawF:!j;a lrkakg fm<Uqkq nj is;sh yelshs us;@ ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv jvd;aishquzj ksrEmKh lr fmkajSug .;a W;aidyhla fuz uZ.ska oela fjz .dhk hkafkys 11
  12. 12. l@udkQl~, Ndjhla fukau rs;auhdkQl~, Ndjhla o .enzfjz ;d,hla o ;snsh hq;`h taish,af,ys wka;rA.;h jkqfha isf;ys wdfjzokd;aul mCIfhka huzlsis uD|= iajNdjhla yg.ekajSuhs ienjskau .S;fhka flfrkqfha o tu uD|= nju ps;a; ika;dkfhys w;s lrjSujk fyhsks us;@g msosh hq;` hd. msfoaksh m@KS; iajNdjfhka hqla; jsh hq;` nj fuhskamejiS we; us;@ f.a iajrEmh w;sYhskau ishquz Ndjuh ;;ajhls tu Ndjuh ;;ajhrEmuh jYfhka oelajSfuz oS ta msKsi Ndjs;d lrk ,o jpkhkays .enzjk pu;aldr ckliajrEmh fuz ;`<ska meyeos,sju u;` jS fmfka m@KS; hd. msfoaksh mjd us;@ fj;g <Z.d jshhq;af;a m@Kdufhka fyj;a iEufokdf.au Nla;su;a iajrEmfhka nj fmkajd oSu ;`< us;@fyj;a us;@Fjh ck uki .@yKh lr.;a wdldrh jsps;@j;a whqrska fmkajhs tfukau uq,ajrg hd.h iZoyd w.aksh fyj;a .skaor Ndjs;d lr .;a whqre;a tu .skafkka wdydr us;@fj;g muqKqjk whqre;a fuhska meyeos,s fjz by; us;@ ixl,amh jrAKs; iajrEmh wkqj meyeos,sju fmfkkafka mYapd;ald,Sk n@yau ixl,amhg iudk lula fuys .enzjk njhs hd. msfoksh uZ.ska us;@ ixl,amhix;`Iagshg meusK jSu;a" ta iZoyd .skak udOHhla fldg .ekSu;a hk lreKq fol m@OdkjYfhka tlS iudkFjhg fya;` idOl fjz tfiau n@yau ixl,amh cSjudk n@yauhdf.aiajrEmfhka fmd|= ck uki weZo neZo ;nd .kakd whqrska jrAKkd l,dla fukau" us;@ixl,amh o us;@ keue;s l,ams; foajshl`f.a fjzIfhka fmd|= ck uki weZo neZo ;nd .ekSumsKsi fujeks jD;a;dka; rpkh b;du;au idrA:l wdldrfhka Wmfhda.S lr.;a whqrefmfka "hoskakkag msysg jk us;@ fojshkaf.a m@idoh hym; f.k ths ( hym; ) 40w;Hka; oSma;su;a Okh f.k ths " us;@ ixl,amh l@ufhka wdOHd;ausl ;,h w;sl@uKh lruska f,#lsl ;,h lrd<Z.d jkakd jQ ijrEmhla oSma;su;a Okh hk fh|=u uZ.ska .uH fjz fmr oS us;@ixl,amfhka n,dfmdfrd;a;` jQfha wdOHd;ausl m@idoh muKs kuq;a jrA;udkfhyswdOHd;ausl m@idoh wNsnjkh lrjd f,#lsl oshqKqj o fuz uZ.ska Wod lr.; yelsh hk;ekg ffjoslhkaf.a us;@ ixl,amh jsldYh jSu iduQyslFjh ;`,ska tlS YsIaGdpdrh Wodlr.kq ,enQ tla;rd ch.@yKhla f,i o wF:! oelajsh yelsh iduQyslFjh jeo.;a jkqfhatl, fnfyjska jHdma; meje;s cSjk rgdj wkqj ;ksj cSj;a jSu w.h fkdlrk ,o w;rTjqka iduQysl f,i ish cSjk rgdj f.dv kZ.d .kq ,enQ nejsks lDIslrAuh" iFjmd,kh"fj<odu" rgj,a wdl@uKh jeks l`uk fyda lghq;a;l oS jqj;a tod mej;s wrA: l@uhg wkqjuq,a nei f.k ;snqfka iduQysl cSjk rgdjhs 12
  13. 13. tnejska fuu wF:!l@uh wkqj Tjqkag jeo.;a jQfha udkj m@.aOkh fyj;a usksiaY@uhhs usksia Y@uh yiqrjd,Sug fukau h:d mrsos th l<ukdlrKh uZ.ska fhdojd .ekSumsKsi wdl,amuh jYfhka udkjhd ;`< iduQyslFjh f.dvkeZ.su wjYH jS ;snqKs fuziZoyd ffjoslhka Ndjs;d lrk ,o ixl,amh f,i us;@ ixl,amh yZ|=kajd osh yelsh us;@ixl,amfhys fuu jsldYh uZ.ska fmkajd fokqfha tu ;;ajhhs fmr wdOHd;ausl jYfhkayqfola m@idoh ckkh lsrSu iZoyd muKlau Ndjs;d lrk ,o us;@ ixl,amh fN#;slw.hla jQ Okh keue;s f,#lsl jgskdlu ckkh lsrSu iZoyd o Ndjs;hg f.k ;snSu uZ.skafuh ;yjqre fjz us;@ ixl,amh uZ.ska ,nd fokq ,nk Okh wksjdrAhfhkau hym;a fydZo OkhlajSfuz wksjdrAhh ,CIKh o tys .enzjk nj ffjoslhka m@ldY fldg we;af;a tu OkhfydZo" OdrAusl Okhla fyj;a oSma;suka Okhla f,i fmkajSu uZ.sks iduQyslFjh fukauidOdrK nj o us;@ ixl,amh ;`<u wka;rA.; ;j;a udkj idrOu!hla f,i fuz wdldrhgffjoslhska jsiska m@lg lr ;sfnz " lSrA;su;a ta us;@ foajsfhda uysufhka fojz f,djg W;a;rS;rh" f;aciska uyfmdf<djg W;a;rS;rh" us;@f.a wdOHd;aul ;,h uysuh f,i;a" f,#lsl ;,h f;aci f,i;a fmkajd oS;sfnz fuys uysuh lsishuz W;a;rS;r udkqqIsl .`KOu! /ila ksfhdackh lsrSu msKsiNdjs;d lr ;sfnz ohdj" wkHhka jsIfhys iudkd;au;djfhka hqla;j lghq;` lsrSu jeks.`Kdx. us;@g wh;a fia olajd we; fuzjd idudkH ukqIHFjfhka Tnzng jsyso hk nejskaidudkH ukqIHhdf.ka fjkia jk lreKla f,i f.k W;a;rS;r ;;ajh m@odkh lr we;fmd|= nj iudkd;au;djh jeks lreKq ffcj jsoHd;aulj o udkj taldnoaO;djh iqrCIs;lsrSu msKsi bjy,a jsh yels lreKqh iduqysl cSjk meje;aulska hqla; ukqIHhdg fujeksfoa b;du;a w.kd iudc fuj,ula jQjdg iel ke; ta Tiafia fujeks lreKq W;a;rS;r;;ajfhka by,g Tijd ;nkakg we; tfukau fuys oS f;aci hkafkka woyia flfrkafka md,kh lsrSuhs fyj;al<ukdlrK uQ<OrAu Ndjs;hhs l<ukdlrK uQ<OrAu Ndjs;fhys oS udkj m@d.aOkhyeisrjSfuz wjYH;djh yg.kS udkj m@d.aOkh ;ukag wjYH wdldrhg l<ukdlrKhlsrSfuys,d us;@ ixl,amh olajkakd jQ odhlFjh i,ld thg f;aci hehs jHjydr lr;sfnz us;@ ixl,amfhys f,#lsl mCIh wjOdrKh jkqfha fuz wdldrfhks " us;@ fojshkag hg;a j hosk mZ[ap ( il, ) ck;djg Wojq lrkakg iu;a 41fy;u il, foaj iuQyh ord isgS" 13
  14. 14. us;@ ixl,amh fuys oS BYajr ;;ajhg Tijd ;sfnz tkuz il, oeh ord isgshiEu fohlu wOsm;shd jYfhks ffjoslhka talfoajjdoSka fukau nyqfoajjdoska f,i;alghq;` l< njg idOl uska imhhs tla tla oehg wOsm;SFjh Wiq,kq ,nk tla tlafoaj;djre jev isgsk w;r ta ish,a,kagu by,ska us;@ jev isgsk nj yd lghq;` lrk njmjikafka tfyhsks fuys foaj hkak jHjydr lrkq ,nkqfha idudkH ukqIHFjhgjH;sfrAl jYfhka .; yels tla tla udkj .`Kdx.hkays wfmaCIs; mrsidOk ugzguweZ.jSu msKsi nejz jgyd .ekSu fuys oS jeo.;ah " us;@ f;fuz wdZ{djg wkqj" fojz usksiqka w;r hd. ;DKh we;`rE ckhdg 42wdydrh imhd we; " us;@ talfoaj jdofhka nyqfoaj jdohg meusKu Ndr;Sh ixialD;sl b;sydih S;`< wd.usl wxYh iuznJOfhka b;du;a jeo.;a iJOsia:dkhla lksgqyka lrkakls us;@ixl,amh jsldYh jSu;a iuZ.u us;@ ixl,amhg muKla wh;a f,i i,lk ,o fndfyda.`K jreK keue;s ;j;a ixl,amhlg wdfoaY lr tu ixl,am oajsFjh uZ.skau us;@f.aiajrEmh olajk ,oS fuu oajsFjh i;` jsfYaI .;s.`K iy ldrAh isoaOs m@fhda.sl jYfhkaiudkh fuu oajsFjh ms<sisZo f.k we;af;a ;dreKHhjh orAYk lD;H lrkakd jQ wei ysrefjz ysre /ia m;s; jkafka l@udkql~, f,i .ufkys ks;r jS isgshoSuh wZosk m<Zok jia;@b;du oSma;su;ah wyfiys rsh uZ.ska .ufkys ksr; fjz fojz f,dj msysgs rkauqjd ksjiljdih flfrA th l`,qKq oyilskao" fodr oyilskao" iukajs; fnfyjska Wia jQ ia:djriqjsi,a ksjils fuys rcjre f,i l@shd lrk b;du;a nqoaOsu;a ryia T;a;` lrefjda fj;aTjqyq pl@jrA;s rcjreh fuu ixl,am oajsFjh udhd kuska yeZoskafjk .`ma; n,hlska l@shdlrk tfukau ishZM ;kays ish wdOsm;H m;`rjd yer lghq;` lrk wiqr kuskayeZoskafjkafkda fj;a Tjqkaf.a lD;H jQfha wreK bj; m,jd yerSu;a" wjldYh yryd ysrefufyh jSu;a" th jeiafika yd j<dl`,ska jid oeuSu;ah fuu ixl,am oajsFjh iuia;f,dalhu md,kh lrkafkda fj;a Tjqyq wyi" fmd<j iy iq<Z. ord isgsk w;rwdrCIlhka f,i o l@shd lr;s .x.d iuQyfhys iajdusm@;@hka kuz fuu ixl,am oajsFjhuh jrAIdj usksiqkafj; m@odkh lrkafkda fudjqyqh tnejska fndfyda usksiqkaf.a ksrka;r m@oCIdjg fudjqyq,la fj;a Tjqkayg ukqIHhka hd. msKsi okafok lEu nSu yd uOqmdkhkays m@udKhfld;ruz o h;a tajd osiajkqfha osh myrj,a fuks ishZM c,hg iy jrAIdjg wOsm;s njork Tjqyq ta ish,a, md,kh lrkq ,nkafkdah Tjqyq ;Knsuz .sf;,a keue;s jrAIdfjka ydwNHdjldYh uOq mdkfhka o f;ud yrs;s Tjqyq wyiska uqod yrskafka jeiai yd jsY@dka;shhs 14
  15. 15. jeiafika ,efnk c,h jQ l,S osjHuh jQjls fuz whqrska iuzmQrAK iQla;hlau fudjqkafjkqfjka fjka jS we; us;@ ixl,amfhys fuu oajsFjfhys n,h fl;ruzo h;a" fuys jHjia:dj ia:srfkd fi,afjk tlls th wurKSh fojsjreka mjd W,a,x>kh fkdlg yelallsksrka;rfhka u wdZ{dj ord isgskafkda kuz us;@ ixl,amfhys fuu oajsFjh iajrEmhhstfiau tu wdZ{dj lv fkdfldg th wdorfhka /l n,d .kafkdah ;uka jsiska wkHhkaf.ajro oel th ms<sl`,a lrk thg oKavkh mKjk th m,jd yrsk iajNdjh we;af;ahtfiau lsisfjl` th lrf;d;a" thg tfrysj keZ.S isgskafkda fj;a tfiau ;ukag kshus;hd. fydau iy mqo mQcd fkdlrkakjqka yg ksis oZvqjuz oSugo Tjqyq wu;l fkdlr;s tjkawhg f,v frda.dndO iEojSfuka ysxid mSvd is|= lr;s us;@ ixl,amfhys fuu oajsFj .`Khkayg lrkq ,nk jkaokdj bka|= - brdkhq. jljdkqfjys b;du;a |=rd;S;h olajd wE;g osj hhs thg fya;` jkqfha wfjia;dfjysfuz wdldrfhkau wyqr yd us;@ ixl,amhkays oajsFj .`Khkayg lrkq ,nk fuz wdldru jQmqo mQcd weoySuz yd wd.usl ixialdr jsOSka wka;rA.; nejsks mYapd;a ld,Skj hqfojzpska;khg mjd fuhska huzlsis n,mEula jQ nj is;sh yelshs BY@dh,a cd;slhka ;`< we;smdruzmrsl wd.usl weoys,s yd jsYajdi cks; jSu iZoyd fuhska huzlsis msgsjy,la,efnkakg we;ehso iel flfrA jsfYaI jYfhka lf;da,sl oyu ;`< wka;rA.; m@Odk udkjfm@arKh jQ fm@au ixl,amh yd fuu us;@ ixl,amh w;r huzlsis iuznJOhla we;aoehs jsuiSujgS ohdj yd fm@auh hk jHjydrhka lf;da,sl oyu ;`< fkdfhla f,iska jHjydr jS 15
  16. 16. ;sfnz us;@ ixl,amfhys iudf,dapkhla fyda ixfCIamhla fuz ;`< .enz fkdfj;;a"iduQyslFjh yd fmd|= nj ms<snZoj huzlsis b;du;a iqZM wdl,amuh idudkFjhla osia fjz fuu hq.fhys tla;rd iJOsia:dkhl oS us;@ ixl,amh oajsFj iajrEmhlgmrsjrA;kh fjz ta us;@ yd jreK hkqfjks fuys oS us;@ ixl,amh jreK iuZ. iuznJOlf,a wehsoehs jsuiSu jeo.;ah us;@ jreKf.a iydhlhd f,i olajd ;sfnz msysg ydwdYsrAjdo me;Sfuz oS idudkHfhka us;@ hoskq ,nkqfha fuu jreK yd tlguh us;@ ixl,amhuZ.ska br yd br t<sh ksrEmKh lrhs Tyq fuf,djg m@Ndj f.k tkafka hehs ie,flaus;@ ;`< wka;rA.; .`K iuyrla us;@ ;`<u wka;rA.; fldg oelajSu fjkqjg jreKkeue;s ixl,amhla ksrAudKh fldg tuZ.ska us;@g wdfjzKsl .`K iuyrla ksrEmKh lrolajk ,oafoa bka iduQysl nj ms<snZoj mKsjqvhla ,nd oSug jsh hq;`h flfia fj;;a" us;@ ish,a, olakd iqZM jQ o" ish,a, wjfndaO l<d jQo" ish,a,flfrys wOsm;SFjh mj;ajkakd jQo" i;H .rel" i;HlduS idrOu! iqrCIs; lsrSu msKsilemjS ls@hd lrkq ,nk iduh .re lrk fi#uH iy.; fojsfhl` f,i wF:! ksrEmKh lr;sfnz wkql@ufhka us;@ ixl,amh jreK yd iuzznJO lsrSfuz oS fuf;la tlu wdf,dalh f.kfokakd jQ uQ,h f,i ie,l`Kq us;@f.a n,Yla;sh fldgia follg f.k us;@ m@Nd;df,dalhiuZ. o jreK rd;@S wjldYh iuZ. o iuznJO lr olajk ,oS tfiau fuz ksid us;@ ydjreK wdhH!uka yd N. iuZ. wdos;Hfhdah ( ysre ) ke;fyd;a wos;sf.a mq;@fhda hehs olajkq,efnz wdos;Hhg ysre ke;fyd;a iQhH! hehs lshkq ,efnz us;@ yd jreK fhoSfuka woyia lrk ,oafoa fuz iQhH!df.a n,h fldgiafollska hq;`j ksrEmKh lsrSuhs Woh ld,fhys iQhH! wdf,dalh us;@f.ka o rd;@S iQhH!wdf,dalh wia;hg hEu jreK f.ka o olajk ,oS us;@f.ka ksrEmKh lrk ,o ysrejkaokdj f,dal YsIaGdpdrfhys iEu m@d.a ft;sydisl wd.usl wNspdr jsOs ish,a, ;`<u jsjsOiajrEm j,ska jsjsO kuz j,ska oel .ekSug ,efnz " jreK ( iy us;@ ) fojshks" fofojz Tnf.a mshlre wei jQ ysre ( /ia )m;`rjuska by< kZ.S hfula il, f,dal i;a;ajhka jsuid n,hs o" fyf;u uefrkakjqkaw;r mrudrA: ksrSCIKh lrhs " fuys oS jreK yd us;@ hk fojsjrekaf.a weia f,i ysre olajd ;sfnz weiska is|=lrkqfha oY!k lD;Hhhs fuys oS wei ysre f,i ksrEmKh jSu uZ.ska wdf,dalh yd wZ|=reiajNdjfhys .enzjk odrAYksl ldrAhNdrh u;`lr fmkajhs odrAYksl ixorANh ;`<wdf,dalhg fukau wZ|=rg o jgskdula we; idudkHfhka fjk;a jsIh oekquz moaO;Ska ;`<nska|=jg jgskdkula fkdue;sjqj o fmros. orAYkfhys nska|=fjys b;du;a jsYd, 16
  17. 17. jgskdlula .enzjk nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz orAYksl ixorANh ;`< nska|=j yeZoskafjkafkaY~kHh kusks fuys Y~kHh hkq ixLHd;aul jYfhka lsisjla fkdue;s nj fkdj fuz f,djwe;s ;dla ish,af,ys u .`Kd;aul jYfhka lsis|= yrhla fkdue;s njhs odrAYksl mCIfhkaY~kHfhys .enzjk jgskdlu fjk;a Bg jvd jsYd, ixLHd;aul w.hl .enz fkdfjztfukau wdf,dalfhys jgskdlu f,djg fmfkafka wZ|=r ksid fyhska wdf,dalhg fukauw.hla wZ|=rg o ,efnk nj fmkajd fohs fjk;aa f,ilska lsjfyd;a wdf,dalh yd wZ|=rTjqfkdjqkag idfmaCIlh fuu Yaf,dlfhys wrA:h mrudrA: .fjzIkh lsrSuhs ukqIHiajNdjhla jYfhka urKh Wreu jqjo urKfhys jsoHudk fmd|= nj" mrudrA:uhi;a;dj .@yKh lsrSu iZoyd idudkH weiska ksrSCIKh lr ,nd .kakd f;dr;`re j,gjvd by< ksrSCIKhla fukau odrAYksl pska;khla o wjYH nj fuz ;`<ska u;` lrfohsjreK yd us;@ ixl,amhkaf.ka fmkajk us;@Fjh ( yeufoku ush hkafka kuz ush hEuWreu fldg we;s ish,q iFjhka jsIfhys oelajsh hq;` wkqluzmdj uqiq us;@YS,S iajNdjh )urKh keue;s fmd|= mrudrA:uh i;a;dj .fjzIKh lsrSu uZ.ska ,nd .;hq;` by,unqoaOsM,h nj fuhska fmkajd fokq ,nhs " us;@ iy jreK fofokdKks" ta ieoeyej;a mQclhd ( uu ) Tn fofokdg|=rska wefik iaf;da;@ .S;sld tjhs nqoaOsu;`ka fofokdfKks" ta Tyqf.a hd;sld wi;ajd! huznqoaOshlska fuka Tjqkaf.a cSjs;fha wjika iuh mqrjkq uekjs " wksjdrAfhkau fuu iaf;da;@ .dhkd lrkq ,nkafka wd.usl mQcljrfhlske;fyd;a lskuz fyda mqoa.,fhla fuz iaf;daia;@ .dhkd lsrSfuka fy;u taldka; jYfhka tafya;`fldg f.ku mQcljrh ,nhs fuys iaf;daia;@ mGkh hkq fu;a;d ixl,amfhys .`K.dhkd lsrSuhs fu;a;d kuz us;`renjhs us;@Fjh m;`rejk ,nkakd fyj;a us;@Fjfhys .`K.dhkd lrkq ,nkakd taldka;fhkau mQcljrfhls ke;fyd;a ta fya;`j ksidu mQcljrh,enQfjls fuys mQcljr ,enSfuz fya;`j f,i oelajkqfha us;`renj me;srjSuh ish,q iFjhkafj; us;`re nj m;`rejkakd is|=rkqfha ish,q iFjhkag cSjs; odkh ,nd oSuh ta fy;`fjkafy;u urKhg m@;sjsreoaO Yla;sfhys n,fjz.h fjz us;`renj m;`rejk mQcljrhdurKh Wreu fldg isgskakd jQ f,dj jeis iFjhkayg wNh fokafkla fjz cSjh fokafklafjz Tyqg us;`re nfjys wOsm;s jQ jreK yd us;@ hk fojsjreka i;` osjHuh n,hwdrdamKh fldg we; tfukau jreK yd us;@ fojsjrekaf.a ksrka;r msysgg yd ie,ls,a,gnZ|=ka jkakd jQ w;sYhska ldreKsl mqoa.,fhla o jkafkah " us;@ iy jreK fofojshks" ;Hd.YS,SkS" ( Tn ) jHdma; jQ mD:sjsfhka ihWi jQ" Wodr jQ wyiska" msh fkd fyZME weiska ( n,d ) wdrCId lrk Ydlhkays;a" ( usksia )ksjykys;a fjk fjk u ryia T;a;`lrejka uekjska fhdokafkdah " 17
  18. 18. us;@ yd jreK hk ixfla; folska wdf,dalfhys me;srSu yd wia;h hk folksrEmKh fjz tfukau us;@Fjfhys WKqiquz nj fukau iqug nj o fmkajhs us;@f.afojshdf.a iajrEmfhka us;@Fjfhys WKqiqu oyj, ysre f,i o" jreK foajshdf.aiajrEmfhka us;@Fjfhys iqug nj rd;@sfhys ysre wia;hg hdu fya;`fjka yg .efkk isis,anj f,i o ksrEms;h fuh iuia; ffcj f,dalfhys werUquhs usksid we;`ZM iuia; cSjSkauwdYajdi m@dYajdi lrk jdhqfhys wka;rA.; wuz,lr ( Tlaiscka ) iajNdjh yg .efkkqfhaosjd l, us;@f.a fijfkys we;s Ydl uZ.sks tfukau rd;@sfhys oS jreKf.a wkqn,fhka tuYdlu m@;s – wuz,lr ( ldnkavfhdlaihsvz ) ksmojkq ,nhs fuu iQrAhdf,dalh flaJ|@lrf.k Ydl m;@ ;`< wka;rA.; yrs;m@o Wmfhda.Sfldg m@Ndixiaf,aIK l@shdj<sh ksidyg .efkk funZ|= wuz,lr yd m@;s – wuz,lr iajNdjh us;@ yd jreK oajs l@shdldrSFjhksid we;sjk tla ffcj ridhk ixisoaOshla muKs idudkHfhka funZ|= ffcj ridhkixisoaOSka b;d jsYd, m@udKhla wdf,dalfhys yd wkaOldrfhys moku jQ iQrAhhdfya;`fldg f.k yg.kS jsoHd;aul pska;kh jrAOs; jrA;udkfhys fuka ta iEuixisoaOshlau ijsia;r f,i fN#;sl jsoHd yd Y`oaO jsoHd kHdkqidrSj mejiSug yels fkdjQ|=rd;S;fhys oS tnZ|= jsoHd;aul ixisoaOSka ryia yd fkdjsiZosh yels .egZM f,i ie,lsKs|=rd;S;fhys mej;s oekqu wkqj tnZ|= oekquz moaO;Ska wkdjrKh lr .ekSu uy;a jsYd,fohla f,i fmksks ryia f;dr;`re .fjzIKh iZoyd m@OdkSka fhdojk ,o ta ioZyd mqre|=mqyqKq l, jsfYaIs; mqoa.,hka ryia T;a;`lrejka yd pr mqreIhka f,i yeZoskajsKs jreKyd us;@hk fojsjre m@OdkSka f,i ie,l`Kq fyhska Tjqka iajNdj Ou!hdf.a ryia iajNdjhwkdjrKh fldg tuZ.ska ck;djg Wojz Wmldr lsrSu WmudrEml yd w,xldrj;a f,iidys;Huh iajrEmhlska hqla;j mejiSug h;ak ord we;s wdldrh fuz Yaf,dalh uZ.ska b;dlosug ksrEmKh fjz " ( uu ) us;@f.a;a" jreKf.a;a wKil jrAKkd lrus ( Tjqkaf.a ) n,h" uydjsl@ufhka fodf,dj ( wyi iy fmdf<dj ) fjka lrhs hd. fkd lrkakjqkaf.a udi ( ld,h) mq;`kaf.ka f;dr j .; jS fhajd! hd.h flfrys ;u is; ia:djr l< ;eke;af;a ( ish ) 43mrmqr jrAOkh flfrAjd! " fuys uu hkqfjka jrAKs;j we;af;a funZ|= hd. ldrAhhka iZoyd ks, jYfhkaukuz flrS isgskakd jQ mQclhska jsh hq;`h us;@ yd jreK fojshkaf.a wKil jrAKkdlrkafka tu wKil os.ska os.gu mj;ajd f.k hEfuz ldrAhNdrh tu mQcl fmf<ka;shw;ska bgq jQ hq;`lula jQ fyhsks tu hq;`lu bgq lsrSu hkq iudcfhys wdlD;sluh iajrEmhta jQ wdldrfhkau ixjsOs;j mj;ajd .ekSug W;aiy .ekSuhs fuys wka;rA.; wKil hkjofkys wK hkq jsOdkd;aul iajrEmhhs tfia fyhska wKil hkak mqZM,a jYfhkawF:!l:kh l< jsg tys ffk;sl isoaOdka; ish,a,u .enzjS we; tfukau fuys wka;rA.;n,h ms<snZo ioyk kQ;k orAYkfhys yd iudc jsoHdfjys n,h ( Power ) ms<snZo 18
  19. 19. b.ekajSuz iuZ. tla;rd wdldrhl iudk njla Wiq,kq ,nhs kQ;k jsIhhka j,oS n,hms<snZo fokq ,enQ wrA:l:kj,ska n,h hym;a f,i fhdojkafka flfiao hk meyeos,s lsrSuziuZ. fuzjd jvd;a jevs iudkFjhla olajhs ta wkqj us;@ yd jreK ixl,am uZ.ska fmkajkq,nk us;@Fjh ms,snZo wdl,amh n,h flfia l@shdfjz fhosh hq;` oehs hk m@Yakhg ms<s;`rlaf,i bosrsm;a jS ;sfnz fuys hd.h hkqfjka jsia;r js ;sfnkqfha ffu;@sh oelajSuhs ta wkqjil,jsO ffc m@cdj flfrysu ffu;@sfhka hqla;j jdih lsrSu jsYd,u hd.hhs tfia jdihfkdlrkakd jQ mqoa.,hdf.a mrmqr mj;ajd f.k hEfuys Yla;sh wju jk nj fuys fmkajdfokq ,nhs mq;`ka jsrys;j l,ayerSug is|=jk nj fmkajd oS ;sfnkqfha fuz ksidh tf,iiuia; ffcj m@cdj jsIfhysu ffu;@sh me;srjSug yels mqoa.,hka flfrys ish mrmqrmj;ajd f.k hEfuys Yla;sh fkduZoj msysgk nj fuhska fmkajd fokq ,nhs fuhskajHx.fhka lsh fjkafka ffu;@S n,fhka iuia; ffcj m@cdj tlai;a jk nj;a tfia fkdjQl, yeu jsg hqouh jYfhka yd W;am;a;suh jYfhka Tjqka jskdYhg meusfKk njhs " nqoaOsu;a n,j;`ka fofoKdKks" huz ;ekl wreuhla fkd fmfkk"wnsryila fkd jk ( fkd fmfkk ) fuz ish,a, ( m@Yxid ) Tn fofokdghs ( Tnf.a ) ryiaT;a;`lrejda usksiqkaf.a us:Hdjka ,qyq neZo fh;a Tn fofokd fkd oek is|= jk ryia oek.kakg ke; " jsYajh i;` usksia nqoaOshlska oek .ekSug wiSre tfy;a il,jsO f,daliajNdjh wkdjrKh lsrSug tlu udrA.h jkqfha us;@ yd jreK ixl,am folska fmkajkmrsos ffu;@sh jevSuhs iuia; ffcj m@cdfjys iuzNjh meje;au yd jrAOkh ms<snZoj tluryi jkafka o thhs usksiqka jsIfhys ta ryi wkdjrKh lr .ekSu msKsi Tnfoofkdf.a ryia T;a;` lrejka jQ us;@ yd jreK fojsjreka i;` wiydh ffcj wdnJOkSh,CIKh tkuz fu;a;d ixl,amh jsjsO iajrEm j,ska fmkS isgS tu ixl,amh usksiqka w;rme;sr we;s jsjsO jQ uk%l,ams; ms<s.ekSuz w;rg tkafka tu ms<s.ekSuzj, ksrEmKh jkakdjQ jsjsO iajrEmj,ska hqla;jh ohdj" fm@auh" ifydorFjh" lreKdj" fifkyi"ud;DFjh yd us;`renj tjka ijrEmhkaf.ka iuyrls usksiqkaf.a ms,s.ekSuzj,g wkqjTjqkaf.a jsjsO is;sjs,sj,g wkqrEmj us;@Fjh fl;ruz jsYd, yeZ.Suz m@udKhlgmrsjrA;kYS,S jqjo ta yeu yeZ.Sulu moku us;@Fjhhs fuz ksid us;@Fjh ta ms<snZojfkdoek l`uk yeZ.Sulaj;a fyda is;sjs,a,laj;a cSjS is;lg we;s fkdfjz us;@Fjfhys ryiawkdjrKh lr.ekSfuz yelshdj t;ruzu wisrsu;ah ffcj f,dj ;`< yg .kakd iEuis;sjs,a,lau oek .kakd iqZM iajNdjhla us;@Fjfhys .enzjk nejska us;@ yd jreK uZ.skaksrEmKh jk fu;a;d ixl,amh i;` fkdjkakd jQ ryia wkdjrKh fkdjkakd jQl@ufjzohla we;af;a ke; o; hq;` jQ ryiH jQ ish,af,au wkdjrKlhd kuz us;@ yd jreKhk fofokdh fuhska lshfjkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh ;`< .enz fkdjkakd jQ fohla fkdue;snj yd iEu fohlau fu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska ksrEmKh jk njh 19
  20. 20. " ( uu ) oeka kuialdr iys; j hd.h Tn fofokdg lem lrus ( uu ) us;@ ydjreK jQ Tn fofokdg Woafhda.fhka yZv kZ.d lshus ( fuz ) kj ixl,amkd Tn fofokdgm@Yxikh msKsi hs fuz msrskuk ,o hd;sldfjda Tn fofokd i;`gq lr;ajd " fu;a;d ixl,amh isf;ys jrAOkh lr .ekSu msKsi jer jvkakd jQ mqoa.,fhl`jsiska fuz wdldrfhka l,amkd l< hq;` nj by; Yaf,dalfhys fmkajd oS ;sfnz fndfydfiaf.#rjfhka hqla;j us;@Fjh jrAOkh lsrSug leu;s jkafkus th tfiau nj us;@ ydjreK foaj ixl,amfhka uqrA;su;a jkakd jQ us;@Fjh kuska oevs wdya,dofhka hqla;j taus;@Fjh fjkqfjkau lemfjus th yZv kZ.d wduka;@Kh lsrSu hkqfjka wF:!j;a jkqfhathhs kshudrA:hka iZ.jd lshk ,oafoys ienE wF:!hka fy,s lrjSu Tn fofokdg wkq.@ymsKsihs wik fndfyda fokdo fu;a;d ixl,amfhys .`K yeZosk ta uZ.g fhduq jk nejskafuz ms<snZo oek .ekSu ish,q fokdf.au i;`gg fya;`jla o fjz tu .`K kshudldrfhka oekyeZoska myka is;ska hqla;j iqprs;fhys yeisr fu;a;d ixl,amkdj fmrgq fldg f.k ia;~;sm@Yxid msrskuk is;ska hqla;j l,a yerSu us;@ yd jreK ixfla;fhka uQrA;su;a flfrkfu;a;d ixl,amfhys ienE .`K iqjZo iamrAY lsrSula o fjz fu;a;d ixl,amh ksrka;risf;ys i;`g ckkh lrkq ,nkakla f,i o fuz ;`<ska fmkakquz flfrA " us;@ iy jreK fofojshks" hd.hkays oS fuz mQcl fiajdj Tng bgq lerefKahwm ish,q |=la lror Tiafia ( bka Tnzng ) f.k uekjs Tn wm iZoyg u fi;a Ydka;sfhka 44hqla; j wdrCId lr;ajd " wjidkfhys fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Wmfhda.S;djh ms<snZoj wkHhka oekqj;a lrkq,nk mQcljrhd ms<snZoj wjOdkh fhduq lrkq ,nhs us;@ yd jreK hk fojsjrekaukqIHhka w;rg f.k hkq ,nk md,u f,i l@shdlrkafka fulS mQclhka nejska fuufu;a;d ixl,amh m@cdj ;`< jrAOkh lrjSu ms<snZoj m@udKSlD; ldrAhNdrhla Tjqkaw;ska bgq fjz fojshkag iDcqju usksiqka w;rg hd fkdyels nejska usksiqka w;rg f.diafojsshkaf.ka ,;a odhdoh jk us;@Fjh usksiqka w;r jHdma; lr yrskakd jQ mQcljrekafojsjre jsiska o iuzudks; nejz fuz uZ.ska fmkajd fokq ,nhs usksiqkaf.a ish,qu |=la lror|=re lrkakd jQ tu |=la lror j,ska Tnzng Tjqka leZojd f.k hkq ,nkakd jQ mqoa.,hd kuzmQcljrhdh ta iZoyd mQcljrhdg us;@ ixl,amfhys;a fkduZo iyh ,efnz us;@ixl,amfhka ,efnk fkduZo iyh msgsjy,a fldgf.k ish,a,kaf.au ish,qu |=la luzlfgdZMbj;g m<jd yrskq ,nhs fu;a;d ixla,mh isf;ys jrAOkh lrjSu fya;`fldg f.k is;gwe;sjk mgs> is;sjs,s yd .efgk iajNdjh bj;a lr is; m@uqos;j i;`gska ;efnhs by;ish,q |=la luzlfgdZM m<jd yrsk nejz iZoyka jSu uZ.ska fmkakquz lrkqfha fuhhs is;gwjYH m@udKhg ffu;@sh jrAOkh lr.;a ;eke;a;dg wjYH ;ruz ld,hla wjYH ;ruz 20
  21. 21. m@udKhlska is;g m@S;sh we;`,;a fldg f.k iqrCIs;j jdih l< yelsh nsh" wkdrCIs;yeZ.Su" ielh" BrAIHdj" |=la uqiq is;sjs,s fu;a;d ixl,amh fkdue;s nfjys ,CIK jkw;r fuu yeZ.Suz is;ska bj;a jSug kuz fu;a;d ixl,amh wjYH m@udKhg isf;ys jrAOkhl< hq;`h mYapd;a ld,Skj ffjosl ckhd jsiska iQrAh fojshka yeZoskajSu iZoyd m@Odk kuz ;`klaNdjs;d lr we; tajdkuz ‘us;@’jsIaKq yd mQIka hk kuz ;`khs thska ‘us;@’ hk kduh bka|=-BrdKSh hq.fha mgka jsldYh fjuska mej; wd jpkhhs. uq,oS ffjoslfhda us;@ jsIaKq ydmQIka hk kuz ;`k iQrAhhdg jsfYaIK kdu f,i jHjydr l<y.miqj th ta ta f.da;@hgwh;a iQrAhh foaj;d iuQyhlg jHjydr jkakdjQ kdu f,i jsldYhg m;ajsh 45 iEu YsIaGdpdrhl u m@d.a ft;sydisl wd.usl wNspdr jsOs ish,a, ;`<u fu f,i ysremsoSu usksia udkisl l@shdldrSFjh wkqj b;du;a iajNdjsl ixisoaOshls fuh .@Sl wd.uslwNspdr jsOs ;`< wksjdrAh wx.hla f,i oela fjz maf,afgda jsiska rps; Republic (iuQydKavqj )46 kuz .@J:fhys iQhH!hdg lrkq ,nk fuu mQcdjka mrudorAY njg m;alrkq,ensks Tyqg wkqj iQhH!hd hkq idOqFjfhys ixfla;hls mrAishdfjz o fuu iQhH! mqcdj oel.ekSug ,efnz f,dalfha ish,q wdf,dalfha yd cSjfha l;D jQ iQhH!hdg mjrd fok ,o W;a;rsudkqIsl n,hka we; ia:djr yd cx.u ish,af,ys u cSjh jkafka o Tyqh ish,a, olakd jQish,a, fufyhjkq ,nkakd jQ f,dalfhys wOsm;shd Tyqh Tyq usksiqka Tjqkaf.a ldhH!hka bgqlsrSug mqnq|=jhs wZ|=r |=r ,hs t,sh fohs ia:djr cx.u ish,af,a u wdrCIlhd jQ iQhH!dusksiqka foi my; n,uska usksiqka w;r yrs jeros wjf,dalkh lruska WNh f,dalhka;rKh lrkq iZoyd Wodfjhs fuz wkqj iQhH!hd f,dalfhys uejqulre yd tys woajS;Sh zmd,lhd njg ksrdhdifhka u m;a fjhs us;@ ixl,amh uZ.ska ksrEmKh lr olajkq,nkafka fuu iQhH!hd i;` n,hhs fuz wkqj us;@ ixl,amh uZ.ska uqZM uy;a udkjYsIaGdpdrfhys u .enzjk w;sYhska m@d.a ft;sydisl wd.usl jsYajdihla ksrEmKh fldg 47olajhs us;@ weoys,a,g ;j;a ksoiqkla kuz mqrdK mrAishdkqjka yd bkaoshdkqjkaf.a ysrefojshdhs fuu ysre fojshd ms<snZo weoys,a, l@s mQ 67 jk Y; jrAIfha oS frdauh wdl@uKhl< fY@aIaG wef,laiekavrA wOsrdchdf.a wOsrdcHfhka Tnzng mjd jHdma; jQ wd.uslixialdr jsOshls th mqZM,aj ( 180 – 92 ) jHdma;j mej;sfha rdclShhka w;r mej;s 48ufyaYdlH weoys,a,la f,ihs jd.a jsoHdZ{hska jsiska jd.a jsoHd;aul mrAfhaIKhka wkqj fmkS hk lreKlakuz bka|= wdhH!hka kuska yZ|=kajkq ,nk ckfldgzGdYfhao" BrdKShjrekaf.ao"hjkhkaf.ao" ia,djz ,s;afjzkshka iy crAuka cd;slhkaf.ao" b;d,s cd;slhkaf.ao" hkdoSwdldrfhka wdishd;sl yd ngysr f,i jrA;udkfhys m@p,s;j we;a;djQ cklKavdhuzj, 21
  22. 22. wdoSu uq;`ka us;a;ka w;r fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj jHdma;j mej;s tlu iajrEmfhawd.usl weoys,s yd jsYajdi wdosfhys mej;s mq|=u M<jk iq,q iudkjh ksid Tjqka |=rd;S;fhaNdIdj yd isrs;a jsrs;a w;ska wfkHdakH iuznJOluz olajuska tlu jsYd, m@foaYhl iuQyjYfhka cSj;a jQ msrsila njhs ;jo |=rd;S;fhys lsishuz osfkl tlu msrsila f,i jsiQngysr foaYjdiS ck iuQyhkaf.ka fjkaj wd Ndr;foaYSh jeisfhdao" BrdKSh cd;slfhdao"tfia fjkaj wd kuq;a tlg fjfiuska bka|=- BrdKSh ck iuQyh kuska jsfYaIfhka yZ|=kajkq,enQy fuz ld,fhaoS fudjqka w;r mej;s fu;a;d ixl,amh jv jvd;a ixjrAOkh jkakgjsh miqj BrdKShjrekaf.ka o fjkajQ m@dpSk wdhH!hka tkuz Ndr; foaYjdiS wdhH!hka tangysr m@foaYj,ska bkaoshdjg ( Ndr; foaYhg ) bka|=l`Ia lZ|=jegsh yryd m@fjzYjkakgwe;ehs ie,fla fudjqka uZ.ska iuia; Ndr;h mqrdu fu;a;d ixl,amh jHdma; jkakgwe;49 us;@ ixl,amh ia;@SFjh yd ud;DFjh uQrA;su;a lsrSu msKsi Ndjs;d jS we;swdldrh ffjosl idys;Hh wOHhkh lrkafkl`g oel .; yelsh iQrAhhdf.a jsjsO ,CIKms<snZoj wjOdkhg ,lal< ffjoslfhda tajd W;amdol Yla;sh m@dKj;a lsrSfuz n,hos,sfik iajNdjh jYfhka jrA.SlrKhg ,lafldg tu jsjsO ,CIK iZoyd jsjsOdlrmhH!dh kduhka wdfoaYl<y.Bg wkq.;j iQrAhhdf.a <ysre /iaj,ska kefZ.k m@Nd;hfldau< iajrEmhla .kakdnj ie,l~ ffjoslfhda tys wka;rA.; ,d,s;Hh ksid we,au we;slrjk .`Kh hk wrA:fhka thg‘us;@’hk kduh jHjydr l<y.fuz wkqj ffjoslhka‘us;@’Ynsofhka uq|=njo ia;@SFjfha iyc .;s iajNdjhka jQ ,d,s;Hh o fldau, iqkaorugis,sgs pu;aldr ckl iajNdjho ta ksid is;a i;kays ,d W;alrAIj;a jk we,auoksrAjpkh fldg ;sfnz.fuz woyia jrAOkh jSfuka miq l,l ‘us;@’Ynzoh fj; iuia; ia;@SiajNdjh yd ia;@SFjh wdfrdamKh fldg ;sfnz.ia;@SFjh ksrEmKh lrjkakdjQ fohla f,i‘us;@’Ynzoh Ndjs;d lsrSu ksid iduQyslFjh neZoSu j.lSu udkj ys;jdoSnj jeks .`Kwka;rA.; ia;@SFjfhys iyc ,CIKhla jQ ud;DFjfha iuzmrAlh fuhg ,efnkakg jsh.50 jsfYaIfhka iqrAhhd i;` jQ W;amdol Yla;sh flrys ffjosl ckhdf.a wjOdkhfhduq jS mej;sks uqZM uy;a jsYajfhau W;amdolhd iQrAhh Yla;sh uZ.ska m@Njh jkakd jQfohla hk yeZ.Su fujlg ffjoslhka ;`< uq,a nei.kakd ,o yeZ.Suls b;sydiZ[hka ydudkj jsoHdZ{hska fmkajd fokafka fulS wdl,amh ffjoslhka i;`j muKla fkdj m@d.audkj ish,qqu YsIaGdpdrhkays meje;s m@druzNl wNspdruh ixl,amhla njhs udkjm@cdjf.a iuzNjh is|=jkqfha ia;@Sh i;` cSj W;amdol iY@SlFjh ksid fyhska iQrAhhd i;` jQfuhg iudk jQ W;amdol Yla;sh ia;@shf.a tlS ksirA. Yla;shg iudk lr oelajSu ksidus;@ iuia; ffcj m@cdjf.a wdruzNl Yla;s m@Njh f,iska yd ish,q pu;aldr ckl jQ oEtlg wdnJOkSh lrjkakdla f,iska ffjoslhka w;r ms<s.ekSug md;@ jsks us;@ ixl,amhgpu;aldr ckl iajrEmhla tla jSug yd tu iajrEmh ia;@shlf.a Ndjuh ,S,djg .,md 22
  23. 23. .ekSug ffjoslhka fm<USug fya;`j us;@ i;`j we;s wdnJOkSh iajNdjh ksid il,jsOffcj m@cdj w;r ifydaorFjh fyda us;@Fjh jeks Tjqka tluq;` lrkakd jQ lsishuz neZoSulayg .ks;ehs Tjqka jsYajdi lrkakg jSuhs51 fmroS ud;DFjh we;`ZM fiiq ia;@SFjfhys iychka wdfrdamKh lr ;snqfkaiajNdj OrAuhd fj;hs.t;l`|= jqj;a ixl,am mrsjrA;kh;a iuZ.u iajNdj OrAuhd fj;wdfrdamKh fldgoS ;snQ fuz foajFjh miqld,Skj udkj iajrEmfhka oelajSfuz wjYH;djhu;` jsh. fuu udkj iajrEmfhka oelajSfuz wjYH;djh u;` jSu;a iuZ.u mdfya ndysr|@jHhka uZ.ska Tjqkaf.a wNka;r ps;a; ixl,am bosrsm;a lsrSfuz l,d;aul pska;khg uQ,slmoku fuhska jegsks mYapd;a ld,Sk hq.j, oS nsys jQ jsjsO l,d ksrAudKhka iZoyd wjYHlrk ksrAudKYS,S wdl,am o fuz wd.usl woyia Tiafia jsldYhg m;ajsh52 us;@ ixl,amfhys b;sydih .fjzIKh lr ,nk mrAfhaIlfhl`yg tuZ.skaffjosl ixialD;sh fmdaIKh jQ wdldrh oel.; yelsh fuz jsIh fCIa;@h ms<snZojmrAfhaIKh l< tuz jskagksgzia ( M.Winternitz ) kue;s mZvsjrhd Tyqf.a ‘bkaoshdkqidys;H b;sydih’ ( Histoty of Indian Literature ) kuz lD;sh ;`,ska by; olajk ,ous;@ ixl,amfhys jsldYhg iuznJO lreKq fmkajd oS ;sfnz.tys‘us;@’ fojshd foaj iuQyhlgwh;a jkafkl` nj olajd we;.fuu foajiuQyhg wh;ajk fojsjre jkafka bka|@ jreK us;@wos;s jsIaKq mQIka ure;a re|@ mc!kH wYajska hk fojsjrehs. uq<oS fuu fojsjrekafhdod.;akd ,oafoa iajNdjsl jia;~kag foajFjhla wdrfrdamKh fldg jK!kd lsrSfuz oSfhdod .kakd ,o jsfYaIK mo f,ih.miqj fuu kduhka ta iajNdjsl jia;~kaysWm,CIKdrA: jsfYaIKfhka tajd yZ|=kajdoSu msKi jHjydr jsk. wk;`rej ta kduhka tu siajNdjsl jia;~ka yeZoskajSu msKsi Ndjs;dlrkakd jQ mrAhdh kdu njg fmr<S wjidkfha oSiajNdjsl jia;~kaf.ka fjkia jQ iajdOSk fojsjreka f,i jHjydr jkakg jsh.53 ‘us;@’fojshd ms<snZo woyio uq<oS ‘us;@’kue;s ixl,amh weiqrefldg by; olajk,o wdldrfhka jsldYhjQ tlls.fuz ksid ‘us;@’fojshd ksremkh lsrSfuzoS tys uq,a ‘us;@’ixl,amfha oelafjk wdldrhg uD|=nj yd ,d,s;Hh fmkajk whqrska ksrEms; jsh.fuz‘us;@’ixl,amh fnfyjska m@p,s;j meje;sfha yd uq,aneif.k ;snQfha bka|= ksuzk ixialD;sh;`,h.ta ksidu bka|+ksuzk jdiSka fnfyjska idulduS yd b;doshqKq iNHFjhlg ysusluz lSmsrsilaj isgshy fnfyjska iuDoaOsu;a osjsfmfj;la .;l< lDIs lrAudka;h iFjmd,khyd fjk;a Ys,am lrAudka; wxYhkaf.ka oshqKq YsIaG iuzmkak cSjs;hla .; l<y.54 wdrAhhka kuska ;ukaj yZ|=kajd .;a ffjoslckhd ;u ixialD;sl wdOsm;Hhwfkl`;a ixialD;Ska flfrys me;srjSu;a iuZZ. bka|=ksuzk ixialD;sh ffjosl ixialD;sfhka 23
  24. 24. hgm;ajsh.ta iuZ.u bka|= ksuzk ixl,amh hgm;a lrf.k ffjosl iuh ixl,amhwOsm;SFjh orkakg jsh.bka|=ksuzk jdiSka w;r m@p,s;j mej;s‘us;@’ixl,amfhys wdNdIhffjosl ixialD;shg ,enqk;a ffjosl ixialD;sh ;`< ‘us;@’ixl,amh bka|=ksuzk ixialD;sfha;ruz jHdma;j fkd mej;sfhah thg jsjsO ldrKd fya;`jsh tajd my; oelafjk mrsosoelajSug yel.1 ‘us;@’ixl,amh ffjosl ixialD;shg wd.ka;`l ixialD;shlska meusKs fohla jSu ksid tu wd.ka;`l ixialD;sh i;` jQ foa flfrys we;s |=rjfndaOh" fkdie,ls,a, yd ms<sfkd.kakd iqM Ndjh jeks m@;sfYaOkd;aul lreKqj, n,mEu.2 fuzjk jsg ffjosl ixialD;sh uq,a;ek f.k ;snQ ksid;a bka|=ksuzk jdiSka Tjqka jsiska hgm;a lrf.k ;snQ ksid;a ;udf.a ixialD;sh bka|=kuzk ixialD;shg jvd Wiiah hk udkisl wdl,amhl ffjoslhka miqjSu.3 ;ukag jvd my< ixialD;shl fjfikakkaf.a iuh ixl,amhka nqoaOs f.dapr fkdfj;ehs fjoslhka ;`, ;snQ miq.duS m@;s ffjosl wdl,amh.4 ;uka jsiska hgm;a lr.kakd,o ixialD;shl jQ ixialD;sl ,CIK yd wkHkH;d ,CIK ke;slr .ekSug fm<USu TzkEu wdl@uKsl ck;djlf.a ,CIKhlajSu.5 ta hgm;a lrk,o ixialD;sfhys jQ iuh ixl,amhka flfrys iDcqju jsreoaO jSu fjkqjg Wmydid;aul f,i yd wjZ{d iy.; f,i ta foi ne,Sug ckhd fhduqlrjSu ksid ksrdhdifhkau iuh ixl,amhka hgm;ajSu.6 bka|=ksuzk jeishkaf.a ‘us;@’ixl,amh ;ukaf.a iuh ixl,amhkg wEZod.kq ,enqfjz mQrAK wjfndaOhlska fyda ioaNdjhlska fkdjSu.7 bka|=ksuzk jeishkaf.a iuh ixl,amhka ;uka jsiskao ms<s.kq ,enSu ;`,ska ffjoslhka Wml@uYS,S f,i ;u iuh fj; wdlrAYKh lr.ekSfuz Wml@usl fpz;kdj u; l@shd lsrSu.8 bka|= ksuzk YsIaGdpdrh ffjoslhka jsiska w;am;a lr.kq ,enQfjz hqouh jYfhka ffjoslhka ,nd ;snQ w;aoelSuz flaJ|@ fldgf.k usi bka|= ksuzk jdiSkag muK ixialD;sl jYfhka oshqKq iNHFjhlg ysusluz lS msrsila fkdjSu9 fj<odu yd wdl@uKYS,SFjh uZ.ska w;am;a lr.;a oshqKq YsIaGdpdrhl iNH;ajh wjfndaO lr.kakg ;ruz jsfjzl nqoaOshla fyda Wjukdjla ffjoslhkayg fkd;snSu10 ;uka jsiska hgm;a fldg isgs ;ukaf.a ffjosl YsIaGdpdrhg jvd oshqKq YsIaGdpdrhla jQ bka|= ksuzk YsIaGdpdrh i;` ixialD;sl wkHkH;djh ms<snZoj ffjoslhka i;` w,am ud;@ oekqu ksid;a ta oshqKq YsIaGdpdrh i;` oshqKq iNH;ajh yd uqiq jSug ffjoslhkag fkdyels jSu11 ksrka;rfhka ;u YsIaGdpdrfhys Wiianj ms<snZoj is;~ bka|= ksuzk jdiSka ;ukag jvd fkdoshqKq ixialD;sl ,CIK ;snQ fjosl YsIaGdpdrh iuZ. ksrka;rfhkau u; jdoSj yd odrAYkslj .efguska ffjoslhka yg ;ukaf.a Wiia ixialD;sl ,CIK yd wkHkH;djh ms<snZoj m@cd;ka;@jdoSj lreKq wjfndaO lrjkakg W;aiyhkaj, ksr;jSu ksid 24
  25. 25. Ndr;h mqrdu odrAYksl jsma,jhka werUSu12 fu;a;d ixl,amh flaJ|@ lr .kakd ,o Ndr;Sh odrAYksl jsma,jfhys uQ,sl moku f,i ilia jS ;snqfka wjsysxidjdoS b.ekajSuz yd ysxidjdoS b.ekajSuz mdol fldgf.k ksid tlS uqZm uy;a odrAYksl jsma,jh m@lg jQfha jsjsO Ydia;Djrekaf.a jsjsO wd.usl b.ekajSuz w;rjk idrOrAu jsma,jhla f,ihs by; olajk lreKq ;`,ska fmfkkafka ‘us;@’ ixl,amh ffjosl ckhd ;`< t;ruzjHdma;j os.`l,la fkdmej;`kq njhs. miql,l oS n@dyauK iuzm@odh nsysjkafka ffjoslixialD;sh miqnsuzfldg f.kh.55 b;d os.` l,la ffjosl ixialD;sfhka negluska hgm;ajtfy;a iuzmQrAKfhkau fkdkeiS mejf;uska wd bka|= ksuzk ixialD;sh miqnsuz fldg f.kmiql,l oS Y@uK iuzm@odh nsys fjz56 Y@uK iuzm@odh nsys jSu iZoyd uQ,slju mokuzjkqfha bkaoSh YsIaGdpdrfhys wdrAhd.ukh ksid hgm;aj .sh wkdrAh YsIaGdpdrh i;` m@d.aft;sydisl ixialD;sl ,CIK nejska Y@uK iuzm@odfhys uQ,sl b.ekajSuz ilia jkqfhawdrAhh YsIaGdpdrh mokuz fldg nsys jQ n@dyauK b.ekajSuzys idrOu! jsfrdaOS iudch fj;n,y;aldrfhka mgjk ,o oroZvq wdlD;sluh ,CIKhkag jsreoaOj hk wdldrfhks57 fuz fya;`j ksid n@dyauK b.ekajSuzys wka;rA.; whqla;s iy.; ysxidjdoS ydidrOu! jsfrdaOS ,CIKhka foi jspdr mQjlj l,amkd lr ne,Sug tod idudkH ck;djgwjia:djla ie,isks ysxidj" ffjrh yd rgj,a wdl@uKh uZ.ska tod wdrAhhka n@dyauKb.ekajSuz uqZM uy;a Ndr;h mqrdu jHdma; lsrSug W;aiql jQ w;r tjeks l@shd uZ.ska oevsf,i mSvdjg m;a jQ idudkH ck;djg o tjeks foa j,g jsreoaOj l@shd lsrSfuz uy;awjYH;djhla o ygf.k ;snsKs ulaksid o h;a wdrAhhka fuka ysxidjdoS l@shdj, ksr;jSfuka fkdj wkHhka w;r us;@Fjh iyfhda.S;djh yd ifydaorFjh jrAOkh lsrSu uZ.ska;Dma;su;a jkakg iajNdjfhka u bka|= ksuzk jdiSka yqre mqre|=luz ,enQ YsIaGdpdrhla jQfyhsks58 us;@ ixl,amfhys iuzmrAlh Igz Ydia;Djrekaf.a jsjsO b.ekajSuz jsIfhysWmhqla; jQ wdldrh ms<snZoj lreKq wOHhkh lsrSu uZ.ska nq|=iuh my< jSug wdikak ld,jljdkqj ;`< tu ixl,amfhys jsldYh .ek ukd wjfndaOhla ,ensh yels fjz by; olajk,o jsia;r wkqj us;@ ixl,amh nsysjQfha;a th mqZM,aj yeoS jevS fmdaIK jQfha;a Y@uKiuzm@odh nsysjSug miqnsuzjQ bka|= ksuzk ixialD;sh ;`, nejz ;yjqre jsKs.fuz wkqj us;@ixl,amh Y@uK iuzm@odh i;` wkH;djh m@lg lsrSfuz ,CIKhla f,io yZ|=kd.;yelsh.miq ld,hloS n@dyauK iuzm@odh wnsnjd .shdjQ mQrK liaim" ulaL,S f.daid," wcs;flai luzn," ll`O lpzpdhk" ixch fn,a,gzGs mq;@ yd ks.KaG kd: mq;a; hk IgzYdia;Djreka wh;ajQfhao Y@uK iuzm@odhghs.Igz Ydia;Djreka my<jSu tod ld,Sk iudcwjYH;djhla jQfhao n@dyauK iuzm@odh i;` wd.usl ixl,am ;`< nyd md,l mx;sh fj; 25
  26. 26. ms<s.kajk ,o" uqZM uy;a iudch mSvkhg m;a lrjk" oroZvq iudc md,k Wml@uwka;rA.; b.ekajSuz j,ska Ndr;Sh iudch fyuzn;aj mej;s nejsks59 Igz Ydia;Djreka ishZMfokdf.au wd.usl b.ekajSuz taldka; jYfhkau n@dyauKiuzm@odfha uqZM uy;a iudch mSvkhg m;a lrjk" oroZvq iudc md,k Wml@u wka;rA.;b.ekajSuzj,g jsreoaOj bosrsm;a jQfha iudch oevs jevjiuz mx;s.; ffjrfhka ydysxikfhka uqojd .ekSu ta Ydia;Djre ishZM fokdf.au wNsm@dh jQ ksidhs.fuz ksid Y@uKiuzm@odh ks;ru Wkka|= jQfha yqfola jspdr mQrAjl f,i fyda uqZM ukskau wOdk.@dyS f,ifyda iudch Wia my;a jYfhka jrA.SlrKh flaJ|@ lr.kakd,o b.ekajSuz j,g iDcq f,itfrysj hkakd jQ b.ekajSuz ;u iuh ixl,am f,i yZ|=kajd fokakghs tys uQ,slu woyijkqfha iudcuh ysxikhg tfrysj hdu muKla jk nejska fydZo krl lu! jsmdl folum@;sfCIam lrk ,o b.ekajSuz wdpdr jsoHdjg fkd.e,mqk;a tys wNsm@dh jQfha nuqKka jsiskafmkajd fokq ,enQ m@dK>d;l hd.h tkuz l`i,.duS m@;smodjla f,i yZ|=kajd fokq ,enQ foaidjoH jQjla nj ck;djg fmkajd oSu jk nejska uQ,sl jYfhka hym;a fpz;kdjla TiafiaY@uK iuzm@odh ;u wd.usl b.ekajSuz bosrsm;a l< nejz ms<s.ekSug is|= fjz fuz hgf;aiDcqju us;@ fyda fu;a;d hkqfjka kduslj jHjydr fkdjqk;a iuzmQrAK jYfhka idrA:lfyda ffck iufhys fuka wO! jYfhka idrA:l jHdhduhla fkdjqk;a" fu;a;d hkafkyswoyi .enzjk b.ekajSuz Y@uK iuzm@odh ;`< b;d nyq, jYfhka bosrsm;a lrkakg huzlsiswjxl mrsY@uhla ord we;s nj fmfka. fu;a;d ixl,amfhka flfrkafka o ish,q wdldrfhaysxihkahg jsreoaO jSu nejsks kuq;a wjdikdjlg ffck iuh yer fiiq Y@uKiuzm@odhhka uZ.ska bosrsm;a lrk ,o b.ekajSuz ksid iuia; Ndr;Sh iudch wdpdrjsoHd;aul mCIfhka oevs f,i mrsydksh lrd .uka l< nj;a tlS wvqmdvqj ksidu tuwvqmdvqluz |=re lsrSu msKsi nq|=iuh my< jQ nj;a fmfkkag ;sfnz Igz Ydia;Djreka w;rska wka; fN#;sl jdoS u;hla ork wcs; flai luzn, f.ab.ekajSuz wkqj fmfkkafka ish,qu wdldrfha l@shdjkaf.a m@;sM, fudyq jsiska m@;sfCIam lrk,o njhs60 tfukau ish oyfuz uQ,sl ixl,amh f,i wlsrshjdoh bosrsm;a lrk mQrKliaim ta b.ekajSuz uZ.ska fydZo krl jYfhka l@shdjka jsksYaph lsrSu m@;sfCIam lrk ,onj fmfka61 ;u uQ,sl b.ekajSu f,i ima;ldh jdoh bosrsm;a lrk ,o ml`O lpzpdhkish b.ekajSuz uZ.ska fmkajd fokqfha Tyq lu!h yd lu! M,h fkdms<s.;a njhs62 oevsixYhjdoS odrAYksl ia:djrhla weiqre lsrSu ;u uQ,sl oyu f,i olajk ,o ixchfn,a,gzGs mq;a; ish b.ekajSuz uZ.ska ksYaps; l`i, m@;smodjla yZ|=kajd fkd|=ka nj fmfka63ksh; ix.;sjdoh ish uQ,sl oyu f,i fmkajd fokq ,enQ ulaL,S f.daid, jsiskawlsrshjdoh" wfya;`ljdoh yd ixidr Y`oaOsjdoh jeks wfya;`l wm@;Hjdohka ;yjqre l<djskd fya;`M, jdoS wd.usl b.ekajSula bosrsm;a fkdl< nj Tyqf.a b.ekajSuz wkqj fmfka64 26
  27. 27. fuu b.ekajSuz foi ne,sh hq;` jkafka yqfola wdpdr jsoHd;aul oDIags fldaKhgjvd ;;a hq.fhys m@p,s;j mej;s iduzm@odhsl wOsldrSjdoS wd.usl b.ekajSuz wrNhd fuub.ekajSuz ljr wdldrhl n,mEula t,a, l<do ke;fyd;a fuu b.ekajSuz wcs; flailuzn," mQrK liaim" ml`O lpzpdhk" ixch fn,a,gzGs mq;a; yd ulaL,S f.daid, hkYdia;Djreka miafokd jsiska bosrsm;a lrkakg fh|=fka l`ula fyhskao hk m@ia;;`h flaJ|@fldgf.khs ful, n@dyauK b.ekajsuz b;du;a ;on, f,i iudch fj,d me;sr mej;shq.hla jS ;snsKs b;d oevs wka;jdoS wd.usl ia:djrhla orK ,o nuqqKka jsiska wd.uslb.ekajSuz f,i iudchg bosrsm;a lrk ,oafoa iudch ;j ;j;a mSvdjg m;a lrk ,offjrh jmqrjk" ysxidj Wodlrjk" l`,fNaoh ;yjqre lrk" mx;sfNaoh we;s lrk"iudch oevs oroZvq wdlD;s.; ;;ajhlg yd wdjD; iajNdjhlg /f.k hkakd jQlreKqh Tjqka jsiska ish wd.usl b.ekajSuz iajrEmfhka wd.usl b.ekajSuz ;`< nyd"wd.usl b.ekajSuzj, iZM ms<s yZojd bosrsm;a lrk ,oafoa usksiqkaf.a jsuqla;sh Wod lrfokwkaofuz pska;khla fkdj jspdr mQrAjl pska;khlska hq;`j n,kakg usksiqka yqre mqre|=fjuska mej;s tu ld,jljdkqfjz ke;sjS hk ish n@dyauK wdOsm;Hh kej;;a iudch ;`<;yjqre lr.ekSug wjYH lrk lreKq muKs65 tu ksid tjka iudc wdrA:sl wd.usl foaYmd,k jd;djrKhla yuqfjz ld,Skiudcuh wjYH;djhla jS ;snqfKao yels Wmrsu whqrska tu wka;jdoS ysxidjdoS n@dyauKb.ekajSuz j,g tfrysj l@shdlrkakd jQ b.ekajSula bosrsm;a lsrSu usi tuZ.ska iudcfhyswdpdr jsoHd;aul moku nsZo jefgk nj is; is;d l,auruska isgSu fkdfjz fuz ksid iFj>d;kh wdoS fkdfhl`;a ysxil l@shd wkq.ukfhka mj;ajkq ,enQ hd.fhys yd hZ{fhysudrA.fhka jsuqla;sh Wodfj;ehs i,lkakg lshd|=ka nuqKq oyu ijoH jQjla nj;a" tysfydZo krl l`i, wl`i, mska mjz f,i fmkajd oS ;snQ lrKq idjoH nj ;rAldkqidrSjfmkajd oSu;a hq.fhys ld,Sk iudc wjYH;djh fia ie,lsks66 ta uZ.ska wysxil ck;dj fj;" n@dyauK b.ekajSuz uZ.ska we;s lrkq ,enqjd jQ"nuqKq wdOsm;Hfhka ksoyia lr .ekSfuz hym;a fpz;kdj fmrgq lrf.k ;;a hq.fhysish,qu Y@uK iuzm@odhhkays b.ekajSuz bosrsm;a jsks fuz wkqj fN#;sljdoh" wlsrshjdoh"ixYhjdoh jeks b.ekajSuz bosrsm;a jQfha o fulS wdl,amh fmroers lrf.kh we;euzyqfuu b.ekajSuzj, wdpdr jsoHd;aul wufkdaZ{njla fmkajd fokq ,nkafka tajd bosrsm;alrk ,o uQ,sl wruqK ksis f,i ixcdkkh lsrSfuka f;drj idudkH ck;dj fujeksb.ekajSuz idjoH wdldrhg .@yKh lr.ekSu ksid iudcfhys we;s jkakd jQ wdpdrjsoHd;aul nsZo jegSu muKla ie,ls,a,g f.kh67 fuz w;r nq|=iuh yqfola n@dyauKb.ekajSuz j,g jsreoaO jSfuka muKla fkdkej;S wkq.ukh lsrSu iZoyd iq|=iq irAjiuzmQrAK jsuqla;sh Wod lr.ekSfuz wdpdr jsoHd;aul yd Z{dk uSudxil l@ufjzohla yZ|=kajdfokq ,enQ w;r fiiq Igz Ydia;Djreka w;rska wcs; flai luzn," ml`O lpzpdhk" mQrK 27
  28. 28. liaim" ulaL,S f.daid," ixch fn,a,gzGs mq;a; hk Ydia;Djreka mia fokdf.a b.ekajSuzyqfola n@dyauK b.ekajSuz j,g jsreoaO jSu muKlau ish b.ekajSuzj, wruqK lr.;a nj 68meyeos,sj fmfkkakg ;sfnz fu;a;d ixl,amh n,mEu ffck Ou!h jsIfhys we;sl< n,mEu ms<snZojwOHhkh lsrSu tys mYapd;a ld,Sk jsldYh l`uk mokula u; ilia jsKs oehs f;areuz.ekSug jsYd, msgsjy,la fjz Igz Ydia;Djre w;rska ks.KaG kd: mq;a; jsiska bosrsm;alrk ,o b.ekajSuz ffck oyu nsys jSug WmldrS jsh69 ffck oyfuz moku f,i ie,lshyels mru wjsysxidjdoh uZ.ska o us;@ ixl,amhg ,efnkafka ukd msgsjy,ls fuuwjsysxidj jkdyS cSjh iys; iEu fohlska u wE;a jsh hq;` hehs mjik YsCIK udrA.hhskuq;a nq|=iuhdkql~,j fuu YsCIK l@uh ksrjoH hehs mejish fkd yelafla b;du;awka;.duS f,i w;a;ls,u:dkqfhda.hg .shd jQ l@ufjzohla fudjqka jsiska wkq.ukh l<nejsks lsishuz cSjSka fldgilg ydks is|=fj;ehs hk nsfhka iuyr ffckfhda .ukalrk uZ. msioeuSu o" wdYajdi lrk jsg im@dKsl laIq|@ cSjSka weoS t;ehs hk nsh ksid.uka lrk jsg ysi yd uqyqKq wdjrKh fldg .ekSu o" c,h fmrd mdkh lsrSu o" uSmeKs mjd m@;sfCIam lsrSu o lr;s fudjqka jsiska wkq.ukh l< wjsysxidj wka;hgu .shfohla nejska idudkHfhka wkq.ukh lsrSu b;du;a |=Ialrh70 fuz |=IalrFjhuydNdr;fhys fufia olajd ;sfnz weiska olskq ,ensh fkdyels jQ;a" ;rAlfhka wkqudklrkq ,ensh fkdyels jQ;a" m@dKSkaf.ka f,dj msrS we; wm weia msydgq fid,jk jsg Wkaf.aw;a md levS jefgz hkqhs71 Nd.j; mqrdKh olajkafka o fujeks woyils tkuz m@dKhm@dKfhys m@dKh hehs olajhs72 fuz iqZM i;Hh wu;l lr oeuQ jsg cSj;a jSu wmyiq jk;ruzh fld;kl fyda fjfik lsishuzu m@dKsfhl`yg ;uka w;ska b;du;a iqZM ysxidjlafyda is|=fj;ehs hk nsfhka ;ukaf.a wOHd;auhg mKjd .kakd ,o wd;au jOfhka yd wd;auysxikfhka hqla;j l,ayerSug fujsg is|= fjz wd;au ysxikh yd wd;au jOh .enzjkb.ekajSuz i,ld ne,Q l, ffck iuh mQrAK wjsxidjdoS b.ekajSulehs mejish fkdyelshffck iuh ;`< jsia;r jk fulS wd;au jO yd wd;au ysxik l@ufjzohkaw;a;ls,u:dkqfhda.S m@;smodjka f,i nq|=iufhys fmkajd oS we;s w;r wkHhka jsIfhyswysxidjdoS jqj;a ;uka jsIfhys w;a;ls,u:dkqfhda.h f,i wd;au jOh yd ysxikhwkq.ukh l, hq;` jQ wd.usl m@;smodj f,i fmkajd oS we;s nejska ffck iuh ;`< we;af;awfkla wdpdr jsoHd;aul wd.usl b.ekajSuz ish,af,ysu wka;rA.; jkakdla fuka wO!wysxidjdohla nj iuh iudc jsoHdj wkqj o fmkajd osh yelsh fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudcuh yd fm#oa.,sl Ndjs;dfjz Wmrsuh ms<sUsnqjkafka mQrAK wjsysxidjdoS mokul nejska tnZZ|= mokul isg ish wd.usl b.ekajSuz bosrsm;a 28
  29. 29. lrkakd jQ ;@smsgld.; b.ekajSuz ;`< muKla tu ixl,amfhys WmrSu Wmfhda.s;duh,CIK jsoHudk jk nj fmkajd osh yelsh fuz wkqj iuhdka;r miqnsu ;`< nq+|=iufhysoelafjk b.ekajSuz ;`< fu;a;d ixl,amfhys WmrSu ixjrAOkd;aul wjia:djka lrd <Z.djsh yels ffcj idrOrAu ugzguz l@shd;aul jk nj meyeos,s fjz idrOu!hkays WmrSu ;,hyeujsgu fmd|= uy;a jsYajjSh tald;ausl nj yd ffcj iqrCIs;;djh mokuz lrf.kwe;sjQjla jk fyhska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdOHd;ausl yd iudcuh Wmfhda.S;djh jvd;am@n, f,i nq|=iuh jsiska fuysoS jvd;a oevs f,i wjOdrKh lrkq ,nhs fuz wkqj;@smsgld.; iEu b.ekajSulskau mdfya iuia; ffcj m@cdj fj; f.k tk mKsjqvh jkqfhao fu;a;d ixl,amfhka m@uqos; ffcj ys;jdoS njuhs isjzjkla msrsi w;rska .sys mejsosfomsrsigu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys .enzjk ffcj ys;jdoS ,CIK nq|=iufhka fmkajd oS we;sw;r mejsos Ndjfhys uQ,sl moku ilia jS we;af;ao fu;a;d ixl,amh fmroers lrf.knejska nq|=iuh fiiq iuhjdohka blaujd .sh irAj iuzmQrAK wjsysxidjdoS b.ekajSulabosrsm;a lrkakd jQ oyula jQ nj fmkajd osh yelsh 29

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