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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ 4.epistemologyical foundation

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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ 4.epistemologyical foundation

  1. 1. ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග් 04 mrspzfPAoh ( 04 Chapter ) fu;a;d ixl,amh : Z{dk jsNd.Sh moku ( Metta Concept : Epistemological Foundation ) Epistemology f,i idudkHfhka yeZoskafjkafka Z{dk uSudxidjhs1 fuh we;euzbx.@Sis lD;Skaj, Theory of knowledge whqrska o fmkajd oS ;sfnz2 Z{dk jsNd.h hk wrA:fhysEpistemological yd Epistemologically hk jpk folu Ndjs;d jS we;3 we;euz jsgEpistemology hk jpkh isxy, NdIdfjka Z{dk uSudxidj hk wrA:fhys o fhdod ;sfnz4 fuysoelafjk uSudxid hkak jSuxid hk mofhys wrA:hg iu.duSj Ndjs;d flfrA jSuxid hkqjsurAYkh hkakhs fyj;a .fjzIKh fldg jsuid ne,Su hkakhs ta wkqj Z{dk uSudxidj hkmofhys wrA:h o fuz wkqj Z{dkh ms<snZoj jsuid n,d .fjzIKh lsrSu f,i f;areuz .; yelshfuz ksid Z{dk jsNd.h hk wrA:h f.koSu msKsi Z{dk uSudxidj" Z{dk jSuxidj yd oekqums<snZo isoaOdka; f,i fndfyda Ydia;@Sh ,sms f,aLK yd mrAfhaIK ksnJOkj, Ndjs;d jS ;sfnzfuz flfia l`ukdldrfhka wrA: js.@y l<;a fmd|=fjz bka ,efnk wrA:h jkqfha nqoaOs jsIhslm@ia;`; .fjzIKh lsrSu hk f;reuuh5 fuu Z{k jsNd.h hk woyi ;`< Z{dkh fnod js.@ylsrSu wrA:j;a jk nj meyeos,s flrS we; fuys oS Z{dk jsNd.h jsjsOdrA:fhka we;euz wjia:dj,oS yeZoskajSug fya;`j meyeos,s lr.; hq;`h Z{dk jsNd.h hk jpkfhys wrA:h jkqfha lsishuzm@ia;`;hla ukiska oel th wjfndaO fldgf.k ms<s.;a iuzu; Ydia;@Sh mokul msysgd isg tams<snZoj ukiskau lrkq ,nk jsoHdkQl~, jsYaf,aIK jsOsl@uhls fuh tla;rd |=rlgwrA:l:kuh iajNdjhla .kshs orAYkh ms<snZo ms<s.;a ksrAjpkj, oelafjk mrsos th Z{dkhms<snZoj jQ Z{dkhls tfia fyhska Z{dk jsNd.h jQ l,S orAYk jsIhhg olajkakd jQ by; iZoykajQ iuznJO;djh u; Z{dk jsNd.hg jsIh jkafka o odrAYksl ixl,amhka fuka nqoaOs jsIhsllreKq nejz meyeos,s lr.; yelsfjz ta wkqj nqoaOs jsIhsl m@ia;`; ufkda uQ,sl f,i jsYaf,aIKhfldg oelajSu Z{dk jsNd.fhys idudkHfhka is|=flfrk l@shdj<shla nejz jgyd .ekSu wiSrefkdfjz fu;a;d ixl,amh fulS Z{dk jsNd.h iZoyd m@ia;`; lr.ekSfuz oS iuia; Z{dk jsNd.uQ, OrAuhka tlS ixl,amfhys oDIaGsfldKfhka jsuid ne,Sug is|= fjz ta wkqj ljrdldr Z{dkhms<snZo jsYaf,aIKhla jqj;a tys .enzfjkakd jQ ke;fyd;a thg wka;rA.; jsh yelald jQ fu;a;dixl,amfhys jsjsO iajrEmhka ms<snZo w;sYhskau m@udKd;aul js.@yhla fuz ;`<ska wfmaCIs; nejzfmfka 1
  2. 2. nqoaOs jsIhsl m@ia;`; fuz wdldrfhka jsYaf,aIKh lsrSu yd jspdr mQrAjlj taTiafia kj mrAfhaIK lsrSu uZ.ska Wly.kakd ,o Ydia;@Sh YsCIKh yd wjfndaOhm@udKfldgf.k t;`<ska hf:dala; jsIh ms<snZo jsjsO uQ,OrAu ( Principales ) f.dvk.df.k;sfnz tmuKla fkdj ta weiqrska jsjsO wdpdrAhjdohka hgf;a jsjsO .`re l`, ( Schools ) ydwdpdrAh iuzm@odhhka mjd nsysj ;sfnz f,dalm@lg ngysr yd fmros. odrAYkslhkaf.a kuzj,skafulS .`re l`, yd wdpdrAhjdo yZ|=kajkq ,nhs fuu jsjsO .`re l`, yd wdpdrAh jdohkaj, fu;a;dixl,amh ms<snZoj iDcqj iZoyka fkdfj;;a" fu;a;d ixl,amhg iuznJO fyda fu;a;dixl,amhg mej;sh yels udkisl jgdmsgdjla ms<snZoj jsgska jsg idlpzPd flrS we;6jsfYaIfhkau idrOrAu we;sjSug yd idrOrAuj, meje;au flfrys buy;a f,i n,mdkq ,nkffu;@S mQrAjx.u iqL mru ixfjzokh flaJ|@fldg.;a ngysr jsjsO odrAYksl u;jdo yrydfu;a;d ixl,amfhys meje;au ms<snZoj idlpzPdjg md;@ jS ;sfnz7 nqoaOsjsIhsl m@ia;`; Z{dkjsNd.fhys ,d jsYaf,aIKh flfrkqfha wod, uQ< OrAu yd .`re l`, uZ.ska fulS fCIa;@h fj;;s,sK lrk ,o fkdfhla l@ufjzohka mdolfldg f.kh ngysr odrAYksl .`re l`, j,g jvdfmros. odrAYksl .`re l`, uZ.ska fu;a;d ixl,amhg iudk b.ekajSuz bosrsm;a flrS we; ngysrlf;da,sl wd.usl b.ekajSuz j,g fu;a;d ixl,amh iudk wd.usl woyia we;`ZM jS ;sfnkqfhahqfojz b.ekajSuz Tiafia nejz fuys yeZoskajSfuz oS idlpzPdjg nZ|=ka lrk ,oS ta wkqj iuia;lf;da,sl oyfuz yrh f,i yeZoskafjk fm@auh iuznJO jsjsO wF:!l:k fu;a;d ixl,amhgiudk hqfojz wd.usl u;jdohka yryd meusK we;s fyhska o hqfojzjka yg wdoS bka|= jdiSkaf.kafulS wd.usl ixluKh jS we;ehs fmfkk nejska o jrA;udkfhys fu;a;d ixl,amhg iudkngysr u;jdohka mjd ilia jSug fmros. wd.usl ixl,am msysg fldgf.k we;s nejz meyeos,sfjz fuz lreK b;du;a jsia;r iys;j yeZoskajSfuys oS idlpzPdjg nZ|=ka lrk ,o nejska ;ej;fkdolajk ,oS fu;a;d idrOu!fhys Z{dk jsNd.Sh moku wh;a jkafka ishZM oDIaGs .;Skaf.kajshqla;j udkisl ixjrAOkh we;s lr .ekSu msKsi nqoaOs jsIhsl jYfhka wdOdr lr.kakdwhqre yeoErSuhs fuz hgf;a m@Odk jYfhkau Ydiaj; yd WpzfPAo oDIaGs m@ydKh lsrSu msKsibjy,a jkakd jQ ufkda jsoHd;aul lrekq .eUqrska js.@y lsrSu wfmaCIs;hs Ydiaj; yd WpzfPAooDIaGSka nsysjSug ldu yd m@;s> ixl,amhka bjy,a fjz ta f,iskau ldu yd m@;s> ixZ{djka |=relsrSug fu;a;d ixl,amh WmldrS jkjd fiau fu;a;d ixl,amh jO!kh lsrSu ;`,ska Ydiaj; ydWpzfPAo oDIaGSka |=re lr .ekSug wjldY ie,fikq we; ld,du iQ;@fhys m@;sfCIams; jQ oijeoereuz Z{dk .fjzIK l@u wkqidrfhka nq|= ysushka fmkajd jod<d jQ fn#oaO Z{dk jsNd.hgfu;a;d idrOu!fhka ,efnk msgsjy, wod< iQ;@dkQidrfhka .eUqrska jsurAYkh lsrSu uZ.skafn#oaO Z{dk jsNd.fhys iajrEmh ms<snZoj jsfYaI oekqula ,ensh yelsjkq we; fn#oaO Z{dkjsNd.h m@Odk jYfhkau iliaj we;af;a Ydiaj; yd WpzfPAo oDIaGSkaf.ka we;sjsh yels wys;lr;;ajhkaf.ka bj;a jSu msKsi nq|=iufhys ksrAfoaY flrS we;s l@ufjzoh myod .ekSu iZoydh 2
  3. 3. fuu w.;s.duS oDIaGSka oevsj je<oZ.ekSu ksid iudc iuznJO;djhkays ksjeros iajrEmhjgyd.ekSug wfmdfydi;a jSu u; oafjzIh yd lduh we;s lrjhs ldu oafjzI ixl,amhkaf.kajshqla;jSug kuz yels;dla fu;a;d ixl,amh isf;ys jO!kh l< hq;`h fu;a;d ixl,amh iys;is;l oDIaGSka nsys fkdfjz fu;a;d ixl,amh jO!kh lsrSfuz .eUqreu wjia:dfjz oS iSud iuzfNaoh|=re lrkjd hkafkka lshfjkafka ilaldh oDIaGsh ksid ;uka yd wkHhka w;r ukiska we;slrf.k ;sfnkakd jQ udkisl mjqr bj;a lr ishZM oDIaGSka j,ska uki ksoyia lr.ekSu fydatfia ksoyia lr.ekSu iZoyd fhda.H udkisl jd;djrKhla f.dvkZ.d .ekSuhs tu ksidffu;@sfhys kshu iajrEmh u;`jSug kuz ishZM oDIaGSkaf.ka jshqla; jSula we;sjsh hq;`h ngysr odrAYkslhka fndfyda fofkla Z{dk jsNd.Sh moku ms<snZoj jsjsO woyiayd u;jdohka /ila bosrsm;a lr we;o ta wh w;rska Z{dk jsNd.Sh isoaOdka; ms<snZoj b;du;am@p,s; yd jspdr mQrAjl kjH wdl,am oerEfjl` f,i buEkqfj,a ldkagz iuzNdjkdjg md;@ jS;sfnz buEkqfj,a ldkagzf.a Z{dk jsNd.h ms<snZoj bosrsm;a fldg we;s kHdh ngysr odrAYkslhkaw;r buy;a iuzNdjkdjg md;@ jS ;sfnz jsfYaIfhka ngysr odrAYkslhka w;rska iamsfkdaid"ngz,rA" yHquz" ldkagz iy iscAjsla jeks w;sYh iuzNdjkdjg md;@ jQ odrAYkslhskaf.a Z{dk jsNd.uQ, OrAu ngysr Z{dk jsNd.Sh isoaOdka; ixjrAOkhg m;a lsrSu iZoyd fnfyjska Wmfhda.S jS;sfnz fudjqkaf.a odrAYksl u;jdohkays fu;a;d ixl,amhg iudk b.ekajSuz bosrsm;a flrS we;8jsfYaIfhkau udkj ys;jdoh" wkHhka flfrys us;@YS,S wdl,amhlska hqla;j l@shdlsrSu" 3
  4. 4. iudcfhys wdpdr Ou! iqrCIs; jsh hq;`jkafka wkHhka flfrys cSj ys;jdoS mrsirhla ksrAudKhlroSu fjkqfjka nj oelafjk ixl,am jeks lreKq ngysr odrAYksl u;jdohkays nyq,jYfhka wka;rA.; jS we; fmros.ska jsfYaIfhkau Ndr;fhys b;du;au wE; w;S;fhys mgkajsjsO odrAYksl .`re l`,j,g wh;a jsjsO Z{dk jsNd.Sh isoaOdka; wkqu iajlSh oekquz moaO;sf.dv kxjd.kq ,enQ pska;lhka jdih lr ;sfnz fndfyda fldgu fujka pska;lhkaodrAYkslhska jYfhka fkdj iudc we.hqug md;@ jS ;sfnkqfha jsjsO wd.usl lKavdhuzj,wd.usl b.ekajSuz f,ihs uq,a jrg Ndrh flaJ|@ lrf.k yg.kq ,enQ nq|=oyu mjd iajlSh Ou!mKsjqvh bosrsm;a lrkq ,nkafka Z{dk jsNd.hl iajrEmfhka fkdj mqoa.,dNHka;r.;jmj;akd wiykldrS njska ish,q wdldrfhys udkisl wd;;sj,ska uqZMukskau w;ausoS mQrAKwdldrfha udkisl ksoyila w;am;a lr.ekSu iZoyd jk nejska tlS wruqK fjkqfjka bosrsm;alrk ,o Y@S ioaOu!h Z{dk jsNd.Sh isoaOdka; Tiafia idlpzPdjg ,la lrkqfha Ou!fhysif;HCIK ldrAhNdrhg bka msgsjy,la ie,fi;ehs hk jsYajdihg jvd bka wmf.a jspdrmQrAjl psk;khg msgsjy,la ie,fi;ehs wkqudk lrk nejsks Z{dk jsNd.h iuznJOfhkaldkagz fukau ngysr pska;lhka jsiska bosrsm;a lrkakg fh|=Kq isoaOdka; uqZMukskau ngysriuh ixl,am ;``<g tnznjSu mQrAK ksrjoH l@shdjla fkdjkakdla fuks wd.fuys mrudrA:htlls orAYkfhys mrudrA:h wfklls wd.u yd orAYkh tla udj;l .uka lrk wjia:dfukau tfia fkdjk wjia:djka o mj;shs wd.ula odrAYkhla jkafka tys lsishuz jsoHd;aulpska;khla .enz jkafka kuz muKs jsoHd;aul pska;kfhys ldrAhNdrh jkqfha lsishuz ksYaps;jevms<sfj<lg hg;aj oekqu m@ldYhg m;alsrSuhs ke;fyd;a fmd;m; weiqfrka fyda iajhx.fjzIKh wdY@h uZ.ska u;`lr .kq ,enQ oekqu lsishuz ksYaps; ms<sfj<lg wkqj fm< .iajd taTiafia kj oekquz fldgzGdYhka yd wdl,am tuZ.ska u;` lr .ekSuhs nq|=iuh meyeos,s lrkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;h uZ.ska u;`lr fokakd jQl@ufjzoh mjd yqfola oDIaGshla muKla fkdjk njhs oDIaGs hk jpkh nq|= iufhys js.@ylrkqfha ;uka fkdokakd jQ huzlsis fohla ms<snZoj wruqKq lsrSuz jYfhka nei .kakd ke;fyd;awe;s lr.kakd jQ lsishuz wkqudkuh fohla yZ|=kajd oSu msKsih th i;Hhla jYfhka ie,lSuksrjoH fkdjkafka thska ,efnk oekqu ;uka jsiska ;ukaf.a w;aoelSuz mdol fldgf.k jspdrmQrAjlj t<fUk ,o huz huz wkqN~;Skag tlZ. fkdjk;dla muKs fuhska lshfjkqfha irAjiuzmQrAK jYfhkau ksjeros fkdfj;;a we;euz jsgl oS jspdr mQrAjl pska;kh mdol lr.kakd,o oDIags uZ.ska i;H ms<snZoj lsishuzu fyda jegySula ,ndoSug iu;ajk njhs ksoiqkla f,ifida;dmkak M,hg m;a jQ wdrAhhka jykafia jsiska tfia jspdr mQrAjl pska;kh Tiafia we;slr.kakd ,o m@;HCIh mdol lr.kakd ,o wkqudkhla Ndjs;fhka i;Hhg <Z.djSu msKsilsishuz mrsY@uhla oerSu fmkajd osh yelsh fid;dmkak M,hg m;ajSu;a iu.u m@ySK lrk,o ixfhdck Ou! jk ilaldh osgzGs" jspslspzPd yd iS,nzn;mrudi hk ixfhdack Ou! ;`k tamqoa.,hdyg f,dalh ms<snZoj" ;uka ms<snZoj yd ;uka jsiska wkq.ukh lrkq ,nk l@shd ms<sfj<ms<snZoj ;j |=rg;a jrAOkh fjkakd jQ iel ixld rys; njhs fuh tla;rd w;lg udkisl 4
  5. 5. iqrCIs; iajNdjhls fujka udkisl iqrCIs; njlska hqla; jQfjl`yg wkHhka ms<snZoj o we;slr.; yelafla tjka iqrCIs; yeZ.Sula jk w;r th fu;a;d ixl,amh fmdaIKhg yd jrAOkhb;du;au hym;a udkisl jgdmsgdjla fjz fuysoS Wkajykafia ,o fid;dmkak M,h m@;HCIhjk w;r tu m@;HCIh mdol lr .ksuska wrAy;ajh ms<snZoj lsishuz wkqudkhla we;s lr .ekSuiuHla oDIagsh jYfhka i,ld we; nq|= iuh oDIaGsh ms<snZoj olajkafka tjeks wdl,amhlswrAy;aM,hg m;a jQ wdrAhhka jykafia ishZM ffcj jrA.hd jsIfhys olajkqfha irAj iuzmQrAKffu;@S mQrAjl wdl,amhls idudkHfhka Tzkeu flfkl` ffu;@sh m@.`K lr;;a thska fuyswdrAhhka jykafia kula jsiska m@;HCI lr.kq ,nkakdjQ wdldrfhka ffu;@sfhys ksishdldrmrsmQrAK iajNdjh weZ.fj;`hs Wml,amkh l< fkdyel ffu;@sfhys mQrAKFjh we;s jkqfhail, laf,aYhka m@ySK lsrSu ;`<h ishZM oDIaGs jdohka neyer lrkq ,nk nq|= iuh tla jsfYaIs; oDIaGshlg muKla wkq.@yh i,iajkafka ljr mokulskaoehs fuysoS flfkl`g meKhla u;` jsh yelsh tysoS oelajsh yels ir< meyeos,s lsrSu jkqfha ishZM oDIaGSkaf.ka bj;ajSu nq|= iufhys iuHla oDIaGsh jYfhka i,ld we;s njhs fuz wkqj iuHla oDIaGslhd ;j |=rg;a oDIaGs.;slfhla fkdfjz wrAy;a M,hg m;ajk ;`re Tyq oDIaGs m@;s,dNsfhl` f,i ie,flkafkaishZM oDIaGSka bj;a lsrSu jsIfhys Tyq olajkakd jQ mrsY@uh yd ;odkqnoaO wruqK flfrys we;slr.kakd jQ meyeos,s wjfndaOh i,ldh th fiajkh l, hq;` Ndjs;d l< hq;` oDIaGshla nj nq|=ysushka jsiska fmkajd oS ;sfnz fuz ms<snZoj jevs|=rg;a meyeos,s lrk nq|=ka jykafia tfia fiajkhl< hq;` Ndjs;d l< hq;` oDIaGsh wfkl`;a oDIaGSkaf.ka fjkalr .ekSu iZoyd ;uka ;`< we;swdY@jhkaf.a CIh jSu usKquz oKqvla lr.; hq;` nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz fuz wkqj wdY@j CIh jSumsKsi Wojzjk oDIaGsh fiajkh l< hq;` oDIaGsh jYfhka f;dard .; hq;` nj oelafjz wdY@jCIh jSu msKsi Wojz jkakd jQ oDIaGsh Wmojd .ekSu msKsi fu;a;d ixl,amh mdol fjz9 ;ukaWmojd .kakd ,o oDIaGsh iuHla oDIaGshla jkafka tlS oDIaGsh fya;`fjka ;ukag;a wkHhkayg;aWojzjla Wmldrhla usi mSvdjla ysxidjla fkdfjkafka kuz muKs fuz wkqj fu;a;d ixl,amhfulS ishZM iq|=iqluz iuzmQrAK lr ;sfnk nejska fu;a;d ixl,amh jevSu uZ.ska tjka ys;lroDIaGshla Wmojd .; yels nj fuz wkqj meyeos,s fjz 5
  6. 6. nq|= iuh fuz f,dj;`< we;a;d jQ iy u;` we;sjkq ,nkakd jQ oDIaGSkaf.aiajNdjh lsishuz wka; follg ish pska;kh iSud lr.ekSula jYfhka i,ld we; fuz oDIaGswka; fol Ydiaj; yd WpzfPAo jYfhka olajd we;s w;r oDIaGs mCIfhys WpzfPAo wka;h tuZ.skansys lrkakd jQ prAhduh wxYfhka i,lk l, lduiqL,sLdkq fhda.h jYfhka o oDIaGs mCIfhysYdiaj; wka;h tuZ.ska nsys lrkakd jQ prAhduh wxYfhka i,lk l, w;a;ls,u:dkq fhda.hjYfhka o meyeos,slr oS ;sfnz fuys oS wm Z{k jsNd.h hgf;ys idlpzPd lsrSugn,dfmdfrd;a;`jk Z{dk m@fNaod;aul m@ia;`;hka yd oDIaGSka iuznJOfhka nq|= iufhys oelafjkksrAfoaYhka b;du iuSm iuznJO;djhla fmkajhs wfkla w;g ish,a, nqoaOs jsIhsl m@ia;`;hkajYfhka o fmkajd osh yelsh TzkEu wd.usl yd odrAYksl ixl,amhla iuznJOfhka nqoaOsuhikaorANfhka jvd;a jeo.;ajk lreK iy tu wd.u fyda orAYkh m@udKd;aul jYfhka ienEusksia .egZM flfrys wjOsu;a njla olajkakd jQ oDIaGsuh miq;,h tu wd.u fyda orAYkfhysZ{dk jsNd.Sh moku jYfhka ie,lsh yelsh fuu Z{dk jsNd.Sh moku ;`< fu;a;d ixl,amhl`uk ldrANdrhla bgq lrkafkaoehs hkak fukau oDIaGs iuznJOfhka fu;a;d ixl,amfhysldrAhNdrh l`ulaoehs hkak;a funZ|= jsurAYkhloS w;sYhskau jeo.;a fjz ishZM oDIaGsjdo j,skabj;a jQ l, ukig oefkk iykh jsuqla;sh fiajkh l< hq;` jq ;j |=rg;a jrAOkh l< hq;` jQys;lr oDIaGshla jYfhka lrKSh fu;a; iQ;@fhys olajd ;sfnz tfukau fu;a;d ixl,amhjevSfuka ,efnk m@;sM,hla f,ig o tys tlS lreK osgzGs iuzmhq;af;da hk kdufhka yZ|=kajkq,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Z{dk jsNd.h hkq fu;a;d ixl,am Z{dkh ms<snZoj fydafu;a;d ixl,am Z{dkh ,nd .ekSfuz Wmdh udrA.hka ms<snZoj is|=lrkq ,nk jspdr mQrAjl.fjzIKhla jYfhka yZ|=kajd osh yelsh fu;a;d ixl,amh Z{dk jsNd.h iuznJOfhka jeo.;aia:dkhla Wiq,kafka bka iuia; oDIaGSka |=re lsrSug msysgla ie,fik nejsks fu;a;dixl,amfhys msysgd isg lghq;` lrk mqoa.,hd ishZM oDIaGSkaf.ka jshqla;j lghq;` lsrSugmqyqKqjla ,nhs fu;a;d ixl,amh mQrAK wdldrfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuz oS is|= lrkqfha mqoa.,.;ishZM oDIagSka nsysjSug fya;` idOl jk wd;au oDIaGsh m@ysK jSuhs nq|=iuh ;`< fu;a;dixl,amfhys Z{dk jsNd.Sh moku ms<snZoj idlpzPd lsrSug m<uqj ;okqnoaO merKs Ndr;Shiuhkaj, fu;a;d ixl,am {dk jsNd.Sh moku ms<snZoj uZola jsuid ne,Su idOdrK fjz thnq|=iuh ;`< fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Z{dk jsNd.Sh moku ms<snZoj b;du meyeos,s ks.ukhkagt<USug wjYH lrk wdOdrhla o fjz ;okqnoaO Ndr;Sh fjk;a iuhhkays jsjsOfu;a;d ixl,amZ{dk jsNd.Sh mokuz ms<snZoj js.@y lsrSfuz oS tajd m@Odk fldgia ;`kla hg;g fnod oelajshyel10 tu m@Odk fldgia ;`k iuzm@odhjdoSkaf.ka ( Traditionalists )" nqoaOsjdoSkaf.ka (Retionalists ) iy wkqN~;sjdoSkaf.ka ( Experientialists ) iukajs; fjz iuia;hla jYfhka.;al< fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Z{dk jsNd.h jYfhka oelajsh yelafla fulS mqoa., lKavdhuz;`fkys jsia;r flfrkakd jQ jsjsO b.ekajSuz uZ.ska fu;a;d ixl,amhg ,nd oS we;s m@Z{d uQ,sl 6
  7. 7. ;;ajhhs fyj;a tajdfhys jsjsO me;slv uZ.ska fu;a;d ixl,amh yg.ekajSfuys ,d yd jrAOkhlsrSfuys ,d Wmfhda.s;djhla oelajsh yels wkaou ms<snZoj .eUqre idlpzPdjla fuz ;`,skawfmaCIs;h fmd|=fjz .;al< iuia; Ndr;Sh b.ekajSuz j,ska b;d jsYd, fldgila fu;a;dilx,amfhys wdruzNh yd jsldYh ms<snZoj ish meyeos,s lsrSuz jsjsOdldrfhka f.dkq lrkq ,enqjo i;H jYfhkau tu jsjsO wF:!l:k yryd fu;a;d ixl,amh ixjrAOkh lsrSu msKsi lsishuzmsgsjy,la ta msKs ,enqfKa oehs fidhd ne,Su fuys m@Odku mrudrA:h yd ldrAhNdrh o fjz uska iuzm@odhjdoSka f,i yeZoskafjkqfha iduzm@odhsl fjzo b.ekajSuz iajlSh Z{dkh.fjzIKh lsrSfuz taldhk udrA.h f,i wjspdr mQrAjlj ms<s.kakd ,o n@dyauK iuzm@odh jekswd.usl yd odrAYksl lKavdhuzh uq,qukskau wd.usl .@J: udrA.fhka fyda wd.usl woyia weiSuzud;@ jYfhka iuzm@odhdkq.;j mrmqrska mrmqrg f.k huska lghq;` lrkakd jQ msrsia fuz hg;gwh;a fjz m@Odk jYfhkau ful, Ndr;fhys fujeks wd.usl fldgzGdYhla jYfhkaoel.ekSug ,enqfka n@dyauK mQcl mCIhhs n@dyauKhska jsiska fjzoh i;` wOsldrh uZ.skaiajlSh jspdr mQrAjl pska;kh iSud lr .kq ,enQfjda fj;a ikaol iQ;@fhys oS nq|=rcdKkajykafia jsiska fuu msrsi yZ|=kajd ;sfnkqfha Y@e;sfhka" msgl iuzm@odfhka yd .`re WmfoaYhkawka;rA.; jQ iduzm@odhsl pska;kfhka fyns jspdr mQrAjl njla rys; msrsila f,ihs11fudjqkaf.a pska;k l@uh ilia jS we;af;a m@Odk jYfhka Y@e;sh mokuz lr .ksusks ikaoliQ;@fhaoS fuu Y@e;sfhys m@Odk fodaIhka i;rla ksid tfia bka ,nd .kakd jQ oekqu ksrjoHfkdjk nejz nq|= ysushka jsiska fmkajd oS ;sfnz thska m<uq fodaIh jYfhka yrs oekqula fok 7
  8. 8. weiSula jsh yels nj olajd ;sfnz12 uska lshfjk tlaflda yrs oekqula fok weiSula jsh yels njtlaflda jeros oekqula fok weiSula njg mrsjrA;kh jSu fkdje<lajsh yelafla tys ksYaps;njla fkd;snSu;a yqfola wkqudkh u; muKla ,nkakd jQ oekqfuys i;Hdi;H;djh rZodmeje;au;a ksidh ,nk oekqu yrs fyda jeros jSfuz ;;ajh ksYaps; fkdjkakd jQ ;;ajhla u; taflfrys wikakd ;`< lsishuz jsYajikShFjhla f.dvkef.;ehs is;Sug wmyiqh tfiau tuwiuzmQrAK wjsksYaps; oekqu lsis osfkl jspdr mQrAjl nj keue;s nqoaOsuh usKquz oZvqfjka uek.; yelallao fkdfjz i;H yd wi;H fjkalr fkdo; yels miqnsula ;snSu nqoaOsuh l;sldj;laf.dvkeZ.Su wrUhd uy;a ndOdjls ta ksid fuu l@ufjzoh fu;a;d ixl,amh m@cdkkh"wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuz ksrjoH l@ufjzohla jYfhka nq|=iuhfkdms,s.kshs wfkla w;g i,ld ne,Q jsg lsishuz wjsksYaps; jd;djrKhla mj;soaoS tjkawjsksYaps; jd;djrKhla wdOdr lrf.k fu;a;d ilx,amh jrAOkh fjz hehs ie,lSu o ksrA:ljQjls fojk fodaIh jYfhka oelafjkafka jeros oekqula fok weiSula jsh yels njhs13by; olajk ,o ;;ajfhys jsreoaO Ndiuh ;;ajh fuhska oel.; yelsh fuyso we;af;awkqudkhhs taldka;fhka jeros oekqula ,ndfok weiSula kuz th tlfy,d m@;sfCIam lsrSugyelshdjla ;snsKs tlsfklg m@;sjsreoaO woyia we;s wjia:djl oS ta woyia rdYsh w;rska fuzwdldrfhka huz lsis woyila fyda lsysmhla taldka;fhka jeros nejz oek.ekSu mjd ksjeroswoyi bka wk;`rej wfkla woyia w;rska f;dard .ekSug wdOdrlr .; yels lreKla jYfhkaie,lsh yelsh kuq;a tfia huzlsis woyil w;s idjoH nj wjsksYaps; ;;ajhl oS tfia tulreK i;H .fjzIKhl oS wdOdr lr.ekSfuz yelshdjla fkdue;s ksid fu;a;d ixl,amhm@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuys,d tys Wmfhda.S;djh t;ruzby< ugzgul mj;s;ehs wmg ie,lsh fkdyelsh wfkla w;g fuys woyia w;r lsishuz.egquzldrS iajNdjhla jsoHudk jk w;r tnZ|= .egquzldrS iajNdjhu fu;a;d ixl,amh jeksudkisl ixysZoshdjla cks; lrk ixl,amhlg wf.dapr nj fmkajd osh yelsh f;jk fodaIh jYfhka oelafjkqfha tfia o jsh yelsh hkqfjka ksjeros fohgiudk yd thg jHd;sfrAlhla jYfhka ms<s.ekSfuz lsishuz iuzNdjs;djla we;s lreKla jYfhkaie,lSu idjoH njhs14 ksjeros fohlg iudk ;j;a ksjeros foa ;snsh yels uq;a ishZMu foaksjeros foa jYfhka ie,lSu idjoHh tmuKla o fkdj jsh yelshdj we;s foa tfia o jsh yelshhkqfjka lsishuz wjsksYaps; njlska hqla;j l,amkd lsrSu ks.ukhka lrd t<USug uy;andOdjls i;Hh hkq lsishuz m@ia;`;hla ms<snZoj m@;HCI jYfhka wjfndaO lr.ekSfukawk;`rej meusfKk ksYaps; ks.uk mQrAjl jQ oekquz fldgzGdYhls tys wjsksYaps; iajNdjhlamej;sh fkdyelsh lsishuz wjsksYaps; iajNdjhla mj;skjd hkafkys wrA:h th m@;HCIjYfhka fkdokakd njhs m@;HCI fkdjQjla ms<snZoj t<fUk ks.ukhkao ksrjoH fkdjk nejskafuz l@ufjzoh fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh 8
  9. 9. jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSu msKsi Wmldrj;a fjz hehs is;Su W.ygh wfkla w;g wjsksYaps;iajNdjhla ;`< oS fu;a;d ixl,amh jeks w;sYhskau m@fhda.sl ;,fhys ;sfnk ixl,amhlal@shd;aul lsrSu fukau tfia l@shd;aul fldg tys m@;sM, ms<snZoj jspdr mQrAjl ks.ukj,gmeusKSfuz wjldYh o wju ugzgul mj;sk nejska fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj fujka Z{dkjsNd.Sh m@ia;`;hka Ndjs;d lsrSu wfhda.H fjz isjzjk fodaIh jYfhka ikaol iQ;@h fmkajd fokafka wfkla whqrlska jsh yelshhk lreKhs15 fuys we;s fodaIh jkafka is|= jsh yels foa ms<snZoj o jsYajdih fkdue;s l< wkawhqrlska flfia is|=fjzjsoehs flfia jsYajdih ;nkafkao hkakhs weiSfuka ,nk oekqu ms,snZowjsksYaps;u wjia:dj fuh nejz meyeos,s fjz tfiau b;du |=rAj,;u wkqudkh o fuhu fjzidudkHfhka wkqudkh l@shd;aul flfrkafka lsishuz whqrlska we.hqula ,ndosh yels m@ia;`;hlams<snZoj uq;a fuysoS wkqudkh tfia w.ehqula fkdosh yels fohla wruqKq lrf.k l@shd;aul jknj fmfka w.hkq ,nkakla fyda w.ehqula fkdue;s l, bka cks; jk m@;sM,h huli;Hdi;H;djh ;SrKh lsrSfuys ksrAKdhlhla lr.ekSu fl;ruz nqoaOs f.dapr lreKla ohk woyi fuysoS isyshg kefZ.a tnejska fulS jsOsl@uh o fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAKwdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuys,d msgsjy,la ,efnkl@ufjzohla jYfhka ie,lSu idjoH nejz fmfka huzlsis m@ia;`;hl idjoH;djh fyda ksrjoH;djh flfrys ksrAKdhlhlajYfhka l@shdlsrSug iuzm@odhjdoS l@uhg fkdyels nj ld,du iQ;@fhys o iZoyka fjz16 fuuiuzm@odhjdoS l@ufjzohgu we;`<;ajk ;j;a oekqu ,enSfuz jsOsl@u yhla ( 6 ) la ld,du iQ;@fhaoSnq|=r|=ka jsiska hul i;Hi;H;djh ks.ukfhys,d fhdod .ekSu idjoH nj meyeos,s lr oS ;sfnztjd kuz weiSuz ud;@ nj ( Report )" mruzmrdkq.; nj ( Tradition )" wd.usl .@J:iuzm@odhdkq.; nj (Given in the Scripture )" wOdk.@dyS nj^ mQrAj ks.ukhkag t<Uqkq nj( Prologue / Presuppose )" wpdrAh u;dkQl~, nj (Cousultations of Preceptor )" 9
  10. 10. iuzNdjs;dj ^ jsh yels nj ( Potentiatity ) jsOsl@u yhhs17 fuu jsOsl@uhka .eUqrskaidlpzPdjg nZ|=ka lsrSu ;`<ska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys i;H wi;H;;djh ksYaph lsrSfuz oS yd tlSixl,amh fl;ruz |=rlg usksia yeisrSuz Okd;aul mCIfhka ixjrAOkh lsrSfuzys,dWmfhda.S;duh jYfhka jeo.;a fjzo hkak wkqj fuu l@u yh Ndjs;d lsrSu uZ.ska oek.; yelskuz fulS l@uhkays we;s jeo.;alu jsYaf,aIKh lsrSu fuhska wfmaCIs;hs jsprmQrAjlj i,ld,nk l, fulS Z{dk jsNd.Sh m@ia;`;hka uZ.ska m@udKj;a wkaouska fu;a;d ixl,amh js.@ylsrSu fyda jsYaf,aIKh lsrSu W.yg nejz fmfka wfkla ixl,amhkag jvd fu;a;d ixl,amhb;du;a mqZM,a jmrsilg me;sreKq ixl,amhla nejska mgq iSudjkaf.ka iukajs; oDIaGsfldKNdjs;fhka fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZo jvd;a mrsmQrAK wF:!l:k ,n.; fkdyelsh fuz wkqjfulS Z{dk jsNd.Sh m@ia;`hka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys nyd n,;au fu;a;d ixl,amfhys mj;skmqZM,a iajNdjh;a Ndjs;d lrkakd jQ Z{dk jsNd.Sh m@ia;`;hkays mj;ska iSudjka ms<snZoj;ab;du;au uekjska wjfndaO fjz weiSuz ud;@ nj (Report) uZ.ska ,nd.kakd Z{dkh ksrjoH hehs ;yjqre jSugkuz ;uka jsiskau th Ndjs;hg f.k jsuidn,d tu Z{dkh ;uka jsiska o jspdr mQrAjlj;yjqre lr.kakd ,o iajlSh m@;HCI wjfndaOhla njg m;a lr.; hq;`h tfia fkdjkakdjQZ{dkh ,nd .ekSfuz jsOsl@uhka fyj;a weiSuz ud;@fldgf.k muKla tys ksjerosNdjh ukskq,nkafka kuz th fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fydaprAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuys ,d ksjeros Z{dkhla fkdjk nj nq|=iuh fmkaajdfokq ,nhsfu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkh lr.ekSug lsishuz fm<USula ,nd.; yelsjqj;a" weiSuz ud;@fhlskamuKla fu;a;d ixl,amfhys mrsmQrAK iajNdjh ms<snZoj ksjeros jsksYaphlg meusKSugfkdyelsh i;H fyj;a ishZM ffcj jrA.hd jsIfhys wm@udK jQ ffu;@S mQrAjl osjs meje;aula.;lsrSu nq|=iufhys wjidk mrudrA:dOs.uh jk nejska fulS jsYajSh ffu;@S ixl,amhg ndOdwe;slrkakd jQ fyda tlS ixl,amfhys jrAOkhg wjYH bvlv iSud lrkakd jQ idOl lsishuzZ{dk jsNd. uQ,OrAuhlska nsys fjz kuz th wkq.ukh fkdl< hq;` hehs fmkajd oS ;sfnz18 lsishuzl@ufjzohlg ( Theory ) ndOd we;s lrjhs kuz" tfia we;sjk ndOdj ksid tlS l@ufjzohNdjs;dfldg bgq lr.kq ,nk lghq;a;g o irAjiuzmQrAK jYfhka yrshdldrj bgqlr.;yelsfjz hehs n,dfmdfrd;a;` ;nd.ekSu o W.ygh tfiau fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Z{dk jsNd.uQ,OrAu .fjzIKh msKsi Ndjs;d lrkq ,nk l@ufjzoh o fuys oS jeo.;a f,i ie,flk w;rtys lsishuz ms<s.; yels Ydia;@Sh ugzgula mej;Su fukau bka meusfKkq ,nk ks.uk ksrjoHnjg iy;sl jsh yels jsh hq;`h ffjosl iusm@odfhys jeo.;a Z{dfkdmdhlajQ Y@e;sh hkak fn#oaO orAYkiuzm@odfhys wkqiaij hkak fhdod we;af;a tu ffjosl iuzm@odh.; Y@e;sh yeZoskajSu iZoydhsukqIHFjh blau jQ w;s mrsY`oaO cSjs; .;l<" foaj;ajfhys ,d .sKshq;` jQ" wkdosu;a ld,fhys jQm@Z{d,dNS jQ iDISkaf.a m@;sNd Z{dkfhka my<l< Z{dk ialJOh f,ihs Y@e;sh fkdfyd;a 10
  11. 11. wkqiaijh ms<s.ef.kafka md<s iZ.s idys;Hfha tu jpkh fhoS we;s ;eka .ek mrSCId lrkjsg"ffjosl iuzm@odhg wh;a Ydia;Dka jsiska jsfYaI .reFjhlska wkqiaijh ms<s.;a nj fmfkkakg;sfnz19 nq|=rcdKkajyafia iQ;@dka; lsysmhlu wkqiaij i;Hh jspdrhg ,lalr;s jsjdo rys;jms<s.;hq;` jQ wfm#reIh jQ tu wkqiaij i;Hh n@yauhd jsiska BYajrhdg W.kajk ,o njffjoslfhda ms<s.ks;s wkqiaijfhka ,nd .kakd jQ oekqu ;ud we;`ZM iuia; iudch jsIfhysfmkajd fok ,o l@shdms<sfj;a uZ.ska iuia; iudchu mSvhlg fhduq lrjkakla jsh yelshtl, Ndr;Sh iudch ffjosl Y@e;sh ksid o ,enqfjz fujka jQ mSvkhls iuia; iudch l`,h"mx;sh" jrA.h jeks lsisfia;a jspdrmQrAjl fkdjk jrA.SlrKhlg ,la fldg nuqKq mQclm@cdjg wjYH wdldrhg iudch ms<snZoj idjoH wrA:l:khla ,nd|=ka w;r ta ksid iudcfhysiqZM;r hehs yeZoskajqKq fldgia uy;a mSvkhlg ,la jsh oafjzIh fu;a;d ixl,amhg yd;amiskam@;sjsreoaO ixl,amhhs huslsisjlska oafjzIh jrAOkh jkjd hkafkys wF:!h fu;a;dixl,amfhka b;du;au |=ria fjuska isgsk njhs ishZM fokd Wkqkqka ms<snZo .egquz iy.;wdl,amj,ska iukajs;j;au" uqZM uy;a iudcfhys tla tla fldgia w;r oafjzI uQ,sl njl@ul@ufhka jrAOkh fjuska mej;`ks wkqiaijh flfiaj;a fjkia fkdl< yels mru i;H f,iyqjd oelajqKq nejska wkqiaijh uZ.ska lshjqKq foa uZ.ska mSvdjg ,la jqk fyda wiOrKhg md;@ jQfyda ;ek;a;kayg bka is|=jk jsjsO ;;ajhka jspdrCIshg fhduq lr idOdrK bgq lrjd.ekSug fuz ksid fkdyels jsh wfkla w;g tnZ|= fkdfjkia jQ isoaOdka;hla ksis we.hquzYS,Sjgdmsgdjlska f;drj yqfola mqoa., f.#rjh i,ld wm@udK ne;shlska ms<sf.k ta u; uqZM 11
  12. 12. ukskau msysgd isg l@shdlrkakg hdu fya;`fjka tys jsoHd;aul pska;kh .enzfkdjk njfmfkk w;r ta lreK ksidu th m@udKj;a wkaouska jspdrhg ,la l< fkdyels nj ofmfkkag ;sfnz nq|=yq fuz u;h jspdrhg ,lal<y n@yauhd .ek l:dl<;a tjekafkl` oelshfkdyels nj;a" tfyhska fuz ms<s.ekSu idjoH nj;a" Wkajykafia m@ldY l<y n@yauhd oelshyelsoehs Wkajykafia m@Yak l<y n@yauhd isgskafka fldyso lshdj;a Tjqka fkdokakd nj pxlSiQ;@fhys iZoykah n@dyauKhkaf.a ffjosl .reFjhg iqN iQ;@fhaoS nq|=rcdKka jykafia myr.i;s ffjosl n@dyauKhka fuz OrAuh m@;HCI jYfhka fkdo;a ksid th wkqiaij jYfhka .;aksid ms<s.; fkdyels nj Y`NiQ;@fha oS lsh;s Wkajykafia tysoS wdpdr jsoHd;aul jYfhkaiFjhkaf.a l`i,drdOkh iZoyd fuz OrAuh m@fhdackj;a fkdjk nj o iZoyka lr;s20fuys oSwkqiaijh m@udKslj ie,lSfuys we;s wdoSkjh fmkajd |=ka nq|=r|=ka iudc.; fu;a;d ixl,amjrAOkh flfrys th wys;lr f,i n,mdkq ,nk wdldrh jspdrmQrAjlj myod osKs ta iZoyd ;uka jsiskau m@;Hd;aufjzokSh jYfhka fuz OrAuh o;hq;` nj lsh;sffjosl b.ekajSuz i;H f,i nuqKka ms<s.;a;;a Tjqka th m@;Hd;aufjzokSh jYfhka m@;HCIlrfkdue; wkqiaijh Z{dfkdamdhhla jYfhka ms<s.; fkdyels nj ikaol iQ;@fhys ;drAlsljikd:lr we;21 n@yaihdu fuzz OrAufhys ksrAud;Djrhd jqj;a ta n@yauhdf.ka weiQfoh iuyrjsgfydZoska iaurKfhys mej;`kd fjkak;a mqZMjk tfukau tfia fkdfjkak;a mqZMjk tuksidwkqiaijh i;H fyda wi;H jsh yelshs22 fufia lreKq olajk nq|=rcdKkajykafia wkqiaij hkZ{dk udrA.h m@;sfCIam lr;s wkqiaijh m@;sfCIam lrk nq|=rcdKkajykafia ;ud wkHhkaf.kafkd wid m@;Hd;au jYfhka ;ukajykafiau jsYajfhys h:drA:h oek oel OrAuh foaYkdlrknj o m@ldY l<y23 tfukau Z{dkh ,nd .ekSfuys l@shdj,sfhaoS mruzmrdkq.; nj ( Tradition )mokuzlrf.k th ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjeros fkdfjz n@dyauKhkaf.a fjzohiuznJOfhkao Tjqka yqjd olajkafka thska ,nd .kakd ,o Z{dkh mdruzmrsl jk nejska tajdksrjoHjk njhs mrmqfrys meusKsh;a tu mdruzmrsl oekquz moaO;s mokuz jS we;af;a i;Hhmila lsrSug jvd ;u ;ukaf.a wd.usl wrA:oelajSuz yqjd oelajSug jk nejska tajd fu;a;dixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkhlsrSfuys ,d W;aiql flfrkakd jQ ksjeros Z{dkhla f,i wmg ms<s.; fkdyel tfukau Z{dkh w;am;a lr.ekSfuys l@shdj,sfhaoS wOdk.@dyS nj^ mQrAjks.ukhkag t<Uqkq nj ( Prologue / Presuppose) mokuzlr f.k th ksjeroshehs;SrKhlg t<USu ksjeros fkdfjz wOdk.@dyS nj^ mQrAj ks.ukhkag t<Uqkq nj hkak Z{dkhw;am;a lr .ekSfuz l@shdj,sh ;`< fm#rdKslFjh yd ineZ|=kq fohla jkjd usi th fu;a;d 12
  13. 13. ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkhlsrSfuz jsOsl@uhkays ksjerosnj ;yjqre lsrSfuys,d usKquz oKavla lr .ekSu idjoHnj nq|=iuholajhs we;a;jYfhka olaj;fyd;a mQrAj ks.ukhkag meusKSu fu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkhlsrSug muKla fkdj fu;a;d ixl,amh we;s lr.ekSug ndOdldrS jk ldrKhls nq|=r|=ka Orudk iufhys jsiQ pxlS keue;s n@yauKhd o fjzofhysft;sydislFjh ksjeros Z{dk jsNd. uQ< OrAuhla f,i ms<s.;a mqoa.,fhls24 jrla fuun@yauKhd jsiska nq|=r|=kaf.ka jsuid isgsfha Wkajykafia ft;sydislFjh hk Z{dk jsNd. uQ<OrAuh ms<s.kafka o hkakhs tys oS nq|=rcdKka jykafiaa jsiska th Z{dk jsNd. uQ< OrAuhlajYfhka ms<s.ekSfuz wfhda.H;djh ms<snZoj yd tys we;a;d jQ ifodia nj ms<snZoj fya;` iys;jufmkajd oS ;sfnz25 fu;a;d ixl,amhg wod<j o ft;sydislFjh Z{dk jsNd.Sh uQ< OrAuhla f,ilsisjsfglj;a ms<s.; fkdyelsh fu;a;d ixl,amhg ld,fhka jshqla; meje;aula we;s nejskaw;S;fhysoSh" jrA;udkfhysoSh fyda wkd.;fhysoSh hkqfjka tyS jrAOkfhys iSudjla oelajshfkdyels nejska o fu;a;d ixl,amh wld,sl OrAu;djla fyhskao ft;sydislFjh fu;a;dixl,amh iuznJOfhka lsisfia;a Z{dk jsNd.Sh uQ< OrAuhla f,i Ndjs;d l< fkdyelsh mQrAj ks.ukhkag t<Uqkq nj hkq huzlsisjla ms<snZo wdrxps ud;@fhka weoySu"jsYajdilsrSu" ms,s.ekSu wdoshhs ft;sydisl jYfhka fufia isoaOjQjd hkqfjka usksiqka w;r 13
  14. 14. m@p,s;j mj;akd lgl:dj u; hula ms<s.ekSuhs iuyrjsg th ft;sydisl jkakg;a mqZMjksft;sydisl fkdjkakg;a mqZMjks iuyrjsg th lsishuz ft;sydisl i;Hhla jqj;a fkdjqj;amrSCIKhla fkdlr i;H wi;H;djh lgl:djg muKla iSud fldg ms<s.ekSu mQrAjks.ukhkag t<Uqkq nj hkafkka woyia fjhs kuq;a fn#oaO Z{dkudrA. orAYkfhys funZ|=lgl:d ms<s.ekSula fkdue; tnejska mQrAj ks.ukhkag t<Uqkq nj hkako us:Hd{dfkdamdhhla yegshg nq|=kajykafia jsiska m@;sfCIam lrk ,oS fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj Z{dk jsNd.fha oS ixl,am jkdyS os.ska os.gumejf;uska lsishuz wd.ula ;`< ksrdhdifhkau tys mokfuys meje;au ioyd iqjsYd,ldrAhNdrhla lrkq ,nkakd jQ fohla nejska wd.uz;`< wka;rA.; jkakd jQ ishZM ixl,am iuZ.fu;a;d ixl,amh ;`,kd;aul i,ld ne,Su uZ.ska ta ms<snZoj jspdr mQrAjl wdl,amhla we;slr.ekSfuz yelshdjla we;s fj;ehs ie,fla fu;a;d ixl,am Z{dk jsNd.h ms<snZoj i,ld n,kl, nq|=oyu yerekqjsg wfkl`;a iEu wd.ulu ffu;@S mQrAjl iodpdrhg ( Moral of Metta 26Concept ) idfmaCIlj ta ta wd.u ;`< .enz jkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh wF:! oelafjkidrOu!hkays lsishuz w;srsla;hla jsoHudk jk nejska jsoHd;aul pska;kh mdol fldg usift;sydislFjhu m@udKfldg fu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka jsksYaphg ,lalsrSu fkdl<hq;`h tfukau {dkh ,en.ekSfuys l@shdj,sfhysoS wd.usl .@J: iuzm@odhdkq.; nj (Given in the Scripture) mokuzlrf.k th ksjeros hehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjeros fkdfjzf,aLk.; nj hkak wd.usl woyia ixrCIKfhys,d bjy,ajk l@ufjzohla usi th fu;a;dixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkhlsrSfuz ksjeros nj ;yjqre lsrSfuys,d usKquz oKavla lr.ekSu nqoaOsf.dapr fkdjk fohlafyhska nq|=iuh wkqu; fkdlrhs fu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkh hkqfjka woyia jk l@shdj<shw;sYhskau m@fhda.sl fohla jk fyhska thska ,efnk Wmfhda.S;djh mqoa.,.; fukauiudc.;j o tla f,iskau jeo.;a jQjls tksid tys m@dfhda.slFjh f,aLK.; l@shdj<shlawkqidrfhka o; fkdyelsjd muKla fkdj tys wka;rA.;h ms<snZoj lsishuz jsYaf,aIKhlgmeusKSug o wfmdfydi;a fjz wd.usl .@J:j, iZoyka jkakd jQ huz huz wd.usl u;jdo mokuz fldgf.kfu;a;d ixl,amfhys ixjrAOs; iSudjka ms<snZoj yd tys l@shdldrSFjh ms<snZoj ks.ukj,gt<USu idjoH jQjls fulS lreK wkqj ;@smsglh o tla;rd wdldrhlska wd.usl .@J: jsfYaIhlaksid nqoaO foaYkdjka uZ.ska js.@y flfrkakd jQ Ou! lreKq ms<snZoj o fuz whqrska Wla;l@shdudrA.hu wkq.ukh lsrSu ksjeros fkdfjzoehs huzlsis mqoa.,fhl`yg is;sjs,a,la we;sjshyelshs nqoaO foaYkdjka flfrys mjd jspdrmQrAjl jSu nq|=ysushka jsiskau fkdtla jsg miid we;sfyhska hfula tlajru hula fkdms<sf.k ta ms<snZoj lsishuz ld,hla f.k jsOsu;aj wOHhkh 14
  15. 15. fldg ms<s.ekSug fyda neyer lsrSug ;ruz bjis,sjka;j lghq;` lsrSu ta mqoa.,hdf.a nqoaOsjrAOkh flfrys bjy,a jkakla f,i nq|=ysushka jsiskau wkqoek jodrd we; ta wkqj lshhq;af;a;@smsgl md,sfha fyda md,s idys;Hd.; huz huz Ou! lreKq ms<snZoj jqj o by; lS whqrskaif;HCIKh lr ne,Sug nq|=rcdKka jykafia jsiska wkqoek jodrd we;s fyhska Wkajykafiajsiska foaYkd lrk ,o fu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJO b.ekajSula jqj o ta f,i wjspdr mQrAjljwOdk.@dySj Ndr .ekSu nq|=r|=ka jqj o wNsu; fkdjQ njhs fm< idys;Hfhkau fuhg wjYH;ruz ksorAYk jsYd, m@udKhla iemhsh yelshs27 fuu lreK ms<snZoj nq|=iufhys jsfYaIfhkauioyka jk ia:dkh kuz i;r uydmfoaY ms<snZoj l< b.ekajSuhs28 tlS uydmfoaYhka my;iZoyka whqrska oelajsh yelsh fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj huzlsis mqoa.,fhl`yg lsishuz jspdrmQrAjl ks.ukhlg meusKsug fuu i;r uyd WmfoaY wkqj i,ld ne,Su uZ.ska yelshdjla we;1. uyfKks" fuz iiqfkys huz NsCIqjla weje;aks ud jsiska nq|=r|=ka yuqfjys wid ms<s.kakd ,o Ou!h fuhh" jskh fuhh" Ydia;DYdikh fuh hhs lshkafka kuz ta lSu fkd ms<sf.k neyer o fkd lr ta mo jHdxZ[ackhka iQ;@fhys nyd ne,sh hq;`h jskfhys iiZod ne,sh hq;`h29 ta mo jHZ[ack iQ;@fhys fkd nei isgS kuz" jskfhys fkd ieifZoa kuz ta woyi ta NsCIqjf.a jeros ms<s.ekSulshs ks.ukh l< hq;`h iQ;@fhys nei .kafka kuz" jskfhys ieifZoa kuz ukd W.ekaulshs ks.ukh l, hq;`h fuz nqoaOdmfoaY kuz jQ m<uq uydmfoaYhhs fuhska huzlsis NsCIqjla nq|=r|=ka YdCIs fldg mjik Ou! - jskh lreKla ms<snZoj wikakdf.a ms<sfj; m@ldYhg m;afjz2. uyfKks" fuz iiqfkys huz NsCIqjla weje;aks ud jsiska wiqj,a wdjdifhys fjfik ia:jsr NsCIQka iys; ix>hd yuqfjys wid ms<s.kakd ,o Ou!h fuhh" jskh fuhh" Ydia;DYdikh fuh hhs lshkafka kuz ta lSu fkd ms<sf.k neyer o fkd lr ta mo jHdxZ[ackhka iQ;@fhys nyd ne,sh hq;`h jskfhys iiZod ne,sh hq;`h30 ta mo jHZ[ack iQ;@fhys fkd nei isgS kuz" jskfhys fkd ieifZoa kuz ta woyi ta NsCIqjf.a jeros ms<s.ekSlshs ks.ukh l< hq;`h iQ;@fhys nei .kafka kuz" jskfhys ieifZoa kuz ukd W.ekaulshs ks.ukh l, hq;`h fuz ix>dmfoaY kuz jQ fojk uydmfoaYhhs fuhska huzlsis NsCIqjla jsiska ia:jsr NsCIQka iys; ix>hd YdCIs fldg mjik Ou! - jskh lreKla ms<snZoj wikakdf.a ms<sfj; m@ldYhg m;afjz3. uyfKks" fuz iiqfkys huz NsCIqjla weje;aks ud jsiska wiqj,a wdjdifhys nyqY@e; jQ" wd.;d.u jQ" Ou!Or jQ" jskhOr jQ" ud;sl Or jQ" ia:jsr NsCIQka yuqfjys wid ms<s.kakd ,o Ou!h fuhh" jskh fuhh" Ydia;DYdikh fuh hhs lshkafka kuz ta lSu fkd ms<sf.k neyer o fkd lr ta mo jHdxZ[ackhka iQ;@fhys nyd ne,sh hq;`h jskfhys iiZod ne,sh hq;`h31 ta mo jHZ[ack iQ;@fhys fkd nei isgS kuz" jskfhys fkd ieifZoa kuz ta woyi ta 15
  16. 16. NsCIqjf.a jeros ms<s.ekSlshs ks.ukh l< hq;`h iQ;@fhys nei .kafka kuz" jskfhys ieifZoa kuz ukd W.ekaulshs ks.ukh l, hq;`h fuz iuznyq,;af:rdmfoai kuz jQ f;jk uydmfoaYhhs fuhska huzlsis NsCIqjla ia:jsr NsCIQka YdCIs fldg mjik Ou! - jskh lreKla ms<snZoj wikakdf.a ms<sfj; m@ldYhg m;afjz4. uyfKks" fuz iiqfkys huz NsCIqjla weje;aks ud jsiska wiqj,a wdjdifhys nyqY@e; jQ" wd.;d.u jQ" Ou!Or jQ" jskhOr jQ" ud;sl Or jQ" tla ia:jsr NsCIQjla yuqfjys wid ms<s.kakd ,o Ou!h fuhh" jskh fuhh" Ydia;DYdikh fuh hhs lshkafka kuz ta lSu fkd ms<sf.k neyer o fkd lr ta mo jHdxZ[ackhka iQ;@fhys nyd ne,sh hq;`h jskfhys iiZod ne,sh hq;`h32 ta mo jHZ[ack iQ;@fhys fkd nei isgS kuz" jskfhys fkd ieifZoa kuz ta woyi ta NsCIqjf.a jeros ms<s.ekSlshs ks.ukh l< hq;`h iQ;@fhys nei .kafka kuz" jskfhys ieifZoa kuz ukd W.ekaulshs ks.ukh l, hq;`h fuz talf:rdmfoai kuz jQ f;jk uydmfoaYhhs fuhska huzlsis NsCIqjla tla ia:jsr NsCIQjla YdCIs fldg mjik Ou! - jskh lreKla ms<snZoj wikakdf.a ms<sfj; m@ldYhg m;afjz fulS WmfoaYhka i;r uZ.ska wkd.;fhys nqoaO jpkh fkdtla u;jdohkauZ.ska ioaOu! m@;srEmj,ska |+IKh jSug we;s bvlv j,lajd,Su msKsi nq|=rcdKka jykafiaf.awruqK jQ nejz lsj yelsh hula nqoaO NdIs; f,i ms<s.ekSug kuz iQ;@fhys nei isg hq;`hjskfhys ieiZoS isgsh hq;`h taldka;fhka tu lreK nqoaO jpkhlhs ks.ukh l< yelaflatjsgh33 nq|=ka jykafiaf.a fulS isjz jeoEreuz WmfoaYhka uZ.ska fy<s fmfy<s jkqfhaWkajykafiaf.a foaYkd ;`< mej;s jsoHd;aul pska;kfhys ,CIKhs ;uka lshk lreK mjdlsishuz ksYaps; l@ufjzohla ;`< msysgd isg usi fkdms<s.; hq;`h hk lreK b;du;au fY@aIaGodrAYkslfhla uq;a kuz nq|=rcdKka jykafia yer fjk;a wd.usl l;!Djrfhla kuz lsisodfkdlshkq we; fuhska meyeos,s jkqfha nqoaO Ou!hys mj;skakd jQ w;sYh meyeos,s jspdr mQrAjl,CIKhs fuu ,CIKh jQ l,S ;;ahq.fhys lsis|= Ndr;Sh pska;djl oel.; fkdyels w;sYhskaumeyeos,s nqoaOsuh yd jspdr mQrAjl ,CIK fmkajk b;du;a .eUqre odrAYksl ia:djrhls fuu i;r uydmfoaYhka o ld,du iQ;@fha tk WmfoaY fuka mrSCIK nqoaOshg;`vq fok w;sYh Wiia .`rEmfoaY fldgzGdYhls34 fuz hgf;a ;@smsgl fm< .@J:j, oelafjkhula jqj o tlajru wjspdr mQrAjlj yd wOdk.@dySj w;sOdjkldrSj fkdms<sf.k nqoaOsuhjspdrCIshg yiq lrf.k jsfjzl ukiska hqla;j jsoHdkQl~, njlska hqla;j ta foi n,d ksjerosnj ;ukagu jegfykafka kuz mukla ndr f.k ta wkqj l@shd;aul jsh hq;` fjz ta wkqj jskhfyda iQ;@ Ou!hla if;HCIKh lsrSu msKsi Ndjs;d lrkq ,nk Ou! jskh fol jqj om@udKd;aulj wOsldruh jYfhka ie,lSu ( Authority ) ndysr wOsldrh u; mokuzjif;HCIKh lsrSfuz l@shdj<shla fia huzlsisfjl`yg fmkS hd yelsh kuq;a fuys oS jskh yd iQ;@hkqfjka olajk ,oafoa jskh msglhg wh;a fm< fm< fmd;a mfiys yd iQ;@ msglhg ksldh .@J: 16
  17. 17. mfiys wka;rA.; jskh iQ;@ foaYkd ta iZoyka jQ muKskau th th i;H f,i f.k th mdolfldgf.k huzlsis iQ;@ Ou!hl i;H wi;H;djh ksYaph lsrSu fkdfjz jskh yd iQ;@ msgl.@J:j, b.ekafjk lreKq b;d m@fhda.sl foa jYfhka i<ld tu lreKq ;ukaf.a j; ms<sfj;yd iiZod n,d ;udf.a cSjk m@;smodj ilia lr .ekSug Okd;aul f,iska n,mdk lreKq i;HfoaYkd f,i ms<s.kakd fia l< b.ekajSuls fu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka i,ld n,k jsg tuixl,amfhka lshefjk huz huz lreKq ms<snZoj ty m@fhda.slj Ndjs;d lr ;uka m@;HCIlr.kakd yefrkakg ta ms<snZo jqj o lsisu wOsldruh ;;ajhla we;s lrfkd.; hq;` nj fuziuznJOfhka meyeos,s l< yels fydZou wdldrhhs tfukau Z{dkh ;ukau ,nd .ekSfuys l@shdj,sfhys oS jsh yels nj fyj;aiuzNdjs;dj ( Potentity ) mdol lrf.k th {dkh Wmojd .ekSfuz jsOsl@uhla f,i ksjeros;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.H nj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs iuzNdjs;dj jkdyS lsishuz wkqudkhls tlSwkqudkhg mdol lr.kafka tu lreKg iudk fjk;a mQj! w;aoelSuzh jshyels nj fyda fkdjshyels nj ;SrKh flfrkafka wjsksYaps; ;;ajhla mokuzlrf.k ksid fuz uZ.ska h:drA:jdoSwjfndaOhlalrd .ukal< fkdyels nj nq|=iuh mjihs ksYaps;jQ Z{dkh ;`< wjsksYaps;iajNdjhla ;snsh fkdyels nejska nq|=iuh fuu ;;ajh fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK 17
  18. 18. wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuz {dkh Wmojd .ekSugndOdldrS jkakla f,i fmkajd oS we; iuzNdjs;dj wjsksYaps; ;;ajhla nejska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Z{dk jsNd.moku .fjzIKh lsrSfuys ,d fyda fu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkh lsrSfuys ,d fulS jsOsl@uh uZ.skatlS ixl,am jO!kh lr.kakdg lsis|= wkqn,hla ,efn;ehs is;Su W.ygh fulS wjsksYaps;;;ajh udkisl wdjrKhla we;s lrjkakla o jk fyhska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jrAOkhg th ondOdldrSh ulaksido h;a fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Wmrsu jrAOkh mj;skafka mrsmQrAK udkislksoyi flaJ|@fldgf.k jSuhs fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Z{k jsNd.fhys oSo fu;a;d ixl,amhiuznJOfhka b;du ksjeros jsksYaphla lsrSug kuz tys l@shdjka jsksYaphg ndZOd we;slrjk;;ajhka oek yZ|=kdf.k tu ;;ajhka |=re lsrSug W;aiyj;a jsh hq;` fjz jsjsO jsmrs; oDIaGSkaukfiys we;sjSug yd tu oDIagSka uZ.ska fu;a;d ixl,amhg ndOd we;s lrjSug;a m@Odku fya;`jfu;a;d ixl,amfhys l@shd;drSFjh ms<snZoj ksis jegySula yd we.hSula fkdue;s nj fjz ksis fiawe.hSfuz l@shdj<sh is|=jkafka kuz ta fya;`fldgf.k cSjk m@;smodj wF:!j;a lr.ekSug thbjy,a lr.; yelsh fuys oS we;s .egZMj kuz tfia cSjk m@;smodjka wF:!j;a lr.ekSfuzwjia:djka wjujSu yd tfia fkdlr.ekSfuz wjia:djka nyq,njhs35 NjHrEm;d hkak nq|=r|=kaf.a jspdrhg ,lajS m@;sfCIam jQjls m@jSKhkaf.a u;huska woyialrhs lsishuz Ys,amhla .ek iuyr mqoa.,hka olajk l`Y,;djh wkqj Tjqka lshkyeu fohlau wjspdrfhka ms<s.ekSuhs fuhg fya;`j hula lshk mqoa.,hd wkqj iuyreka talshk foa ms<s.kakg leu;sjSuhs iuyrjsg wm hula ms<s.kafka Tyqf.a ndysr m@isoaOsh wkqjhsiufKda fkd .re hkafkys oS tu ndysr m@isoaOsh ms<s.kakg is|=fjhs fuzjd fufia ms<s.kakgfya;`j tfia ms<s.;a foa we;euzjsg i;H jsh yelshs tfy;a wi;HjSug o mqZMjk tksid fuzjdZ{dfkdamdh f,i fn#oaO orAYkh fkdms<s.kshs jevs fokd hula ms<s.;a muKska fkdjsuidms<s.ekSula fn#oaO orAYkfhys fkdue; iuyr wd.usl l;!Djrekag irAjZ{;d Z{dkh fkdue;sksid ta whf.a uqjska .s,sfyk ishZMjpk i;Hhehs ms<s.ekSug fkdyelsh uqZMuskau wi;H fj;;afyda fkdfj;;a i;H yd wi;H yd folskau uqiq jQ b.ekajSuz mej;sh yels nejsks fu;a;dixl,amh iuznJOfhka ie,l~jsg th m<uqfjka we;slr.; hq;af;a o jrAOkh l< hq;af;a owi;H uqZMuksu rys; iajNdjhl isghs tnejska nq|=iufhka mrsndysr fjk;a iuhhka ;`<fu;a;d ixl,amh iudk fjk;a b.ekajSuz bosrsm;a jQj;a thska lsis f,ilska fu;a;d ixl,amhwoyia fkdjk nj yd ta yd iudk ;;ajfhka tlS ixl,am jrAOkh fj;ehs ms<s.; fkdyelshfuh lf;da,sl oyu ;`< fm@auh ixl,amh fyda yska|= oyu ;`< Nla;sh ixl,amh fyda bia,duzoyu ;`< ifydaorFjh ixl,amh fyda fjk;a Bg iudk fjk;a ixl,am jsh yelsh fuhskawoyia jkafka ta ixl,am uqZMukskau wi;H lshd my;a fldg i,ld neyer lsrSu fkdj fu;a;dixl,amhg idfmaCIlj tys w.h oelajSuls 18
  19. 19. nq|=ka jykafiaf.a Z{dkh mrsmQrAK nejska Wkajykafia jsiska bosrsm;a lrk ,oixl,amj, mejlsfhao tu mrsmQrAKFjhuh fuz wkqj hula nqoaO jpkhkuz th iqNdIs;jpkhla f,i ie,lsh yelsh thg fya;`j nq|=r|=ka o irAjZ{ nejsks irAjZ{ hkak nq|=r|=kajsiska jsjsOdldr f,i js.@yfldg we; irAjZ{jSu fyda fkdjSu js.@yhg wkqj mj;S th ;udg.e<fmk nj iZoykafldg we; wfkla wd.uz j, irAjZ{ hkak ish,a, olS hk wrA:fhka f.kwe; tfy;a iEufudfyd;u we;s irAjZ{ njla ;ukajykafiag fkdue;s nj nq|=rcdKkajykafiam@ldY l<y ks.KaGkd:mq;a; yg iEu fudfyd;lu mj;akd irAjZ{ njla we;s nj lshhstfy;a tnZ|= irAjZ{ njla fkdue;s nj o th ms<s.; fkdyels nj o ;ukajykafiag tnZ|=irAjZ{ njla fkdue;s nj o f;jscAcd jpzPf.d;a; iQ;@fhys iZoyka lr;s36 nq|=ka jykafiaf.afuu m@ldYh ms<snZoj iZoyka lrk jsg o th b;du;a fu;a;d iy.; njska hqla; meyeos,slsrSula nejz yZ|=kd .; yelsh iajlSh Y@djlhd jsIfhys ksrka;rfhka i;Hh usi lsisjsfglWkajykafia wi;H Ndjs;hg fkdf.k we;s wdldrh wkqj Wkajykafia ;`< mej;s wm@udKfu;a;d fpz;kdj yZ|=kd.; yelsh ;ukajykafia ieujsgu irAjZ{ hehs lshku;h m@;sfCIamlrk nq|=kajykafiahfula ud irAjZ{ hehs lshhskuz Tyqug wi;Hfhka fodaIdfrdamKh ( wnzNdpslaLkh ) lrknj;a" hfula ud ;@sjsoHd okafkahehs lshkafkakuz th kshu;;ajh m@ldY lsrSula hehs lsh;s fuzzu;h ;yjqrelrk idOlhla kuz mgsiuzNsodu.a. yd l:dj;a:qj hk miqld,Sk lD;SkaysinznZ[aZC|+ inznoiaidjS hk fh|=uz yer iZ.s idys;Hfhys lsisu ;ekl nq|=rcdKkajykafiayeZoskajSug irAjZ{ hk jpkh fkdfhoSuhs nqoaO NdIs;h fu;a;d ixl,amfhka hqla; jQjlajkafka lsisjsgl wi;H wdfrdamKhla uZ.ska ;ukaf.a oekqu Wiia fldg ie,lSula nq|= ysushkajsiska lsisjsfgl fkdlr we;s nejsks wi;H Ndjs;d lsrSu wkHhka rejgSula jk w;r ths is|=lrkqfha fu;a;d ixl,amfhka neyer jQ ;;ajhka ;`< oS nejz ukdj meyeos,s jk fyhsks by; iZoyka lrk ,o fya;` ksid NnznrEm;djh fyj;a hym;a hehsWml,amkh lr.kakd fu;a;d ixl,amh m@Z{d f.dapr fkdjkakd jQ usKquz oZvq Wmfhda.Sfldgf.k jsYaf,aIKh lsrSu hqla;s hqla; fkdfjz ms<s.kakd ,o Z{dk jsNd. uQ<OrAu wkqjtjeks usKqulska fu;a;d ixl,amh jsksYaph fldg t<fUkq ,nkakd jQ ks.uhka o idjoH fjzfu;a;d ixl,amh nZ|= m@cdkk" wdfjzok yd prAhduh jYfhka wF:! iuzmkak jk ixl,amhlamqZM,a iajrEmfhka jskd tlSh oDIaGsfldaKhlska uek w.h l< yelsfohla fkdfjz.37 tfukau {dkh ;ukau ,nd .ekSfuys l@shdj,sfhys oS lshkq ,nkakd fyj;awpdrAh u;dkQl~, nj u;u t<aUS ( Cousultations of Preceptor ) lsis|= pspdr mQj!lwdl,amhlska f;drj ks.ukj,g t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohs .`rejrhdf.ajpkhg ieuod ieufoku .rel< hq;`h ta ms<snZoj lsis|= lsis|= jsjdohla ;snsh fkdyel kuq;afuys wvqmdvqj jkafka .`rejrhd f.a jpkh YsIHhd fld;ruz wjfndaOfhka hq;`j ms<smoskjdo 19
  20. 20. hk ldrkhhs jspdrmQj!l Ndjfha jeo.;a nj biau;`jkqfha fuu ia:dkfhaoShs we;euzjsg {dkhw;am;a lr.ekSfuz l@shdj,sfhys oS fjfyi wu;ljSuz jeks fya;`ksid .`rejrhdg huz huzw;miqjSuz we;sjsh yelsh tjsg uekjska ijka fok YsIHhdf.a hq;`lu jkafka ffu;@S iy.;j ydf.#rj mQrAjlj .`rejrhdg tu ia:dk fmkajdoSuhs uydj.a. md,sfha j;a;laLJOlfha oSwdpdrAh WmdOHdh yd ioaOsjsydrsl j;aj, oS nq|=r|=ka fuz lreKq uekjska jsia;r lr oS ;sfnztnejska fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduhjYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuz jsOsl@uhka ms<snZo js.@yfha oS fulS wxYfhka muKla th iSudfldgmej;Sfuz |=rAj,;djh fuys oS fmkajd fokq ,nhs wdpdrAh u;hg f.#rjfhka hula ms<s.ekSu iufKda fkd .re hkafkka woyialrhss .`rejrhd flfrys oevs f.#rjfhka Tyq mjik iEufohlau wOdk.@dySj wjspdrfhkams<s.ekSu nq|=iufha Z{dk udrA.hg wkqj wkqu; fkdl< yelalls38 nqoaO ld,Sk IgzYdia;Djreka yd Wrefjz, ldYHm" koS ldYHm yd .hdldYHm hk ;`kanE cgs,hka ms<snZojfn#oaO idys;Hfhys iZoykajk l:dmqj;a fuhg fydZo ksoiqkls tkuz ;u .`rejrhd flfrkatk u; isoaOdka; jYfhka f.k mqoa.,hd yd iudch ;`< frdamKhlsrSug W;aiyf.k we;fuz ld,fhys jeo.;alu jQfha YsIH ixLHdj wkqj .`rejrhdf.a ;;ajh uekSuhs ;ud jgd jevsuixLHdjla YsIHhska /ialrf.k ;udf.a ms<sfj<g Tjqkao yev .eiajSu tl< isrs;hs tu ksidfuz wmf.a .`rejrhd wm jsiska mQckSh hhs hk wrA:fhka Tyqf.a ishZM u;hka fukau yeul@shdjlau wjspdrfhka i;Hhehs ms<s.ekSuhs tfy;a iajlSh m@Z{d ,dNhg fuh wys;lr nj;atu ksid m@Z{dj leu;s mqoa.,hd fuh;a w;ay< hq;`nj nq|=rcdKka jykafia foaYkd l<y39 fojshka fj;ska fudaCIh wfmaCId l< hq.h ffjosl pska;kfhka o yAgeyn`fudaCIh wfmaCId l< hq.h n@dyauK pska;kfhka o, wdOHd;ausl jYfhka ika;dk.; ixjrhmdrsY`oaOsh yd Z{dkh uZ.ska jsuqla;sh wfmaCId l< hq.h WmksIoa pska;kfhka o ms<snsUq fjz40l@shdjkaf.a jsksYaph ms<snZo Ndysr idOl bj;,uska mqoa., jgskdlu wjOdrKh lrjSfuzkeUqrej uska fmfka jsfYaIfhka fu;a;d ixl,amh fya;`fldg f.k mqoa., l@shdldrSFjh ffcjys;jdoS whqrska ilia jkafka flfiao hkakg ukd ms<s;`rla fuhska iemfha usksid wd;aujdoSoDIaGsh fj;g keUqrejSfuz oevs m@jKd;dj fya;`fldgf.k fu;a;d ixl,amfhys l@shdldrSFjhwju jSu;a tu oDIaGsfhka |=rej;au jv jvd;a wkHhka flfrys us;@YS,S wdl,amhlska lghq;` l<yels m@jK;djh wOsljSu;a jsoHudk fjz41 TzkEu wjia:djl wd;audrA:lduS yeZ.Su biau;` jSufu;a;d ixl,amfhys meje;aug wys;lr ;;ajhla Wodlrjkakla jsh fu;a;d ixl,amhiyfhda.S;djh iudkFj;djh yd us;@YS,S Ndjh flaJ|@fldgf.k meKkeZ.`kq m@cdkk" wdfjzokyd prAhduh me;slv ;`fkka iukajs; idrOu!hla jSu ksid Bg m@;sjsreoaO fuday uQ,sl fydaoafjzI uQ,sl ixl,amhka fya;`fldgf.k thg ndOdldrS jd;djrKhla yg.ekSuksrdhdifhkau is|= fjz fuhska is|=jkqfha ffu;@sfhys mrsmQrAK wjOsnj ke;fyd;a jslis; njwe;s fkdjZSuhs nq|=iufhka mrsndysr we;euz iuhka;`< olakg ,efnkafka fuz wdldrfha fu;a;d 20
  21. 21. ixl,amhls tys oS fu;a;d ixl,amfhka ksrEmKhlr oelafjkakd jQ fohu fjk;a kduhlska hqla;jffu;@sh ;ruz mrsmQrAKj fkdj Bg jvd wvq;,hlska hqla;j ;sfnkq oelsh yelshs fm@aufhysfukau ifydorFjfhys o oel.; yels jkafkafunZ|= ;;ajhls fmros. fukau wmros. o uq,ald,Sk iuh ixl,amhkays us;@ ixl,amh fydaus;@ksiuz ( Mthranism ) f,i fu;a;dixl,amfhys huzlsis uQ,sl iajrEmhla .enzjqj ojrA;udkh jk jsg tlS ;;ajh oel.; fkdyelfmros. kuz mQrAj ffjosl hq.h yd wjros. kuzmrAishdkq hq.h hk ld, jljdkq ;`< wdikakjYfhka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys uQ,sl jrAOkd;aulwjia:djla jsoHudk jsh tfy;a uq,a hq.fhka miqjfuz fulS jrAOkd;aul wjia:dj blaujd fu;a;dixl,amh .uka l< njg we;s idOl b;du;ajsr<h fuhg fya;` jQfha ful, iuh ixl,amiuZ. b;d iS>@fhka jrAOkh fjuska mej;s wd;auixl,amh iuZ. ;ud hkqfjka mqoa.,FjfrdamKwoyia jHdma; jSu;a iuZ.u iajlSh isrer weiqre lruska mej;s usksia Z{dkh Z{dkuh m@Ndjlaf,i msg;g jsysfokakg ;snQ wjia:dj uZ.yerS th yels,S ;j|=rg;a ;ud hkqfjkawOHdhfrdamKh lr.kakd ,o uk%l,ams;h jgd ixflaJ|@kh jSu ksid fjk lsis|= iuhixl,amhlska usksia pska;k Yla;sh wjOs fkdjsKs fuys wdikak;u m@;sM,h jQfha Z{dkjrAOkfhys iSudj b;du mgq jS WmksIoa hq.fhka Tnzng lsis|= ie,lsh hq;` Z{dk jsN.mokulska fu;a;d ixl,amhg lsis|= wkqn,hla fkd,enS hduhs42 wjidk jYfhka fu;a;dixl,amfhys mrsmQrAK jrAOk wjia:dj nq|=iufhys i;r n@yau jsyrK hgf;a fu;a;d n@yaujsyrKfhys we; WmksIoa hkafkys wF:!h wkqj .`rejrhdf.ka ryfia .`re uqIags jYfhka,ndfok b.ekajSuz yod, ksidu fu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka wF:! js.@yhka o Z{dk jsNd.uQ< OrAu w;ska wdjD; iajNdjhla f.k mej;sKs43 fuys iZoyka ryiH nj kuz udkislwdjD;Ndjhhs fujeks wdjD; udkisl mej;`ula iajNdjhla .`re isiq fofokd w;r mej;`fha jSkuz .`re YsIH iuznJOh o f.dvkeZ.S mej;sfha nq|=iufhys wkqolakd ,o msh mq;` fifkyi fukaffu;@S fpz;kdj mQrAjx.u fldg.kakd ,o hym;a wdl,amhlska fkdj jQ iajlSh hgy;a my;amej;`u uZ.ska flfia fyda wfkldf.a is; oskdf.k Tyq iZ.jdf.k isgskakd jQ ryia ish,a,uoek.kakd wosgkska miqjkakd jQ lmgs mej;`ula nj meyeos,s fjz YsIHhdf.a mCIfhka fuz 21
  22. 22. lreK fufia jk w;r .`rejrhdf.a mCIfhka ksrka;rfhkau ish YsIH msrsi iajlSh jy,qka f,i ;ukag hgy;a my;a mej;`fuka hqla;j isgSuu wdpdrAhjrhdf.a wfmaCIdj jQ nj o fmfka fujka udkisl jd;djrKhla ;`< Z{dkh jeks b;d Wiia nqoaOs jsIhsl lreKq yd wdOHd;ausl jYfhka iajlSh mdrsY`oaOsh msKsi fya;` jkakd jQ lreKq jeks foa mrmqfrka mrmqrg mej;hdfuz bvlv b;du;au w,amh Z{dkh jeks nqoaOs jsIhsl wka;rA.;hka yd wdOHd;ausl jYfhka iajlSh wdOHd;ausl ;,h mdrsY`oaOsh lrd /fZ.k hkakd jQ lreKq jHdma;jSu iZoyd fydZou miqnsu jkafka jsjD; njhs44 kuq;a by; olajk ,o ;;ajh hgf;ys tys jHdma;shg wjYH bvlv Bg ysus fkdjQ nejska n@yauK iuzm@odfha Z{dk jsNd. uQ< OrAuhka wkqj js.@y flfrkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh WmksIoa hq.fhka Tnzng ixjrAOkh lrd hd fkdyels jsKs45 fuhska nqoaOsjdoSka f,i yeZoskafjkafka ;rAlh yd wkqudkh hk l@ufjzohka fol uZ.ska oekqu ,nd .kakd jQ wd.usl yd odrAYksl fldgzGdYhkah fuu msrsi l,ska jsia;r lrk ,o iuzm@odhjdoSkag jvd uZola by< nqoaOs ugzgula ksfhdackh lrkakdyq fj;a thg fya;`j ;rAlh uZ.ska fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuz jspdr mQrAjl iajNdjh Tjqka jsiska hul i;Hdi;H;djh ks.ukh lsrSu msKsi fhdod .kq ,enQ nejsks tfukau ;rAlh uZ.ska ,nd .kakd ,o Z{dkh ia:sr oekqula f,iska i,ld ta u; msysgd ;ukag iDcqj w;am;a lr.; fkdyels oekqu wkqudkh weiqrska ,nd .ekSu fudjqka jsiska l@shd;aul lr ;snsks fudjqka jsiska Ndjs;d lrkq ,enqjd jQ ;rAlh yd wkqudkh hk jsOsl@uhka fol fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuz oekqu ,nd .ekSfuz oS ksjeros jspdr mQrAjl pska;kh wjOs lrk jsOsl@u folla f,iska i,lkq ,enQj;a tu jsOsl@uhka fol o uqZMukskau wOdk.@dySj Ndjs;d lsrSu Tjqkaf.a l@ufjzofhys olakg ;snQ |=rAj,;djh f,iska ie,fla ikaol iQ;@fhys oS fuu l@ufjzoh uZ.ska ,nkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuz Z{dkh o wiuzmQrAK tlla nj meyeos,s lr oS ;sfnz46 fuu fldgzGdYh kuz lr ;sfnkqfha ;lalS jSuxiS hk kdufhks fuz fldgig jefgkafka merKs WmksIoa fN#;sljdoSka" ixYhjdoSka" fN#;sljdoSka" yd wdcSjlhska" ixYhjdoSka" fN#;sldoSka" yd wdcSjlhska" w;rska jevs fofklah ;rAlh yd wkqudkh fudjqka jsiska Z{dk udrA.h f,i ms,s.kshs fuz msrsi yZ|=kajd ;sfnkafka ;lals jsuxis kusks ;rAlh uZ.ska ,nk Z{dkh msrsmqka Z{dkhla yegshg ms<s.kakd fldgihs ta pska;duh Z{dkh Tjqkaf.ka wjOdrKh fjz ikaol iQ;@fha oS fuu l@uh o Z{dkh ,enSug fkdiq|=iq nj wjOdrKh lr ;sfnz ta o lreKq i;rla mdol lrf.kh47 i.iq;la;s ;uz ms fyd;s - yrs oekqula fok ;rAlhla jsh yelshii.|=;la;s ;uz ms fyd;s - jeros oekqula fok ;rAlhla jsh yelshiii.;:d ms fyd;s - tfia o jsh yelshiv.wZ[aZ[:d ms fyd;s - wka whqrla o jsh yelsh48 22
  23. 23. i;H;dj .ek ia:sr jYfhka iy;sl jsh fkdyels ksid ;rAlh o wi;`gqodhl oekquz uZ.ls fuz nqoaOsjdo l@uhgu we;`ZMjk Z{dk udrA. i;rla ( 4 ) ld,du iQ;@fha oS wiuzmQrAK Z{dk udrA. jYfhka i,ld m@;sfCIam lr ;sfnz tajd kuz i.;lal fya;` - ;rAlhg tlZ. nejska ms,s.ekSuii.kh fya;` - kHdkQl~, nejska ms<s.ekSuiii.wdldr mrsjs;lal - whqre jsiska ms<s.ekSuiv.osgzGs kscACOdklaLka;s - ;u oDIagshg tlZ. hehs ms,s.ekSu ld,du iQ;@fha iZoyka jk fuu Z{dk udrA. i;ru ;lals jsuxis fyj;a ;rAlh uZ.ska ,nk Z{dkh msrsmqka Z{dk udrA.hla f,i nq|= iuh ms,s.kshs tfy;a nq|=iuh msrsmqka i;Hh ,enSug by; lS Z{dk udrA. i;r wiu;a fyhska ;rAlh Z{dkh ,enSfuz tlu udrA.h f,i m@udKh lr .ekSu nq|=iuh neyer lrhs49 ;rAlkh jkdyS fu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka l@shdlsrSug fkdiq|=iq l@ufjzohla jYfhka o fmkajd osh yelsh ;rAlkh fndfyda |=rg jpk fyj;a ixjdlH u; rZod mj;skakd jQ jsoHd;aul l@ufjzohls fu;a;d ixl,amh jpkh wNsnjkh l< ps;a; ixl,amhla jk nejska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iuzmQrAK jmirsh ;rAlkfhka wdjrKh lr.; fkdyelsh tnejska fu;a;d ixl,amhg ;rAlkfhka lsishuz wdf,dalhla fyj;a b;du;a iqZM meyeos,s lsrSuz fldgila jsia;r lsrSuz jYfhka ,nd .; yels jqj;a uqZMukskau fu;a;d ixl,amh jsYaf,aIKh lsrSug ;rAlkh iq|=iq l@ufjzohla hehs ms<sfkd.efka we;euzjsg fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj ;rAlkfhka muKla fyda ;rAlkh flJ|@ lrf.k muKla fyda wF:!l:kh lrkakg hEu ydkslr jQjla o jsh yelsh tjsg i;Hh jsia;r lsrSug fukau wjfndOhg we;s udrA.hg uqZMukau fyda fldgila bka wdjrKh jsh yels nejsks wfkla w;g fu;a;d ixl,amh jO!kh lsrSfuz oS fukau jO!kh lr.kakd ,o fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;fha oSo ;rAlkh ksIam@fhdackh ;rAlkh jvd;a keUqre;djla olajkafka fN#;sl foa ms<snZoj is;ard;aul meyeos,s lsrSuz wrUhd muKla jk w;r w;SJ|@hs m@;HCIh jsYaf,aIKh wrUhd fkdjk nejska o ;rAlkh fu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka Wps; yd jvd;a fhda.H Z{dk jsNd. jsOsl@uhla f,i ms<s.ekSug md;@ fkdfjz fuu nqoaOsjdoS ( Rationalists ) fldgig wh;a jk ld,du iQ;@fhys fmfkk Z{dk udrA.hla jkqfha ;lal fya;` ( Logical Implication ) kuz ;rAlh tlu Z{dk udrA.h jYfhka ms,s.;a fldgihs50 n@dyauK iuzm@odh hgf;a WmksIoa hq.h ;`< nsys jQ tu n@dyauK iuzm@odfha hd.h yd hZ{h hk foflys wudkqIsl ukqIH yd iFj >d;kj,g jsreoaOj jsfrdaOdl,am f.dkq l< msrsi Tjqkaf.a ;rAlh Wmfhda.S lr .;ay i;H jYfhkau WmksIoa hq.h ;`< nsys jQ wd.usl lKavdhuz WmksIoa hq.h ;`< nsys jQ wd.usl lKavdhuz WmksIoa we;euz b.ekajSuz m@ldY l, wh uki fY#;sl m@ia;`;hla jYfhka ie,l~y51 PdfJod.H WmksIofha 23
  24. 24. m@Odk odrAYkslhd f,i ie,flk Woaod,l wdreKS ( f.da;u ) iDIsjrhd fuz u;h oerE wfhlsTyq uki wd;aufhka fjka jQ fN#;sl |@jHhla jYfhka yZ|=kajd ;sfnz52 fuu woyia WmksIoa b.ekajSuz ;`<ska u;` jqfka iFj >d;k jsuqla;sh me;~ysxidjdoS n@dyauK b.ekajSuzj,g jsreoaOjsug tu b.ekajSuzj,g myr .eiSu mru idrOu!hlawjsysxidjla f,i Tjqka jsiska ie,l~ nejsks53 kuq;a fN#;sljdoS rduqjla msg idrOu! ms,snZo lsis|=wdpdr jsoHd;aul miqnsula n, fkdmeje;afjk nj Tjqkag jegySula fkdjsks fuz ksid idrOuShmCIfhka fuz WmksIoa b.ekajSuz wiuzmQrAK f,i ie,fla Y@uK iuzm@odh w;rska wcs;flailuzn, oerE fN#;sljdoS orAYkh o wh;a jkafka fuu fldgighs54 pdrAjdl orAYkh uZ.ska o fuu fN#;sljdoS b.ekajSuz Yla;su;a jsh55 ld,dui@;@fha oS fuu b.ekajSuz msrsmqka Z{dk udrA. f,i ms,s fkd.kafka idrOu! jrAOkh iZoyd bkalsis|= msgqjy,la fkdie,fik yq|= fN#;sljdoS b.ekajSula nejsks ;rAlh .`re lr.;a ;j;afldgila jQfha ixYhjdoSkaf.a fyj;a ielh mdol lr b.ekajSuz bosrsm;a l< wd.usliuzm@odhhs Y@uK iuzm@odh w;rska ixch fn,a,gzGsmq;a; Ydia;Djrhd funZ|= wd.uslb.ekajSula bosrsm;a l< flfkls56 Tyqf.a b.ekajSuz wurd jslafLzmjdoh kuska yeZoskafjkwfZ{hjdoS" ixYhjdoS ia:djrhla weiqre l<d jQ orAYk udrA.hla jsh Z{dk jsNd.Sh jYfhkaTyq Ndjs;d lrkq ,enQ ixYhjdoS ia:djrh lsis|= idrOu! jO!k l@shdj<shlg ;`vq fkd|=kab.ekajSula jsh thska m@Odk jYfhka is|= flrefka oDIaGs .@yKh lsrSfuka je<lS isgSu muKsidrOu! jO!kh lsrSfuz lsis|= ms<sfj;la bosrsm;a fkdjQ ksidu fuu b.ekajSuz Z{dk udrA.hla f,iwiuzmQrAK wdjD; jeiqKq udkisl ugzgula nsys lrjkakd jQ u;jdo jsh tu ksid Z{dk udrA.hla f,i fuu ixYhjdoSkaf.a b.ekajSuz wiuzmqrAK nejskald,du iQ;@h uZ.ska tajd neyer flfrA ixYh kuz ielh .`re ldg .kq ,enQ fldgihsidudkHfhka ielh udkisl |=rAj,;djhla jYfhka oelafj;;a fuys oS odrAYksl mCIfhkaielh oekqu fyda Z[dkh ,nd .ekSfuz ms<sfjf;ys bosrshg .uka lsrSug uy;a fia wdOdr WmldrSjk nejska odrAYsksl ms<sfj;la jYfhka ielh jsia;r flfrkafka ixYh hk kusks fuufldgig wh;a jkqfha o nqoaOsjdoSka jk ( Rationalists ) ;rAlh yd wkqudkh m@udKhfldg.;a msrsighs nqoaOsjdoS iuzm@odh wh;ajk B <Z. fldgi jQfha wdcsjlhkah wdcSjlfhdawlsrshjdoh flaJ|@fldg.;a wfy;`ljdoh ixidr Y`oaOsjdoh jeks b.ekajSuz oerEy wdcsjlfhdamdruzmrsl .`rejre ;sfofkl` .ek jsYajdi l<y kkao jpzp" lsi ixlspzp hk mQrAj.`rejrekag wk;`rej Tjqkaf.a Ou!h m@pdrh l< f;fjks .`rejrhd jQfha Y@uK iuzm@odhg wh;aulaL,S f.daid,h 24
  25. 25. wdcSjlhkaf.a kdhlhd f,i yeZoskafjk ulaL,S f.daid, ms,snZoj ffckhkaf.amiqfjks wx.h jQ Nd.j;S iQ;@fhys iZoyka fjkafka ulaL,S f.daid, msZvqisZ.d je<ZoSfuka cSjsldjf.k.sh mqoa.,fhl` njhs ulaL,S f.daid, bosrsm;a l< ksh;s ix.;sjdoh ( Determinism)uZ.ska mqoa., iajpzPJo;djh ( Free Will ) m@;sfCIamjk nejska jsjD; udkislFjhlg ta uZ.skandOdjk nj;a" fufia wdjD; udkislFjh fya;`fldgf.k idrOu! mCIfhka usksiqka w.;s.duSlrjk oyula nj;a" lshd nq|=r|=ka b;d ;oska fulS Z{dk jsNd.Sh ia:rh m@;sfCIam l< whqrewx.`;a;r ksldfhys olakg ,efnz " ulaL,S " kuz fuda> mqreIhd usksiqka w,a,k flukla jekshhs tys oS nq|=r|=ka olajd we;57 we;euzjsg idudkH fmd|= ck;dj w;r fudyqf.a Ou!h fnfyjskackm@shj mj;skakg we;s nj by; nq|=r|=ka fudyqf.a Ou!hg usksiqka jiZ.j .sh wdldrh olajk,o iZoyk wkqj fmfka ;rAlh ;j;a Z{dfkdamdhls yq|=flaj, ;rAlhu u;msysgd Z{dkh ,o yels hehsnq|=kajykafia fkd jod<y tuksid ;rAlhu; Z{dkh ,enSu nq|=r|=kag wNsu; fkdfjzml`Olpzpdhk bosrsm;a lf<a ;rAlh u; f.dvkeZ.`Kq orAYkhls58 ;lal mrsydlfoa i;H jSugo wi;H jSug o bvwe; tfy;a i;Hh ks;ru ;rAldkQl~,hs fn#oaO orAYkfha w.h lrkafkam@;HCIKfhka m@;Hd;aufjzokSh jYfhka ,nd.kakd Z{dkhhs ( mpzp;a;x fjzos;nzfndajsZ[aZC|+yS;s ) Y@e;shg yd wdma;hg nq|=iuh myrfokafka tnejsks59 ;rAlfhka fyda Y@e;sfhka fyda wdma;fhka fyda fkdj hula ms<s.; hq;af;aZ{dkhu fufyhjd nj;a nqoaO jpkh mjd tfia Z{dkh fufyhjd ms<s.; hq;` nj;a" ld,duiQ;@fhys iZoykalr;s fn#oaO b.ekajSuz wkqj ;rAlYnzofhka .uHjk wrA:lsysmhla we;60nq|=iufhys ;rAlh m@;sfCIam lrkafka thska lskuz wrA:hlska o hk nj jsuish hq;`hs thgfya;`j nq|=iufhyso ;rAlh ;rAlh tla;rd iSus; m@udKhlg Wmfhda.S lr .kakd nejsks tkuzfn#oaO Ndjkd l@u .ek lshkjsg m@:u OHdk .; mqoa.,hdg ;u is;`js,s yiqrejd .ekSfuz oS;rAlh wjYHnj iZoyka lr;s61 fu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkh uZ.ska m@:u OHdkh Wmojd .ekSfuzoS tu OHdk.; mqoa.,hdyg we;s jk jsrA;rAlh kuz jQ OHdkdx.h uZ.ska m@ldY jkqfha o fuu;rAlk iajNdjhhs fuhska meyeos,s fjkafka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iajrEmh m@ldY lsrSfuz oS thjsOsu;aj ;rAlkh l@shdj<shla uZ.ska meyeos,s l< yels jqj;a mrsmQrAK ixl,amfhys wka;rA.;ishZm lreKq tfiau ;rAlkh uz.ska muKla oelajSug fkdyels njhs ulaksido h;a m@:o OHdk;,fhys isg ;j;a OHdk ;, olajd fn#oaO Ndjkd l@u uZ.ska lsishuz ixl,amhla jevs |=rg;aixjrAOkh lsrSfuz yelshdj mj;sk nejsks ishZM woyia ie,ls,a,g .;a jsg ;rAl Ynzofhka .uHudk wrA: lsysmhla we;snj meyeos,sh thska fn#oaO orAYkd.; Z{dk udrA.h ;rAlkh ms<s.kafka lskuz wrA:fhka oehsie,ls,a, fhduq lsrSu jeo.;a fjz nq|=r|=ka jsiska ;rAlkh ms<snZoj olajk ,o wjOdkh my;iZoyka wdldrfhka fm< .eiajsh yelsh 25
  26. 26. i. ;rAlh hkq wodk.@dyS fkdjk njhs fuz wrA:fhka nq|=rcdKkajykafia ;rAlh m@;sfCIam fkdlr;s ud wkqiaifjzk hk ;kays fuka wjspdrj;af,i .ekSfuzoS ;rAlh m@;sfCIam lr;sii. ifya;`lnj ( iksodkx imamdgsydrshx ) hk wrA:h ;rAlkfhka .efkhs imamdgsydrshx nqoafOda Ouzuxfofia;s hkqfjka fhfok ksid ifya;`l nj fn#oaO orAYkfhys ms<s.efkhs tuksid ifya;`l nj hk wrA:fhka o nq|=rcdKkajykafia ;rAlh m@;sfCIam fkd lr;s62iii. jspdr mQrAjl jsoHd;aul nj o ;rAlfhka n,dfmdfrd;a;` fjhs fn#oaO orAYkfha ;rAlh m@;sfCIam lrkafka fuz wrA:fhka o fkdfjz63 fn#oaO orAYkfhys ;rAlh m@;sfCIamlrkafka l`uk wrA:hlskao hkakg fydZou ksorAYkhla ikaol iQ;@fhys ths tawkqj fmfkkafka th lsishuz m@d.dkQN~; ks.duS ;rAl l@uhla wkqj pska;k Yla;sh fufyh jSfuka tla;rd l@shd moaO;shla wkqj ,efnkakla njhs m@d.dkQN~;j ;rAlfldg jsjsO ks.uk f.k h:dfndaO ;;ajh .ek wjfndaOhla ,nd.; fkdyels nj nq|=rcdKkajykafia jod<y ud ;lalfya;` hkafkka Wkajykafia foaYkd lf<a tu lreKhs tu wrA:fhka ;rAlh m@;sfCIamjsh ks.duS f,i ;rAl lsrSfuka we;euz jsgl oS wfmaCIs; i;Hfhys Pdhdud;@hla fyda ,efnkakg;a mqZMjk iuyrjsg fkd ,efnkakg;a mqZMjk tuksid ;rAlh iuyr jsg i;H jkakg;a bv we; wi;Hfjkakg;a bv we; tnejska nq|=rcdKkajykafia ;rAlh m@;sfCIam l<y64 ikaol iQ;@fhys oS meyeos,s lrfokq ,nkafka fodaIhka i;rla ksid fuu l@ufjzoh uZ.ska ,nkakd jQ {dkh jsOsu;a fukau irAjiuzmqrAK fkdjk njhs uq,au fodaIh jkqfha ;uka oekqu ,nd .ekSu msKsi Ndjs;d lrkq ,nkakd jQ ;rAlh ksjeros oekqula ,ndfok ;rAlhla jsh yels nj hkakhs65 ;rAldkQl~, pska;kh jspdr mQrAjl iajNdjh Wreu lr.;a;la jk kuq;a fuys we;s idjoH;djh jkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuz Z{dkh ,nd .ekSu msKsi Ndjs;d lrkq ,nkakd jQ ;rAlh ksjeros ;rAlhla jsh yelsh hk ldrKhhs th taldka;fhkau ksjeros ;rAlhla kuz th o .egZMjla fkdfjz fuys we;s .egZMj jsh yels nj hkakhs tys rZod mj;afka wjsksYaps; iajNdjhhs wjsksYaps; iajNdjh uZ.ska fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSu ms<snZoj ia:sr ks.ukhkag t<Ush yels fkdfjz huzlsis Z{dkhla ksrjoH kuz thska lsishuz fohla ms<snZoj ksYaps; ks.uhkag t<USug yels jsh hq;`h wjsksYaps; jsOsl@uhka uZ.ska ta wdldrfhka fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSu ms<snZoj ksYaps; Z{dkhla w;am;a lr.; fkdyel ;rAlh yd wkqudkh Z{dkh ,nd.ekSfuz tlu udrA.h f,i Ndjs;d lsrSfuz fojk fodaIh f,i fmkajd oS ;sfnkqfha Z{dkh ,nd .ekSu msKsi Wmfhda.S lr.kakd jQ ;rAlh jeros oekqula ,ndfok ;rAlhla jsh yels njhs66 ;rAlfhka ,nd .kakd ,o oekqu wkqudkh 26
  27. 27. mdol lrf.k ;j;a bosrshg f.khdu f;areula fkdjkafka ;rAlh fukau ;rAlh Wmfhda.Slr.kakd ,o oekqu o ksYaps; tlla fkdjk fyhsks fuys o we;s fodaIh wjsksYaps; iajNdjhhsZ{dkh ,nd .ekSu msKsi Wmfhda.S lr.kakd jQ ;rAlh fyda tu ;rAlh uZ.ska ,nd .kakd jQZwkqudkuh {dkh jeros hhs ksYaps; jYfhkau okafka kuz th w;ayer fjk;a jsiZ|=ulg hdfuzyelshdj ;sfnz kuq;a fuys we;s .egZMj jkafka th yrso jeros oehs ksYaps; jYfhkau fkdokakdnjhs fujka wjsksYaps; ;;ajhl oS we;s lr.kakd fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhkam@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuz Z{dkh Wmfhda.S lr.ksuskaksYaps; ks.ukhkag t<USug hdu fodaI iy.; nj nq|= iufhys fmkajd oS ;sfnz fuys f;jk fodaIh f,i ikaol iQ;@fhys fmkajd oS ;sfnkqfha tfia tawdldrfhka o jsh yels njhs67 fuysoS lsishuz ks.ukhla lrd t<USu msKsi Wmfhda.S lr.kakd,o ;rAlh yd wkqudkh o wjsksYaps; iajNdjhl ;snsh oS tuZ.ska ,nd .kakd jQ ks.ukfhys we;swjsksYaps; iajNdjh fuhska meyeos,s lrfokq ,nhs ;rAlh yd wkqudkh hkq huzlsis m@ia;`;hlams<snZoj ks.ukhlg meusKSu msKsi Ndjs;d lrkq ,nkakd jQ jsOsl@uhls tu jsOsl@uh owjsksYaps; iajNdjhl ;snsh oS tuZ.ska ,nd .kakd jQ Z{dkh wjsksYaps; iajNdjhl mej;Sumq|=uhla fkdfjz ta ksid tjka jsOsl@uhla fukau tjka jsOsl@uhla weiqfrka ,nd .kakd fu;a;dixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkhlsrSfuz {dkh o ia:djr hehs ie,lSu m@Yia; fohla f,i nq|= iuh jsiska i,lkq fkd,nhs ;rAlh yd wkqudkh Z{dkh ,nd .ekSfuz taldhk l@ufjzoh f,i ie,lSfuzisjzjk fodaIh f,i ikaol iQ;@fhys fmkajd fokq ,nkafka th wka whqrlska o jsh yelsiajNdjhhs68 fuys oS Z{dkh ,nd .ekSu msKsi Ndjs;d lrkq ,nkakd jQ ;rAlfhys ydwkqudkfhys we;s idjoH;djh muKla fkdj ta msKsi Ndjs;d lsrSfuz yelshdj we;s wkH;rAlhka yd wkqudkhkaj, we;s idjoH;djh o fuhska meyeos,s lrfokq ,nhs tfiau ;ukaNdjs;d lrk ;rAlhg yd wkqudkhg mrsndysrj ;j;a l@ufjzohla fyda fyda fndfyda .Kkla taiZoyd Wmhqla; fjz hehs ie,lSu ;`< ta iZoyd Ndjs;d lrkq ,nkafka l`uk ksYaps; l@ufjzoh oehsksYaps; ks.ukj,g meusKSug fuz ksid fkdyels fjz wjsksYaps; iajNdjh rchk fujkajd;djrKhl Ndjs;d lrkq ,nk ;rAlk l@ufjzoh jqj o jsoHd;aul mokulska fhdod .ekSugwe;s bvlv wju flfrA jspdr mQrAjl ks.ukj,g t<USug kuz ;rAlkh jqj o Ndjs;d l<hq;af;a jsoHd;aul mokula u; msysgd isgh fuz hgf;a tjka ;;ajhka j<lajk nejska fuufodaIh fya;`fldgf.k nqoaOsjdoS l@ufjzoh uZ.ska ,nkakd jQ fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAKwdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuz Z{dkh wiuzmQrAKiajNdjhla .kshs iuzm@odhjdoS l@ufjzoh ms<snZoj i,ld ,nk l< fuu nqoaOsjdoS l@ufjzofhys;rul jspdr mQrAjl iajNdjhla olakg ,efn;;a" Z{dkh ,nd .ekSfuz taldhk l@ufjzohla 27
  28. 28. jYfhka fuuZ.ska ,nkakd jQ Z{dkh wiuzmQrAK wmrsmQrAK jQjla nj nq|=iuh jsiska fmkajd oS;sfnz ld,du iQ;@fha oS fuu nqoaOsjdoS l@uhgu wh;ajk Z{dk udrA. i;rla ( 4 ) wiuzmQrAKnejska m@;sfCIam lr olajd we;69 ld,du iQ;@fha oS wiuzmQrAK nejska m@;sfCIam lrk ,oiuzmQrAK Z{dk udrA. ixLHdj oyhla ( 10 ) jk w;r fuu fldgfiys oS olajk ,o Z{dk udrA.i;rg mrsndysrj by; iZoyka lrkakg fh|=Kq iuzm@odhjdoS l@ufjzohg wh;a Z{dk udrA.yhla ( 6 ) o we; ld,du iQ;@fhys wka;rA.; nqoaOsjdoS l@ufjzohg wh;a Z{dk udrA. i;frka tlaZ{dk udrA.hla jYfhka ;drAlsl nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz70 fuys ;drAlsl nj jYfhka js.@yfldgolajk ,oafoa ;rAlkhg tlZ. ksid tlS ;rAlkh Ndjs;d fldg ,nd.kakd ,o lsishuz oekquzfldgzGdYhla i;Hh hehs ks.ukhlg meusKSuhs fuysoS ;rAlkh Ndjs;d fldg we;af;a oekqu,nd .ekSug muKla fkdj tu oekquz fldgzGdYh taldka; jYfhka i;Hh nejz ;yjqre lsrSumsKsih ;rAlh jqj o Wjukdjg jvd wOdk.@dySj Ndjs;d lsrSfuys m@jKdjhla fuz ;`<.enzjk fyhska th fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fydaprAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuz l@shdj<sh iZoyd wfhda.H nejz nq|= iuh jsiska fmkajd fokq,nhs ld,du iQ;@fhys oS m@;sfCIam lrk ,o wfkla l@uh jkqfha kHdhhg tlZ. nejskams<s.ekSfuz l@ufjzohhs71 kHdhsl nj hkak lsishuz jsoHdkQl~, woyila fmroers lrf.k nsysjqkfohla hehs fmfkk uq;a" jspdr mQrAjl njlska f;drj wOdk .@dySj kHdhdkQl~, jSu nq|= iuhwkqu; fkdlrhs ld,du iQ;@fhys m@;sfCIam lr olajd ;sfnkqfha wjspdr mQrAjlj kHhhkaf.ams,sirK me;Suhs jsorAYkd pska;kh ;`<ska fn#oaO kHdhh fy<s fmfy<s jqj o tys we;af;akHdfhka wkaOjSu fkdj lsishuz jspdr mQrAjl pska;khla mqnq|=juska ta Tiafia ps;a; ixjrAOkhwe;s lr.ekSuhs fuh flfiaj;a yqfola flaj, jYfhka fyda w;a;fkdau;slj kHdhh Ndjs;dlsrSug iudk l< fkdyel jsoHd;aulj jspdr mQrAjlj jsYaf,aIKfhka kHdhh nsys lsrSumuKla fkdj th fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhka m@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fydaprAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSu iZoyd jspdr mQrAjlj Ndjs;d lsrSu o nq|= iufhys orAYkiuzm;a;sh jYfhka olajd we; kHdh fya;` ( Nomological Implication ) hk kHdh mokuz lr huzlsism@ia;`hla ms<snZoj idrOu! jsksYaphlg t,fUkakd jQ iuzm@odhhs kHdh m@udK lr.kakd Z{dkudrA.h kHdh orAYkhhs72 kHdh Ynzofha me;`reKq ( jHdma; ) wF:!h kuz m@udKh uZ.ska wF:!mrSCIKh hkqhs f,dalfhys o; hq;` ish,a,u m@;HCI wdoS p;`rAjsO m@udKhkaf.ka mrSCIdlrk fyhska fuz orAYkh kHdh kuska m@isoaOh tu p;`rAjsO m@udK kuz " m@;HCIh" wkqudkh"Wmudk yd Ynzohhs73 wkqudk m@udKfhys tk m@;sZ{d oS mZ[apdjhj jdlHfhdau kHdh YnzofhajsfYaIdrA: hhs74 m@;HCIfhys khHdhg wjldYhla ke; kHdfhys meje;au wkqudkfhysuh 28
  29. 29. nq|=iufhys kHdh hkak Ndjs; jS ;sfnkqfha fid;am;a;s udrA.fhka ksrAjdKh ms<snZoj m<uqjrgwjfndaOh ,nkakd jQ mqoa.,hd ;`< fiiq udrA. M, j, oS wjfndaO l< hq;` ksrAjdKh ms<snZojmj;skakd jQ wjfndaOh kHdhhla wdldrfhka mj;sk njhs fuys oS ;uka yg wjfndaO lr.kq,enQ m@;HCI oekqfuz msysgd isg wjfndaO fkdl< o ;uka uq,a jrg ,;a oekqu wkqj wjfndaOfkdl< foa jqj;a fuz wldrfhka fjz hehs lsishuz jsOsl@uhlg wkqj pska;khg yiq lr.ekSfuzmj;sk yelshdj nq|=iuh kHdhh jYfhka olajhs nq|=iufha oS osgzGs.; iuzmhqla; kdufhkaolajd ;sfnkafka o fuz wdldrfhka m<uq jrg ksrAjdK N~ush fj; orAYk Z{dk iuzm;a;shWmfhda.S fldg f.k meusKs ;eke;a;dh fuu Z{dK iuzm;a;sh ,enSu mjd fu;a;d ixl,amhjrAOkfhys m@;sM,hla f,i o js.@yhg md;@ jS ;sfnz m@;HCI wd.u folska olakd ,o foh wkqj wm@;HCI foh o wkqudkfhka wjfndaOlrk fyhska wkqudk idOl jQ kHdh wkajSCId hhs o wkajSCISh jYfhka mj;akd fyhskawkajSCISh jsoHd hehs o kHdh Ydia;@h yZ|=kajkq ,efnz75 fu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka ie,l~jsg wkqudkh uZ.ska fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<SnZoj lsishuz mqoa.,fhl`yg we;s lr.; yels jkqfhab;du;a iqZM oekquz m@udKhla nejska wkqudkh fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZo jsYaf,aIKhl oS Ndjs;dlsrSu widrA:lh wkqudkfhys m@udKhla jYfhka kHdh jdoSka kHdh m@udK lr.kakd kuq|=tys wvqmdvqluz iys;h fudjqkaf.a m@Odk m@udKh f,i .efkkafka wkqudkhhs kHdhhg wkql~,jQ wkqudkhhs kHdh jkdyS ixl,amSh nejska udkisl wdjD; njla mefKa tu ksid fudjqkam@udK lr .kakd lsis|= m@ia;`;hlska mQK! udkisl jslis; njla we;s lrjSfuys,d wiu;a jknejska fudjqka bosrsm;a lrkakd jQ Z{dk udrA.h iuzmQrAK Z{dk udrA.hla f,i nq|= iuhfkdms<s.kshs iuHla orAYkfhka my< lr.kakd fyj;a ud.!M, jYfhka fid;am;a;sudrA.fhka m<uq jrg ksrAjdK Od;`j iamrAY lsrSfuz kHdhh fiiq udrA. M, wjfndaO lr.ekSumsKsi o Ndjs;d lsrSu fn#oaO kHdhh jk nejska tf,i kHdh Ndjs;fha oS mQrAK jYfhkaudkisl jslis; nj Ndjs;d lrkakd jQ kHdfhkau ie,fik fyhska tjeks wjia:dj, oS kHdhhZ{dkh msnsojSug ndOdldrS fia ie,flkafka ke; tjka wjia:dj, oS tlS kHdh iuHlaorAYkfhka iukajs; kHdhh hehs yZ|=kajkq ,efnz fu;a;d ixl,amh irAj iuzmQrAK jYfhkajrAOkh l< yels jkafka fujka iuHla orAYkfhka iukajs; kHdhhla ;`< oS muKs idrOu!jO!kfhys ,d fuz Z{dk udrA.h iuHla orAYkfhka iukajs; fkdjQtaldka; kHdhh Ndjs;d lsrSu wi;`gqodhlh idrOu! jO!kfhys ,d fuz Z{dk jsNd.hwi;`gqodhlh tfuka u wkqudk m@udKh Ndjs;d fldg Z{dkh .fjzIKh lsrSfuz oS Bg Ndjs;dlrk ,o kduhla kuz ;rAlhhs ;rAlhg wu;rj jdo kdufhka .efkk ;rAlhg iq|=iq fya;`bosrsm;a lsrSu o lr we; fufia fyhska ld,du iQ;@fha olajk wdldrhg idr Ou! msnsojSu iZoydwjYHlrk pska;k ksoyi mQrAK jYfhka kHdh .`re fldg .;a fuz lKavdhuz ;`,ska m@udKhfkdlrk ,o nj fmfka ksoiqkla f,i mgspzp iuq;amdo kHdh kshudldrfhka Ndjs;d lrkakdjQ mqoa.,fhl` jsiska tlS kHdhdkqidrfhka wjfndaO lr.kakd ,o fida;dm;a;s udrA.M,h 29
  30. 30. iajlSh pska;k ksoyi ksis whqrska kHdhdkQl~,j pska;kh fhduq lsrSu uZ.ska w;am;a lr.kakd,o ps;a; jsuqla;shla f,i fmkajd osh yelsh mqoa.,fhl` jsiska fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;d lsrSuuZ.ska pska;kfhys .enzjk oafjzI ixl,am bj;alr pska;kh ishZM oDIaGsj,ska ksoyia lr.ekSuuZ.ska Wod lr.kakd fpzf;dajsuqla;s .; fid;dm;a;s udrA.M,h lrKsh fu;a;d iQ;@fhysosgzG.; iuzmq;a; kdufhka olajd we; fuys osgzGs hk jpkh jHjydr lr we;af;a ishZMoDIaGsjdo j,ska is; ksoyia lr.kq ,enQ mqoa.,hd ,nd.;a udkisl ksoyi ksjeros oDIaGshlafiajkh lsrSu hkqfjka olajd we; khfya;` nq|=rcdKkajykafia jsiska m@;sfCIams; wgfjks Z{dfkdamdhhhskhfya;` ms<snZoj jsuiSfuz oS jsfYaIfhka wmf.a wjOdkh ffck ima;Nx.S kHdh (wfkaldka;jdoh ) yd wkqudk m@udKh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;`h76 ffckYdia;DjO!udk uydjSr nq|=r|=ka Orudk ld,fhysu ush.sh nj ld,du iQ;@fhysu iZoykajk nejskaWkajykafiaf.a iuld,slfhl` jYfhka Tyqf.a b.ekajSu flfrys ie,ls,a, fhduq lsrSujeo.;ah ffck ima;Nx.S kh o Tyqf.a foaYkdjls iHdoajdoh hkq o fuhgu jHjydr jkaklsffckd.u f.dvkeZ.S we;af;a tu iHdoajdoh fkdfyd;a ima;Nx.S kHdh u; nj ( iHdoajdfodNsffckd.u imnScuz ) ffck orAYkidrkuz lD;shg wkqj ks.ukh l< yelshs wfkla w;giHdoajdoh wfkaldka; nj o iZoyka l< hq;`hs wfkaldka; isoaOdka;h tys mokuh ( iHdos;swjHhx wfkaldka; foHda;lx l;%iHdoajdfod wfkaldka;jdfoda ks;H wks;HdoS wfkalOrAuYnff,l jia;` wNm@m.u b;s ) ( iHdoa wia;s ) hula ta iajrEmfhkau jSu ( iHdoa kdia;s ) hulfkd ;snSu ( iHdoa wjla;jHh ) huz lsisjla fjz kuz thg ysus ;;ajh lsj fkd yels njfkdfyd;a wksrAjpkSh nj ( iHdoia;s kdia;Hjla;jH ) hula we;s njla fyda ke;s njla fyda lsjfkd yels nj fuz ima;Nx.S khhs77 fufia fkdfhla wdldrfhka is|= jsu lsishuz wjsksYaps;;;ajhla miqnsuz fldg f.dv kefZ.kakd jQ lreKls tnZ|= wjsksYaps; miqnsula fu;a;dixl,amfhys mrsmQrAK jslis;jSulg wjldY i,iajd fo;ehs ms<s.ekSug wiSreh ffck iufhysiZoyka mru wjsysxidjoh f.dvkeZ.S we;af;a iHdoajdoh flaJ|@fldgf.kh ta wkqj Tjqka jsiskawF:!l:kh lrk wjsidxidjdofhys l@shd;aul iajrEmh l`ukdldrfhka fjzoehs ksYaph lsrSugTjqka wfmdfydi;a jS ;sfnz fuz fya;`j ksid wjsysxidj f.dvkeZ.Sug udkisl miqnsulwjYH;djla fkdoel fpz;kdfjka mrsndysrj th usksid jsiska is|= lrk iEu ldhsl l@shdjlamiqmiu wpspdr mQrAjl f,i wkjr;fhka yZUdhdulg fm<U jS we; fuz fya;`j ksid Tjqkajsiska fmkajd fokq ,nk mru wjsysxidj jkdyS mqoa.,hd jsiska is|= lrkq ,nk iEu ldhsll@shdjlu jsr;sh nj oelajSug ;ruz wka;.duS njlg Tjqka ;,a,q jS isgs nj meyeos,sju f;areuz.; yelsh f,#lsl pska;kh oshqKqjSug ( bO f,dal pska;dh ) usi mrf,dj oshqKqj iZoyd (mrf,dal pska;dh ) fuzjd fya;` fkdjknj;a"funZ|= m@udKhkaf.ka t<fUk pska;k ksYaps; 30
  31. 31. jYfhka i;Hhehs ks.ukh l< fkd yels nj;a" idudkH Z{dkh usi mQrAK m@;HCI Z{dkhlafuz uZ.ska fkd,efnk nj;a" tuksid Z{dfkdmdh f,i fuzjd .; fkd yels nj;a fn#oaO u;hhs Z{dfkdamdhhla jYfhka ;;ald,Sk iuyr odrAYkslhka jsiska wkqudkh oms<sf.k we; mgspzp iuqmamdoh jsia;rlrk iuyr wjia:dj, wkajhZ{dkh .ek iZoyka fjzld,hla ;siafia m@jD;a;jQ isoaOshl tal iajrEmh foi n,d th wkd.; ld,fhys is|= fj;ehsfuhska woyia lrhs fn#oaO orAYkfhys wkqudkhg ,efnk ;ek wkqudk iQ;@fhys iZoykafjhstludkhla wkqj ;j;a udkhla .ekSu wkqudkhhs flfkla ;uka .ek is;uska wkqka .ek otfiau is;hs kuz th idjoH jQjla nj nqoaO jpkfhys iZoykaj we;78 wkqudkfhka wjsmrS;Z{dkh fkd,efnz bka ,efnkafka idudkH Z{dkh muKls th ,sx.iuznJOh wkqjixjdlHdkqidrfhka ,efnk oekquls fuh m@;HCI oekqula jSug kuz th ;uka jsiska ;ukaf.auw;SJ|@sh m@;HCIfhka wjfndaO fldgf.k ta ms<snZoj ukd wjfndaOhlg t<Ush hq;` fjzwkqudkfhka ,efnk oekqu fyda Z{dkh flf;la |=rg i;H oekqula fyda Z{dkhla oehs ;ukaygu jsuid ne,Sug wjia:djla meusfKk ;`re bka lsishuz udrAf.damfoaYkhla ,nd .ekSunq|=iuh wkqu; lr;;a th tlu m@udKhla f,i ms<s.ekSu nq|=iuh neyer lrkafka thixjdlHdkqidrfhka i;H hehs fmkaj;;a i;H jYfhka w.ehquz mdol ksrjoH;djhla ;ju;aBg ysusj fkdue;s fyhsks fuz wkqj fu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka o ksjeros ks.ukhlgmeusKsug wkqudkh Ndjs;d lsrSu uqZMukskau ksjeros hehs mejish fkdyelsh wkqudkhNdjs;fhka fu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOj lsishuz o< woyila we;s lr.; yelsfj;;a ta o<wjfndaOh taldka; i;Hhla fkdj jevs |=rg;a Ndjkduh jYfhka w;SJ|@sh m@;HCIh lrd hk;;ajfhys oS thska lsishuz wf,dalhla ,nd.ekSuz wjYH;djh u; ;djld,slj we;s lr.kq ,enQiqZM oekquz fldgzGdYhla jYfhka ie,lsh yelsh nq|=iuh ms<s.kq ,nkafka YdlaId;a {dkh usi wkqfuzh Z{dkhla fkdfjznq|=kajykafia fn#oaO Z{dk udrA.fhka wfmaCId lf<a mrsZ{dk" myd;nzn" ipzPsld;nzn"Ndfjz;nzn" wdoS jpkj,ska fmfkk mrsos wmg ks.ukhl< yelafla fn#oaO Z{dk udrA.horAYkfhka m@;Hd;au f,i idlaId;alD; jQ w;SJ|@sh orAYkZ{dk iuzm;a;sh nq|=kajykafiaf.atlu wNsm@drA:s;drA:h njhs tuksid wkqudkh nq|=kajykafiaf.a jspdrhg ,lajsh wkqudkh jqjoWkajykafia ms,s.kq ,enQfha lsishuz mQrAj m@;HCI m@udKhla thg mokuz fjz kuz muKhfu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj wkqudkfhka we;s lr.; yelafla th m<uqfjka ;uka jsiskau;ukaf.a is;ays jrAOkh lrf.k lsishu m@;HCI lsrSfuz fldgila mQrAjfhka we;s lrf.kisgskafka kuz muKla ;uka jsiska mqrAjfhka we;s lrf.k isgshd jQ m@;HCIh mdol fldg.kakd,o wkqudkh muKs ksoiqkla f,i olaj;fyd;a fu;a;d ixl,amh jvd lsishuz fyda iqZM fydaps;a; iudOshla Wmojd f.k isgsk mqoa.,fhl`yg miqj ta m@;HCIh mdol lrf.k miqjwkqudkfhka m@:u OHdkdosh ms<snZoj lsishuz o< wjfndaOhla ,nd.ekSug yelshdj mj;sk njhskuq;a fuu o< wkqudkh taldka; i;Hhla jkafka wk;`rej ta mqoa.,hdu ;u o< wjfndaOh 31
  32. 32. taldka; i;H jSug jqjukd ,CIKh fyj;a m@:u OHdkh Ndjkd udrA.fhka ;uka ;`< we;slr.kafka kuz muKla nj o nq|= iuh meyeos,s lrfokq ,nhs kHdh ( kh fya;` - Nomological Implication ) hkq o nq|=r|=ka idr Ou!jsksYapfhys ,d m@;sfCIam lrk ,o tla ndysr wOsldrshls kHdhla hkq l`ulaoehs i,ld ne,Sufuys oS jeo.;ah kHdh mokuzj we;af;a lsishuz jsIhsl ( orAYk jsIhsl - Philosophy ) hkjsIhg wh;a jkakls kHdh orAYkh ( Nyaya Philosophy ) uQ< Ou! mdol fldgf.k ilia jSwe;s jsoHd;aul pska;k jsOsl@uhls79 jsjsO odrAYkslhska jsiska jsjsO pska;k uQ< Ou! m@udKfldgf.k kHdhhka f.dvkZ.d ;sfnz kHdhh odrAYksl jYfhka f.dvkeZ.S we;af;a fujeksmiq;,hla u; msysgd isgh tnejska tajd ilia fldg .kakd ,oaola jYfhla yeZoskajsh yelshfuu ilia lsrSfuz oS tla tla mqoa., reps wrepsluz" udkisl wdl,am" yeZ.Suz" nqoaOs ugzguz n,mdhsta ksid if;CIKfhys ,d ksrjoHuh jQ l@ufjzohla jYfhka kHdh fkdie,fla tfiau kHdh iliaj we;af;a oekqu u; mokuzjh ta oekquz moaO;s ld,dkQrEmjjrAOkh jSfuz oS fndfyda |=rg l,ska mej;s oekqu u; mokuzj ilia lrk ,oaod jQ kHdhhkafjz.fhka fjkia fjz tnejska oekqu fjkiajk fjz.hg iudkqmd;slj fjkiajk kHdhh uZ.skahuzlsis kHdhhuh neZoSula fmkajk nejska m@Z{d f.dapr fkdjk fyhska mZ[aZ{duh ixorANhgwod< fkdfjz idrOu!hl Wmfhda.S;djh fufia jrska jr fjkiajk kHhdh u; mokuzj ksYaphlrkakg hdu wfhda.Hh tfiau kHdhdkQl~,j oefnk oekqu o iyuq,skau m@fhda.sl njg bjy,afjz hehs mejiSug o wmyiqh kHhhka nsysj we;af;a m@fhda.slj jsia;r lsrSug fyda f;areuz.ekSug wmyiq ixl,amhka jsYaf,aIKh lsrSug jk nejska m@fhda.sl ixl,amhka jsYaf,aIKhlsrSug kHhfka t;ruz msysgla wfmaCId lsrSu m@;sM, jsrys;h wdruzNfha oS kHdfhka jqj omsysgla ,efn;ehs jsYajdi l< yelafla tu kHhdh jqj o m@fhda.slj ,nd.;a m@;HCIh u;f.dvkeZ.S we;s kuz muKls tfia fkdjkakd jQ yqfola jsIhdkq.; tfukau m@fhda.sl jYfhkalsis|= jgskdlula rys; lreKq Tiafia yqfola kHdhd;aulj muKla if;HCIK l@shdj<shf.dvkeZ.Su yd tlS f.dvkeZ.`kq f;dr;`re u; mokuz j w;sYhskau m@fhda.sl lreKla tuZ.skaueK m@udKh lrkakg ;e;a lsrSu o nqoaOsf.dapr hehs ms<s.; fkdyelsh tu fy;`j ksid ofu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj ksjeros jsksYaphlg t<USu msKsi kHdhh taldka; i;H hehsWml,amkh fldg ta u; msysgd isg lghq;` lsrSu idjoHh80 idrOu!hl Wmfhda.s;djh jsuish hq;af;a tu idrOu!h ;u cSjs; meje;aug,ndfok m@;scdkkd;aul w.h u; mokuzj nejska nq|=yq kHdh m@;sfCIam fldg we; tnejskaWmfhda.S;duh yd mZ[aZ[duh ixorANfhys ,d kHdhh Ou!hl i;H wi;H kSrAK ls@shdj<sfhys,d widrA:l l@ufjzohla nejz nq|=r|=ka jsiska fmkajd oS ;sfnz tfiau kHdh flaJ|@fldgf.kmuKla fu;a;d ixl,amfhys l@shdldrSFjh ms<snZoj ksjeros wjfndaOhlg meusKsug fkdyelshfu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkh lsrSu ioyd kHdhh msysg yd wdOdr jsh yels uq;a tlS ixl,amfhys 32
  33. 33. if;HCIK l@shdj<sfhys,d kHdh wiu;a nejska fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZo Z{dk jsNd.fhys oSkHdh ksrAKdhlhla f,i Ndjs;d lsrSfuz we;s idjoH;djh muKla fuhska meyeos,s lrkq ,nhskHdh f.dvke.S mj;skqfha huzlsis NdIdjl we;s jpk jHdlrK mokuzlrf.kh kuq;afu;a;d ixl,amh jkdyS tf,i mgq iSudjl mj;skakla fkdj NdId udOHfhka jshqla;j mjdwF:!j;a jk ixl,amhla nejska NdIdj m@udK lr.kakd kHdhh wkqj tys Z{dk jsNd.hjsYaf,aIKh lsrSu taldka; i;H hehs ks.ukhj,g meusKsu fodaI iy.;h wdldr mrsjs;lal hkak o nq|=kajykafiaf.a jspdrhg ,lajQ ;j;aZ{dfkdmdhhls lsishuz fohla iuznJOfhka tys wdldr lsysmhla muKla n,d js;rAlkfhysfhoS huz huz ks.ukj,g t<eUSu wdldr mrsjs;rAlkfhka wfmaCIs;h ;j;a jsOshlska lshf;d;alsishuz m@Yakhla ms<snZoj taldxisl f,i n,d iuia;hla f,i ks.ukj,g t<USuhs nq|=r|=kafuh tla;rd wNsksfjzYhla f,i i<ld m@;sfCIamfldg we; id;s NsCIqqjf.a jsZ{dkjdoS oDIaGshnq|=kajykaafia m@;sfCIam lf<a ( jsZ[aZ[dKx ikaOdj;s ixir ;s wkZ[aZ[x ) fuz ksidh tu ksid ikafn#oaO Z{dk udrA.hg wkqj wdldr mrsjs;rAlh ms<s.; hq;` Z{dkm@fNaohla fkdfjz fu;a;dixl,amh jkdyS jsjsO oDIaGs fldaKhkag wkqj jsjsOdldrfhka js.@y l< hq;` jQ tfiau jevshhq;` jQ ps;a; ixl,amhls thg iqjsfYaIs; iSud udhsuz wka;rA.; fkdjk nejska w;sYhskaumqZM,ah lssis|= mgq iSudjlg wkql~,j wF:l:kh l< fkdyelsh fulS lreK fya;` fldgf.k ofu;a;d ixl,amh iuznJOfhka wdldr mrsjs;rAlkh usKquz oKavla jYfhka Ndjs;d lsrSuksrjoH fkdfjz ld,du iQ;@fhys oS m@;sfCIam lrk ,o ;j;a l@uhla jkqfha ;uka jsiska is;kakdjQ l@uhg .e,mqk muKska fkdis;d fkdjsuid ms<s.ekSuhs ndr .ekSuhs81 idudkHfhka TzkEumqoa.,fhla is;kakd jQ ms<sfj< ;drAlsl yd wkqudkhg iu.duS jqj;a tys ;drAlsl nj rZodmj;afka mqoa.,hdf.ka mqoa.,hdg fjkiajh tfiau wkqudkh jqj o tla tla mqoa.,hd Ndjs;dlrkqfha ;ukagu iqjsfYaIS jQ wkHkH;djhla we;sjk mrsosh fuz ;`< lsishuz fmd|= njla oel.;fkdyel tlaflda i;H jsh yelsh ke;skuz i;H yd wi;H folskau uqiq jQ fohla jsh yelshke;fyd;a iuzmQrAKfhkau wi;H jsh yelsh i;H wi;H;djh uqiqjSu mjd ta ta mqoa.,hdguiqjsfYaI jQ wkHkH;djh wkqj ieliqkq mQrAj ixfhda..; jQ wkqmd;hlg wkqj fjkia fjztnejska mqoa.,Fjhg .e,fmk tfy;a fmd|= njg fkd.e,fmk iajlSh pska;khg wkqf,duz jQmuKska ndr .ekSu nq|= iuh fkdmiihs tnejska fu;a;d ixl,amh b;d mrsmQrAK wdldrfhkam@cdkkh" wdfjzokh fyda prAhduh jYfhka jrAOkh lsrSfuz oS Ndjs;d lsrSfuz we;s idjoH;djhnq|=iuh jsiska fudkjg meyeos,s lr foa ld,du iQ;@fhys fkdms<s.ekqkq wjidk Z{dk udrA.sl ,CIKh jkqfha ta olajd;uka jsiska orK ,o oDIaGshg tlZ. ksid hula ms<s.ekSuhs82 kscACOdklaLka;sh ( Coincidethe Aspects) fyj;a ;udf.a oDIaGshg tlZ. hehs ms<s.ekSu Z{dk udrA.hla jYfhka 33
  34. 34. wiuzmQrAK tlla nj olajd ;sfnz oDIaGsh hkq jeiqkq udkisl iajNdjhhs uki jefikafka huzhuz lreKq u; oDIaGsh fya;`fjka jk udkisl wdjrKh ksidh tjsg i;H oelSfuz bv lvweysrS hhs udkisl ixjrAOkhg th ndOdjls huzlsis udkisl miq;,hla ;`< oS Z{dkh .,dhEug iSud meKjqjfyd;a ndOdjka u;` jqjfyd;a th nqoaOs jsIhsl jYfhka widrA:l Z{dkudrA.hla f,i i,lkq ,efnz83 fu;a;d ixl,amh fujeks miq;,hla ;`< idrA:l whqrska we;slr.ekSug fyda ixjrAOkh lsrSug fkdyelsh udkisl wdjrKh ksid nsys jkafka fu;a;dixl,amh fkdj thg iuzmQrAKfhkau m@;sjsreoaO ixl,amhla jk oafjzIhhs fyj;a m@;s>ixl,amhhs ksoyi ksjSu we;s jsgl oSu muKla fu;a;d ixl,amh mej;Sug yd jrAOkh jSugwjldY ie,fia NdIdj yd ;rAlh hk udOHfldg we;s jsl,amkh oajsFj prKh mokuzfldgf.k we;sjdla fuka u oDIaGs prKh m@;Hqmia:dkh fldg we;84 fuz wkqj oDIaGs ksmojSujsl,amkfha wF:!l@shdldrSFjh jYfhka mj;S wd;au .@yKh o wkd;au .@yKh o oDIaGs jsIhgtlfia wh;a fjz85 tfy;a NsCIdj msKsi oDIaGs m@fhda.h wjYHj mj;S bJ|@sh noaO ukiska,nk wjfndaOh jsjsO mqoa.,hka w;r jsjsOj mj;akd nejska jsjsO wdldrfhka hqla; oDIaGsiuqodh l@uj;aj |=re lghq;`h idrOu!hk jO!khjSu iZoyd wjldY ie,fikafka oDIaGs |=relsrSfuz m@uqL;djh u;h wdhH! udrA.fha wruqK ij! oDIaGs m@ydKhhs86 osgzGs.; iuzmhqla;;;ajfhys oS muKlau fu;a;d ixl,amfhys WmrSu wjia:dj f,i ie,lsh yels nj lrKShfu;a;d iQ;@h olajd we; odIaGs m@ydKh hkq wka lsisjla fkdj ;;ajZ{dk wOs.uhhs orAYk Z{dkiuzm@dma;shhs87 Z{dk jsNd.fha wjidk nqoaOsuh iuzm@dma;sh mrsmdlh fuhhs88 oDIaGsh" oDIaGsia:dkh" oDIaGs wOsIaGdkh" odIaGs mrAhHqia:dkh yd oDIaGs iuqia:dkh ms<snZo h:d ;;aj Z{dkhtljr ,enSu wiSreh tu ksid l@uj;a oDIaGs ksjdrKh yd m@ydKh msKsi nq|=r|=ka jsiska wdhH!udrA.h foaYkd lrk ,oS wdhH! udrA.h hkq fn#oaO Z{dk udrA.hhs m<uqjrg mqoa.,fhl`orAYk iuzm;a;sh ,nkafka fulS fn#oaO Z{dk udrA.h iuzmQrAK lsrSfuks m<uqfjks mshjrfida;dm;a;s Z{dk orAYk N~ush f,i Ouzuix.KSm@lrKfha olajd ;sfnz ‘l;fuz Ouzudoiaifkak myd;nznd? P;a;dfrda osgzGs.; iuzmhq;a; ps;a;`mamdod" jspslspzPdiy.f;d d? dfrdaps;a;`mamdfod" bfuz Ouzud oiaifkak myd;nznd’. wNsOu!fhys iZoykajk whqrska o oDIagsuh d’jYfhka wdjrKh jS fkdue;s nj fyj;a oDIagsj,ska jshq; iajNdjh ksjka wjfndaOh lrd hkudrA.fhys m<uqfjks mshjr f,i oelajsh yelsh ishZM oDIaGs j,ska ksoyiajSu u fu;a;dixl,amfhys WmrSu ;,h jsoHduk jSfuz idOlhla f,i lrKSh fu;a; iQ;@h olajk iZoykaksid fu;a;d ixl,amh Ndjs;h ;`,skau muKla jqjo wjYH TzkEu mqoa.,fhl` yg isjzfida;dm;a;s wx. fuz uZ.ska iuzmQrAK lr.ekSfuz YlH;djhla mj;sk nejz fmkajd osh yelsh 34
  35. 35. Ouzuix.KS m@lrKfha oelafjkafka m<uq Z{dk orAYk N~ushg meusKSfukawdjD; udkisl iajNdjh f,i ie,flk oDIaGs .@yKh yd ta fya;`j ksidu yg.kakd isf;ajsms<sisr iajNdjh ( jspslspzPdj ) |=rej hk njhs89 mrsl,amsl jYfhka ,efnk iFj mqoa.,d oSoDIaGs ksjdrKh msKsi ;@s ,CIKd oS oDIags ksjdrK jsOSka nq|=r|=ka jsiska Wmfhda.S lr.kakd,oS90 tnejska ld,du iQ;@h uZ.ska ;udf.a fyda wkqkaf.a fyda lsisu wdldrlska oDIaGsh wOsldrhlr.kakd jQ udkisl m@fCIamk m@;sfCIam lr ;sfnz fuz uZ.ska Z{dk udrA.h wdjrKh jknejsks wdjrKh jQ ta Z{dk udrA.h iSud iys;h i;H orAYkh fkdfjz idrOu! msnsojSfuzyelshdfjka o hq;` fkdfjz tnejska ld,du iQ;@fha oS oDIaGsh wiuzmQrAK Z{dk udrA.hla f,ii,ld bj;,sh hq;` nj foaYkd fldg ;sfnz91 idr Ou! .fjzIKfhys ,d fhdod.;a Z{dk udrA.h wkqj sArDr~m.fjzIKfhys ,d fhdod .;a Z{dk udrA.h wkqj pska;lhska j.! l< jsg f;fjks fldgig wh;ajkafka wkqN~;sjdoSyqh ( Experientialists )92 uOHld,Sk yd uE; ld,Sk fndfyda WmksIoauqksjreka we;euz wdcSjlhska iy iy ffckhka fuz fldgig wh;a fjz fuz wkqj n@yauKiuzm@odfha wjika fldgi jQ uOH yd uE; ld,Sk WmksIoa uqksjreka o Y@uK iuzm@odhg wh;aY@uK iuzm@odhg wh;a wdcSjl yd ffck fldgia isgSfuka o meyeos,s jkqfha wkqN~;sjdoSka (Experientialists) n@dyauK yd Y@uK hk iuzm@odh oajfha u ksoyia woyia .re l<d jQ fndfydamsrsila fuz iuzm@odh oajfha u jQ njhs tfukau fuz ia:rh i;Hhg fndfyda wdikakj isgshy fuys we;s wvqj msrsueiSuz jia fuz hq.fha jsma,jldrS ksoyia u;OdrS kj wd.usliuzm@odhla Ndr;fha nsysjsh th Y@uK iuzm@odhhs93 Igz Ydia;Djre wka;rA.; jkafka o fuuY@uK iuzm@odhghs Y@uK iuzm@oshhkaf.a ldrAhhNdrh jQfha n@dyauK iuzm@odh ;`< ;snQwvqmdvq |=rAj,;d uZ.yrjd Tjqkaf.a fjzo wOsldruh pska;kh uZ.ska wdjrKhj ;snQ Z{dkudrA.h ;j |=rg;a jO!kh lsrSug wjldY i,id oSuhs fuz Ydia;Djrekaf.ka ffck uydjSryer fiiq wh kdia;sljdoS" wlsrshjdoS" fN#;sljdoS pska;d bosrsm;a l<y ffck uydjSrlsrshjdoS Ydia;Djrfhl` f,i idudkHfhka oelafj;;a" Wkajykafiaf.a orAYkh jQ lsrshjdohwe;`,;a jkqfha mqnzfnzl; fya;`jdohghs94 fuz woyiska lshfjkafka ish,a, fmr lrk fkdfjkial< yels fya;`jla ksid is|= fjz hkakhs lsishuz idrOu!hla fuz woyi wkqj ;j|=rg;a ixjrAOkhfyda jevs oshqKqjla l< fkdyels nj fmfka tnejska fu;a;d ixl,amh jeks wkql@ufhkaixjrAOkh l< hq;` jQ idrOu!hlg fujka wd.usl u;hlska lsis|= msysgla fkdie,fik nejzmeyeos,s fjz fu;a;d ilx,fhka is|= jkafka ishZM iFjhd jsIfhys ys;j;a nj yd us;@Fjhf.dvkeZ.d .ekSuhs tjka us;@YS,S miqnsula ;`< oS mQrAjfhys jQ fkdfjkia l< yels hula fya;`fldgf.k ta wkqj ish,a, is|= fjz hkak b;du;a rZM flfiaj;a .e,fmk woyia jYfhkams<s.ekSu wiSreh fuz wkqj Y@uK kdufhka .efkk wd.usl iuzm@odhdkQl~, wrA:j;a iuzmQrAKZ{dk udrA.hla bosrsm;a fkdjqkq nj meyeos,sh fuz hgf;a nq|=r|=ka ld,du iQ;@fha oS ( iufKdfkd .re - Cousultations of Preceptor) hkqfjka Ydia;D m@udKslFjfhka .ekSu m@;sfCIam 35
  36. 36. lf<a tfia Ydia;Dka jykafia;a wiuzmQrAK Z{dk udrA.slfhla j isgs;a oS Tyq wkq.ukh lrkakdjQ Y@djlhkag flfiaj;a iuzmQrAK Z{dk udrA.h ,nd.; fkdyels nejsks95 fn#oaO ixorANh ;`< oelafjkafka Z{dk .fjzIK udrA.h jQ l,S iajlShm@;HCIh weiqrska u if;HCIKh fldg oel.; yels njhs ta iZoyd neyerska ,efnkakd lsis|=fohla bjy,a lr.ekSu idjoH nj nq|= iuh myod fokq ,nhs neyerska ,nk huz huz foau;jdo muKla fkdj ;uka jsiskau mQrAjfhka f.dvkZ.d .kakd ,o mQrAj ks.uk msysgd isgmjd ,nd .kakd ks.uk ksrjoH fkdjk nj nq|= iuh fmkajd foa Tngu fuh l`i,ah fuhksjerosh fuh ms<s.;a jsg Tnf.a yd wkHhkaf.a Y`N isoaOsh yd iem; msKsi mj;S" lshd kuzTn th ms<s.kak fuu mdGfhka fmfkkafka ;udf.a yd wkHhkaf.a Y`N isoaOsh msKsi mj;sknj Wmfhda.S;d ,CIKh f,i ie,ls,a,g f.k we;s njh96 jsfYaIfhka fu;a;d ixl,amh nZ|=us;@YS,S mokulska iukajs; ixl,amhla isf;ys frdamKh lruska wk;`rej b;du;a l@udkQl~,wkaouska th ixjrAOkh lsrSfuz oS mQrAjfhka ,nd.kakd ,o jsjsO ks.uk u; msysgd isg lghq;`lsrSu tlS ixl,amh ;j |=rg;a ixjrAOkh lruska tys iSudjka w;sl@uKh lr jrAOkhlrf.k hdug uy;a fia ndOd muqKqjk nj fmfkkag ;sfnz97 fu;a;d ixl,amh ixjrAOkh lsrSu hk lreK ie,l~ jsg msg;ska ,nd .kakdks.ukhlska mrsndysrj lghq;` lsrSu jeo.;ah ;ukag muKla fkdj fu;a;d ilx,amhweiqrska jO!kh lrkakd jQ us;@YS,SFjh wkHhkayg o Y`N isoaOsh yd hym; msKsi mj;sk nejz;udgu jegySu ( m@;HCIjSu ) fuys mZ[aZ[duh ixorANh f,i yZ|=kd.ekSug mqZMjk tjsgfu;a;d ilx,amfhys m@Z[a[duh ,CIKh jkafka ;uka yd wkHhka hk fofldgiu fmd|= fjztlyd iudk ,CIKj,ska iukajs; cSjSka jYfhka i,ld lghq;` lsrSuhs fuu ;udgum@;HCIjSu mZ[aZ[duh ixorANh f,i ie,flk jsg m@;HCIh m@udKhla jYfhka ms<s.ekSuflfrys nq|=iuh olajk wd,la,mh js.@yfldg ne,Su w;HjYH fjz98 m@;HCIh jqjo m@udKhlaf,i ie<lSfuzoS th bJ|@Sh m@;HCIh yd w;SJ|@sh m@;HCIh hkqfjka m@ia;`; follska hq;`jnq|=iufhys js.@yhg nZ|=ka flfrA fu;a;d ixl,amfhys fulS bJ|@Sh m@;HCIh yd w;SJ|@Shm@;HCIh hk folu uekjska jsoHdudk fjz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys bJ|@Sh m@;HCIh f,i ie,lshyelafla iudcfhys lghq;` lsrSfuz oS ;uka wkHhka iuZ. mj;ajkakd jQ us;@YS,S l@shdldrluz ydta yd neZ|=kq us;@YS,S wdl,amhkah w;sJ|@Sh m@;HCIh f,i oelajsh yelafla fu;a;d ixl,amhNdjkduh jYfhka ixjrAOkh lsrSfuz oS bka Wmokd jQ jsjsO OHdk M, iudm;a;s wdoshhs99 m@;HCIlsrSu hk woyi iZoyd nq|=ka jHjydr lr we;af;a ipzPslsrshd hkjpkhhs fu;a;d ixl,amh jrAOkh wrnhd o fulS m@;HCIh hk lreK wod< fjz mpzplaLYnzoh ;@smsgl md,sfhys fhos we;af;a Ouzuix.Ksfha yd ixhq;a; ksldfha wmpzplaLluzuxhkqfjka fom<l muKs wgqjdj, kuz th fhoS we; idCId;a lrKh ( m@;HCI lsrSu ) l<mqoa.,hdg m@udKhla ke;s nj nq|=ka jykafia jsiska foaYkd lr we;100 fu;a;d ixl,amh 36
  37. 37. jrAOkfhys WmrSuh lsishuz iSudjlska m@ldY l< fkdyelafla o fuz ksidh m@udKh hkq yrsoekSu ,nd .ekSfuz usuzu ( fld|=j ) hk w:!fhka .kakd jsg m@;HCIh m@udKhla fkdfjz fu;a;dixl,amfhys jrAOkfhys WmrSuh lsisfia;a uek oelajsh fkdyels nejsks tfiau th lsis|= jsglusuzula f,iska Ndjs;fhys fhosh fkdyel m@udK lr ( uek ) n,d oek.; hq;af;a fu;a;dixl,amh wm@;HCI fohla jkafka kuz muKla jk fyhsks lsishuz fyhlska tfia jkafka kuztjsg fu;a;d ixl,amfhys uq,au m@udKh wkqudkh jsh hq;`h fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ipzPslsrshdjfyj;a wdhH! m@;HCIh kHdh nska|=ldr Ou!lSrA;s wdos wdpdrAhjrhka oela jQ fhda.S Z{dkhhsfu;a;d ixl,am idlaId;alrKh fn#oaO orAYkh wkqj m@udKhla fkdfj;;a" kHdh orAYkhwkqj fu;a;d ixl,am m@;HCIh m@udKhlehs lsj yelsh lsishuz mqoa.,fhl` jsiska fu;a;dixl,amh m@cdkkh lrkafka fyj;a oek.kafka flfiao$ hk meKhg fok ms<s;`rla yegshg.kakd jsg fu;a;d ixl,am m@;HCIh Z{dk m@fNaohla jQ m@udKhls101 fuys oS jsia;r lrkq ,enQ wdldrhg fu;a;d ixl,amh YdlaId;a lrkakdgm@udKhla fkdue;s nj nq|=rcdKka jykafiaf.a foaYkdj ;`<ska oelafjkafka fu;a;d ixl,amhm@;HCI jYfhka oek.;af;l`g ndysr l`uk fyda m@ia;`;hl u;jdouh jYfhka t,an.ekSulska f;drju fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj ksjeros oelaulg t<USfuz yelshdj we;s njfjz102 tnZ|= ndysr t,an.ekSuz u; fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj u;jdohka we;s lr .kshs kuz tamqoa.,hdg fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj ksrjoH ks.ukj,g m@fjzYjSfuz lsis|= yelshdjla fkdue;;uka tfia meusKsh yelsnj Wml,amkh l< o th yqfola ps;a; m@lafIamKhla muKla fjzps;a; m@fCIamK jQ l,S i;Hh fkdfjz i;H ms<snZojQ isysk muKs iEu fokdgu wjxlju i;Hoek.ekSfuz jsYd, wjYH;djla we; ta lreK Tiafia .uka lrk fndfyda fokd wjikaysi;HdkqrCIK ms<sfj; f,i f;drd.kq ,nkafka udkis; wOsldruh ;;ajfhka hqla;jQwiuzmQrAK l@ufjzohkah ld,du iQ;@fhaoS tnZ|= l@ufjzohka oyhla nq|=r|=ka m@;sfCIam lr we;fuu oY jeoEreuz wOsldruh ;;ajhkaf.ka hqla;j fu;a;d ixl,amh we;s lr.ekSug fydajrAOkh lr.ekSug fkdyels nj fuu l@ufjzohka jsYaf,aIKh lsrsu uZ.ska meyeos,s l, yelsh jsjsO ;dmi fldgzGdY uZ.ska wkqo;a m@:u OHdkfhys isg fkjiZ[aZ[dkdiZ[aZ[dh;k OHdkh olajd jQ iu: Ndjkduh Z{dk udrA.h fn#oaO Z{dk udrA.hgidfmaCIlj muKla wiuzmQrAK tlla f,i ie,lsks ke;fyd;a nq|=iufhka mrsndysrj fndfyda|=rg oshqKq iuzm@odhlg wh;a Z{dk udrA.hla ;snqfKa fuz fldgigh103 thg fya;` jQ lsis|=ndysr fya;` idOlhla u; iajlSh Z{dk .fjzIK iSudj isrlr ;nkakg fyda ta u; msysgd isgiajlSh ks.uk f.dvkxjkakg fuu pska;kh oErE fldgig jqjukdjla fkdjSh ;uka jsiskau;ukaf.a w;SJ|@sh m@;HCI Z{dKh uZ.ska jspdr mQrAjl wdldrhg lreK .fjzIKh lr m@;CIlr.ekSfuz yelshdjla mej;s nejska ;rula |=rg jsoHd;aul pska;khl ,CIK fuz ;`< jsoHudkfjz hehs mejish yelsh fu;a;d ixl,amh ixjrAOkh lsrSu ms<snZoj jqj o jsoHd;aul jsOsl@uhlwdNdIh huz muKlska fulS l@ufjzoh yryd ,nd .ekSfuz YlH;djhla mj;S nq|=ka jykafia 37
  38. 38. jsiska jsmiaikd pska;kh fidhd .ekSug yd th idrA:l whqrska f,djg bosrsm;a lsrSug fmr;snQ b;du;au jsoHdkQl~, pska;kh fuh nejz fmkajd osh yelsh tuZ.ska tl, mjd fu;a;dixl,aamh b;du oshqKq ugzgulska ixjrAOkh lr.kq ,enQ mqoa.,hka jsiQ nj wjsjdos;h104 mqoa., Z{dkh yd w;aoelSu;a w;SJ|@sh m@;HCIh;a fudjqkaf.a Z{dk udrA.hjsh105 fuu f;jk lKavdhu ms<snZo iQ;@ jsjrKh fuys oS i,ld ne,Su wjYHh106 ucACOsuksldh II, ix.rdj iQ;@fhys fuu f;jk lKavdhuz ms<snZo jsjrKh jkafka Tjqyq fmr fkdweiQjsrZE Ou!hla ms<snZoj ;ud jsiskau jsfYaIfhka wjfndaOlr YdCId;a lr .;a Z{dkhla wkqjn@yauprAhdj m@ldY lrk msrsila njhs107 huz Ou!hla rduf;fuz ;ud jsfYaIfhka oek YdCId;afldg fjfiushs m@ldY lrhs o ta Ou!h uu o m@ldY lrushs" ta uu fkdfnda l,lska ta Ou!h;udu jsfYaIfhka YdCId;a fldg thg t<U jsisus hkqfjks108 fuh ;rula |=rg iajlSh w;SJ|S@hm@;HCIh u; mokuzj bosrsm;a jQjla jqj;a tys lsishuz iSudjla jsoHudk jkafka fkjiZ[aZ[dkdixZ[aZ[dh;k pska;kfhka Tnzng .uka lsrSfuz yelshdjla fulS w;SJ|@sh m@;HCI Z{dKh fj;fkd;snQ fyhsks w;SJ|@sh m@;HCIh Z{dKh idudkHfhka fiiq Z{dK jsNd. ydikaikaokd;aulj ie,l~ l, lsishuz Wiia ugzgulg wh;a f,i i,lkq ,enQj;a fulS oekqujrAOkfhys mjd lsishuz iSudiys; iajNdjhla .enzjk fyhska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Wmrsu;;ajh fuz ;`< jsoHduk fj;ehs Wml,amh lsrSug fkdyelsh fu;a;d ixl,amhg mjdfkjiZ[aZ[d kdixZ[aZ[dh;k pska;kfhka Tnzng jrAOkh jSfuz lsis|= bv m@ia;djhla fuz uZ.skaysus fkdjk fyhsks tfiau fujka wdl,amhka orkakd jQ mqoa.,fhl` tu wdl,am u; msysgd isgta wkqj fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZo ta wdl,amhkau .`re ;kays ;nd f.k huz huz ks.uhka ,ndoSug o fuz ksid wiu;a jkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh TzkEu mqoa.,fhl`f.a isf;ys jrAOkh lrkl, tys Wmrsu ixjrAOk jmirsh fkjiZ[aZ[d kdixZ[aZ[dh;k pska;kfhkq;a Tnzng .ukalrk nejsks109 uska meyeos,s jkafka l`ulao$ rduf.a Z[dKh wi;Hhla fkdfjz tfy;a th crdurK ksfrdaOh iZoyd m@udKj;a fkdfjz hkakhs fofokdf.au Z{dk udrA. tl t,a,hlgosYduqL jS we;s njla yd is|=y;a ;jqia;`ud tl, Wmrsu Z{dK iSudj f,i ms<s.kq ,enQfkjiZ[aZ[d kdixZ[aZ[dh;k pska;kfhys wvx.` ps;a; iudOsfhka iEySulg fkdmeusK Z{dKhuSg;a jvd oshqKq wjia:djlg ixjrAOkh l< yelshdj ;uka jsiskau fidhd .kakd ,o kjNdjkd l@uhla udrA.fhka jevs oshqKq lrk ,o nj uska fmfka tfiau n,dfmdfrd;a;` jQjd fiautlS Ndjkd udrA.fhka wg iuj; miqlr mshjrla bosrshg ;nkakg is|=y;a ;jqia;`ud iu;ajsh tfiau ;j;a wxYhlska ta mshjr w;s jsYd, pska;k jsma,jhla mrsjrA;khla f,i oyeZokajsh yelafla iu: pska;kfhka jsmiaikd pska;khg m@jrA;khjSfuz l@shdj<sh o fuz ;`<.enzjk fyhsks110 tfiau is|=y;a ;jqia ;`ud jsiska fidhd .kakd ,o jsmiaikd pska;kfhysjsoHudk jk iSud rys; iajNdjh ;`< kuz lsis|= wmyiq;djhlska f;drj fu;a;d ixl,amh tysWmrSu jrAOkSh wjia:djka lrd lsis|= wmyiq;djhlska f;drj jrAOkh jSug wjldY ie,iS 38

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