359           ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග්                               04 prfcZeC~dy ( 04 Chapter )        kAlAm s>t&ey...
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter
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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter

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ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත හේවගේ Buddhist values 4.chapter

  1. 1. 359 ආචාර්ය සුජිත් නිශාන්ත ෙහේවෙග් 04 prfcZeC~dy ( 04 Chapter ) kAlAm s>t&eyn` ehlfvn ebUd`D sAr Dr~m : ebUd`D QAn mAr~gy (Buddhist Epistemology : Buddhist Valiues disclosed by Kalama Sutta) QAn mAr~gy(Epistemology) yn<evn` adhs` krn`en` QAny l[bFm uedsAupeyA`gFkrgn`nA pfLfevtyf.ebAehA`vfx QAnvfBAgy(Theory of Knoledge)elsfn` h[Hdfn`evn`en`demymy.QAny l[bFm sHdhA pfLfgth[kf pfLfevtk` enAm[tfv p&kAVkrn kr[N< pfLfg[nFmxy<k`tfshgt pdnmk` n[tfevyf. b<z smy QAny lbAg[nFmx an<gmnykrn pfLfevtk=mk`d?emy vxhAg[nFmx p[rNf BArtFy QAn mAg% pfLfbHdvd trmk ehA` v[xhFmk`avVYy.1 emhfdF QAnmAr~gy‘QAnvfBAgy’yn pdeyn`d a[t[mZ avs`TAvldF h[Hdfn`vFmx fya;`j p[h[dflfkrgt y<t=y.‘QAn vfBAgy’ynvden` aT%yvn>ey` kfsfymZp&s`t=tyk` mnsfn` d[k avebA`DekAxE` pfLfbHdv mnsfn`krn vfV`el`SNyyf.emy Ek`trA zrkx aT%kTnmy s`vBAvyk` gnF.dr~Vny pfLfbHdvnfr~vcnyk d[k`evn<ey` dr~Vny yn< QAny pfLfbHdvv> QAnykfyf yn<yf. QAnvfBAgy v>klF dr~VnvfSyx dk`vn kfxZx< sbHdtAvymt QAnvfBAgyx p&s`t=tvn`en`d b<d`DfvfSyfk kr[N<y.E` an<v b<d`DfvfSyfk p&s`t=t menA`m>Lfk els vfV`el`SNy ekAx d[k`vFm QAnvfBAgy nmZvn b[vZ p[h[dflfy. b<d`DfvfSyfk p&s`t=t emZ aAkAreyn` vfV`el`SnykfrFm t=lfn` ukhgn`nA d[n<m pAdkekAxegnE` t=lfn` m>LDr~m(Principales)egAwnHgAegn tfebZ.vfvfDg=r[k=l(Schools)bfhfv tfebZ.b<d`DfvfSyfkp&s`t=t QAnvfBAgeyhflA vfV`el`SNy ekern`en`` adAl m>LDr~m hA g=r[k=l ek`$z&ekAxegny. a[t[mZvfx Epistemologyyn vcny sf^hl BASAevn`‘QAn mFm^sAv’yn a#T%eyhfd eyAdAtfebZ.2emhf ‘mFm^sA’ yn`n‘vFm^sA’yn pdeyn` bfhfv<nkf.‘vFm^sA’yn< vfmr~Vny yn`nyf.ehvt`gevZSNyekAx vfmsAb[lFFm yn`nyf.E`an<v QAnmFm^sAv ynvcney` a#T%y vn<ey`d‘QAnypfLfbHdv vfmsAblA gevZSNy kfrFm yn`nyf.E` an<v QAnmAr~gy yn vdn sHdhA‘QAn vfBAg1 kQ;k iudch iZoyd fn#oaO cSjk orAYkh"f.dv.u ux., ysus"Y@S ,Xld iuQmldrjsoHd,hSh uq|@Kd,h"fmd,af.d,a,"1998" 103 msgqj2 bx.@sis isxy, u,,fialr YnzofldaIh"cSmS u,,fialr"weuzvS.`Kfiak iy iud.u"fld<U"1998"iuzmQrAKfhka ixfYdaOs; kj ixialrKh"302 msgqj3 kQ;k iudch iZoyd fn#oaO cSjk orAYkh"f.dv.u ux., ysus"Y@S ,Xld iuQmldrjsoHd,hSh uq|@Kd,h"fmd,af.d,a,"1998" 104 msgqj
  2. 2. 360y’hA‘QAn mFm^sAv’v[nf vdn` ebAehA` VAs`tF&y lfpfel`KNvl eydFtfebZ.ekes` vYvhArkLt`in` l[ebn`en` b<d`DfvfSyfk p&s`t=t pfLfbHdv gevZSNykfrFm yn ar~Tymy.1 emZ VAs`t&Fy kRtfey`dF adAL vcnt=n atrfn`‘QAn mAr~gy’yn vcny mAtRkAekAxegna[t`et` QAn vfBAgy hA QAn mFm^sAv yn vcnedkxsAep`OSkv‘QAn mAr~gy’yn vcnyvwA phs<evn` et`r[mZg[nFemZ h[kfyAv a[tf nfsAy.Eemn`m ebUd`D sAr Dr~m pfLfbHd vfg&hyt=LdF‘QAn mAr~gy’yn pdy BAvftAkfrFmt=Lfn` vfg&hvn avebA`Dkrg[nFemZ v[wf phs<vk`s[lesn b[vfnf. mn<SYyyA tmA jFvt`vn smAjprfsry an<v ymZ ymZ ed` pfLfg[nFmx h<r[ krvn<l[bsfxfyf.emZ sAmAnY s`vBAvy hm<evhf p<d`glyA QAny l[bFm sHdhA an<gmnykL y<t=v> nfv[rdfpfLfevt k=mk`d yn p&V`ny g[n EtrmZ uedYA`gyk` enAdk`vyf.Eeht` b<zsmy emZ pfLfbHdvvfeV`S un$zvk` dk`vn<ey` nfrvdY QAny l[bFm Ehf m<KY prmAr~Tyk` b[vfnf.Eb[vfn`b<zrjANn`vhn`es` VAs`tRvreyk= els hHzn`vAzn` QAnmAr~gy kver~d[yf vxhAg[nFemZdFEvkx anY VAs`tRvr[n` kvrQAnmAr~g hHznAegn tfb<NAdyn`n vxhAgt y<t=y.2 ld,du iQ;@h jkdyS fn#oaO Z{dkudrA.h ms<snZoj .fjzIKhlrkakdjQ mrAfhaIlfhl`yg BgwjYHlr kakdjQ idOljYfhka .;yels w.kdu iQ;@foaYkdjlafjhs3fuhgiudk Z{dkjsNd.Sh2 Early Buddhist Theory of Knoledge,K.N.Jayatileka,(Motilal Banarisidass,Delhi)1980,p.170.3 ld,du Ou!h"isrs iSj,S ysus"iuhjO!k fmd;ay,"fld<U"m@ia;djkdj"12 msgqj
  3. 3. 361 1mokulskahqla;jQ iQ;@foaYkd ;@smsglfha fj;akuzta fndfyda fkdjshhelshs fuzksidu fmr wmros.fndfyda W.;`kaf.a ksrka;r iuzNdjkdjg yd jspdrhg ,lajSug is|=jshld,du iQ;@fhys oelshyelsjQjsYsIaGu ,CIKh jkqfha th nqoaOshg muKlafkdj usksidf.a Ndj ika;rAmKhg wjYHwuq|@jHofkduZoj tys wka;rA.;jk njhs2 Ndjuh ika;rAmKh iZoyd i;rn@yau jsyrK b;du;a jsia;r iy.;j olajd we;ld,duiQ;@foaYkdj ms<snZoj mrAfhaIKh lrk W.;`kaf.a mrAfhaIK .@J:j, ud |=gq wvqmdvqjla jkqfhaTjqka ld,du iQ;@h jsjrKh lr;snqfka talfoaYslj muKlajSu3jsfYaIjYfhka f,djz;`rd nq|=jrfhl`f.a Ou!hla jsjrKhlrk jsgyels;dla mqZM,a m@foaYhla lrd;ukaf.a jsjrKh me;srjSu ;`,skatu jsjrKfhahuzhuz wvqmdvq .enzfjzkuz yels;dla tu wvqmdvq uld.ekSug jevsbvlvla fuzuZ.skaksrAudKh lr.ekSug bvm@ia;djkdj ie,fia Tjqka ld,du iQ;@fhys jsjrKh lr;snqfka m@;sfCIams; oijeoEreuz pska;kwOsldrsh ms<snZojmuKh kuq;a mxpYS, m@;smodj"i;rn@yau jsyrKh"l`i, yd wl`i, uQ, i;rjeoEreuz pska;kiykYS,;djh ms<snZoj ld,du iQ;@h b;du;a jsYsIaG f,i olajk lreKqldrKd tu jsjrKj,skab;du;a lK.dgqodhl f,i .s,sySf.dia ;snsKs4fu ;;ajh;`< tajd mrsYS,khlrkakdjQ wh;`<ld,duiQ;@h iuznJOfhka we;sjkafka yqfola nqoaOsjsIhsl"odrAYksl"m@dfhda.slFjfhka f;drfoaYkdjla ms<snZoj we;sjkakdjQ yeZ.Suuh nq|=kajykafia ljo;a m@fhda.slFjfhka neyerg .sh Ydia;Djrfhl` fkdjSh;u Y@djlhkagme;a;lgjS is;is;d isgSug fyda uecslafmkajSug Wkajykafia flosklj;a W;aiqlfkdjSh Wkajykafiaf.a wrA:oelajSuz wkqj h:drA:l~Gm@dma;sh hkq(ksrAjdK m@;s,dNh) yqfola fud<h oshqKqlsrSumuKlafkdfjzfud<hhkq ;j;a tla YdrSrsl bJ|@shhla muKsth we;`,; wka;rA.;jkqfhaofjkiajkakdjQ osrdhdug NdckhjkakdjQ l`Kq fjkakdjQ idudkHYdrSrsl |@jHuh yDohjia;`j fyj;a yoj; hkqo YrSrhmqrd reOsrh ixirKhlrkq ,nkakdjQ ;j;a tla bJ|@shhlstho fud<h fukau jskdYjS hkakdjQ idudkHYdrSrsl |@jHj,ska ksrAus;jQjlsnq|=oyu miikafka;aoshqKqlsrSug Wmfoiafokafka;a fuz jskdYjShk l`KqjShk YdrSrsl|@jHfkdfjztu YdrSrsl|@jH msysgfldg ls@hd;auljkakdjQ w;sYh ishquzjQ jsZ[aZ[dKuh"Ndjuh yeZ.Suz oekSuz moaO;sh flaJ|@fldg nsysjkakdjQ idrOu! moaO;shhs5 idudkH jHjydrfhaoS ukqIFjh fyj;a usksi;alu luska yeZoskafjkafkao thhskuq;a ukqIH ;,fhka neyerj fjk;a ;,j,oSo fuu idrOu!moaO;sh l@shd;auljknj nq|=iuh fya;`idOl iys;j fmkajdoS we;s ksid idrOu!j,g ukqIHOu!hehs mejiSfuz huzlsis iSudiys;;Fjhla we;euzfofkl`g jegyShkqwe;1 w ks 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a.h ld,duiq;a;h nqcuq 377-343 msgq4iodpdrd;aul Z{dkh ms<snZo fn#oaO ixl,amh"(kdmdk fmauisrs Wmydr ix.@yh-1984)"mSvSfmauisrs"47msgqj5ld,du iQ;@h iy pska;k ksoyi"ik;a flakdkhlaldr"fn#oaO ixialD;sl uOHia:dkh"foysj,"20016Early Buddhist Theory of Knoledge,K.N.Jayatileka,1980.pp.231 &259.7.idrOu! wOHdmkh"tatiand,iQrsh"jsfcAiQrsh .@J: flaka|@h"kqf.af.dv"1997
  4. 4. 362 kuq;a fndfydajsg idrOu! gslskagsl jO!kh lr;au ukqIHFjh oshqKqlrkafkahehs lshkq,efnzidrOu!hkays jO!kh ukqIHFjfhka fl<jrjkakla fkdfjzth ukqIFjfhka foajFjh olajdo foajFjfhka n@yauFjh olajdo n@yauFjfhka kej; bmoSu wjikalsrSu olajdo .ukalrkakdjQ l@uslm@;smodjla Tiafia l@shd;aulfjzfjk;a iuhjdohkays olsjkakdjQ idrOu! jO!kh fuys by;iZoykal<djQukqIHFjfhka fyda foajFjfhka fyda n@yauFjfhka fl<jrjkaklstnejska taajd wiuzmQrAKnejz nq|=iuh mjihs1 tfukau nq|=iufhys iZoykajk idrOu! jO!kh YdrSrsl|@jHhkaf.aa ixjO!khla fkdjknejska nq|=iufhys iZoykajkakdjQ idrOrAuSh l~Gm@dma;shg m;ajkakdjQ iy m;ajqkdjQ ljru fyda W;`ukajykafiakulf.a tlS l~GM@dma;shg idOl t<jSuzjia YdrSrsl|@jHhkaf.a ixjO!kh f.kyer oelajsh fkdyelWkajykafia,do fiiq idudkH ukqIHhka fuka urKhg m;afj;sfrda.SNdjhg"uyZMjSug m;afj;sfjk;a YdrSrslWm|@jhkag uqyqKmd;surKfhka miqj ojilska"follska"i;sh;ska"uilska"wjqreoaolska ;nd l,amhlsks|= kej; ish fN#;slYrSrh kej;m@lD;s u;alrf.k woaN~;f,iusksiqka w;rg m@fjzYjSfuz yelshdjla Wkajykafia,dg ke;2 tnZ|= wdYdjla hful`fj; fjhskuz thu ;uka ;ju idrOu! ksIaGdjg fkdmeusK we;snjgidOlhls nq|=oyfuz th Nj;Kaydj f,i olajd;sfnz3nq|=iufhys olajkakdjQ idrOrAuSh ksIaGdjukqIHFjfhkq;a Tnzng .ukalrkaklajk nejska tu idrOrAuSh ksIaGdj W;a;rS;r ukqIHOu!kdufhka oelafjztuksid nq|=iufhys iZoykajkakdjQ OHdk"iudOs"ud.!M, jeks idrOurAuSh ksIaGdjka W;a;rS;ridrOu! kdufhka yZ|=kajd;sfnzf,#lsl ,dNm@fhdack fjkqfjka fuu W;a;rS;r ukqIHOu! yqjdoelajSu mjd b;d my;a kskaos; jQ fohlaf,i nq|=iuh wjOdrKh lrhs4 ld,duiQ;@fhka js.@yjkakdjQ idrOu! yqfola nqoaOsjsIh muKla wruqKqlr.;a fohlafkdj by;iZoyka l< W;a;rS;r ukqIHOu! lrd iuzm@dma;jSug wjYHlrkakdjQ pska;kuh l`Y,;djh ukqIHhdyg ,ndoSfuz wruqKska foaYs;jQ iQ;@foaYkdjlstuksid th jsjrKhl< hq;af;ao tu wruqK is;;ndf.k th bgqjSug wjldY ie,fikakdjQ jd;djrKhla iliafldgoSfuz yeZ.Sfuks5 p&Ag`ebUd`D cfn`tnps<bfm pfLfbHd vfmsFmk`krn mhAcAr~y ek`.En`.jytflk mhtA tt`y<gey`cfn`tkyfn` p&DAnekAxs`t=nkx ebdAdk`vyf.EnmZ smZp&dAyvAdF(Traditionalists),b<d`DvAdF(Rationalists) sh an<B+tfvAdF(Exprrientalists)vVeynf.6 emyfn` smZp&dAyvAdFh<(Traditionalists) vVeyn` s[lekn<ey` m<HPmnfn`m pfxksmZp&dAeyn` hAvfvrNyn` egn` QAny l[b>,evZdey` aDfkArypfLfgt` bm<Nn` emZ ekAxsx g[en`.mj~ODfmnfkAy II,sn`dks>t&ey` pLm<pfrfs hHzn`vAtfebn<ey` ‘an<s`svfkA’yn nmfnf.V&[tfeyn`,a[sFemn`,pfxk smZp&dAeyn` QAny lbn ayyf.E` s<tmy QAny ov<n`egn` avDArNyevZ.sn`dk s>t&ey`1 ;@smsglfhka fy<sjk nqoaO prs;h"Wvqydjr wdkkao ysus"weiaf.dvf.a iy fydaorfhda"fld<U"2000"32msgqj2 tu 83msgqj3 ucACOsu ksldh"pQ<iSykdo iQ;@h"nqcuq159msgqj4 md md"nqcuq5 w ks 1"NrKavq ld,du iQ;@h"nqcuq"500msgqj6 Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge,K.N.Jayatileke,Delhi,1980,p.170.
  5. 5. 363dF emZ k&my QAny l[bFmx s<zs< enAvn bv avDArNykryf.E` kr[N< htrk` pdnmZkregny.EnmZ(a)zs`s<tmZ’pf ehAtf-hrf d[n<mk` edn a[sFmk` vfyh[kfyf.(aA)zs`s<tmZ’pf ehAtf-v[rdf d[n<mk` edn a[sFmk` vfyh[kfyf.(a[)tTA’pf ehAtf-Ees`d vfyh[kfyf.(a{)aHOd`HOdTA’pf ehAtf-an` ay<rk`d vfyh[kfyf. stYtAv g[n s`TfrvVeyn` shtfk vfyenAh[kfnfsA V&[tfy ast=x<dAykiegn<mZ mHgkf.emZsmZp&dAy vAdF k&myxm a[t=HPvn QAnmAr~g syk`(6)k` ld,duiQ;@fhaoS m@;afCIamlr ;sfnz. z(a)an<s`sv-a[sFemn` QAny l[bFm.(aA)prmZprA-prmZprA kTAevn` QAnyl[bFm.(a[)pfxk smZpd^-aAgmfk epAt ptx g[LepnnfsA pfLfg[nFm.(a{)itfkfrA-emZ vnAhF emes`y[yf kF pmNfn` pfLfg[nFm.(i)smeNA enA gr{-apeg` V&mNyn`vhn`es` emes` pvsAa[t[yf kFpmNfn` pfLfg[nFm.(I)BbZbr{ptA-s<zs<kmZ slkA pfLfg[nFm.1 emZ k&m sym V&[tfyx ayt`vn atr E` QAnmAr~g pfrfp<n` stY l[bFmx p&mANfk y[yfb<zsmy pfLfenAgnfyf.mfn` an<s`svyn<evn` d[k`evn`en` kfsfymZ aAcAr~y prp<rkx ehA` mtvAdprmZprAvkx ehA` m>LDr~m pd`Dtfykx an<r{p ehA` V&vNy mADYekAxegn Eym p&mANyekAx pflfg[nFmyf.2 emm k&my QAnmAr~gyk` els b<zsmeyhfdF sArDr~m gNeyhflA eyAdAenAg[enn`en`kvr eh`t=vk` nfsA d[yf vfmsA blm<.stY ehvt` yTAr~Ty (yTAB+t QAnds`sn lbAg[nFmb<zsmeyn` nfr~ed`Vvn sArDr~mFy nfS`XAvvn b[vfn`) d[kFm b<zdhemZ ek`$z&&Fy sArDr~my b[vffn`E` os`es` aenk=t` sArDr~m epLg[s`vFemZdF emAnm ay<rkfn`vt` Eyx bADAvk` a[tfenAvfyy<t=yf.3ymZkfsf vfDfk&mykx (Theory) bADAvk` El`levZnmZ,Em vfDfk&my eyAdAkrn< lbnkxy<t`tsr~vsmZp>r~N#vyx pt`vFm sfz enAevZ.Eemn``m sArDr~m gevZSNeyhflA eyAdAgn`nA k&mevZdyd emhfdF sArDr~myk`(ebUd`D QAn mAr~gy :Epistemology) els s[lekn atr(nfr~vANy:nferA`D sty:ebUd`D sArDr~myk`vnvfx Ey p&tYOSkfrFmx eyAdAgn`nA k&mevZdyd:mAr~g styd sArDr~myk` vn`nAk` emn`) Em k&mevZdyx b[h[rfn` bADAvk` El`levZnmZ Em k&mevZdy nfsfay<rfn` BAvftAkr avsAn nfS`XAvx p[mfNfy enAh[kf vn< a[t`et`y. emhfdF k&mevZdy vnAhF QAnmAr~gy vnb[vfn` QAnmAr~gyx bADAvn` El`l kLh[k`ek`ekes`d[yf esAyAb[lfy y<t=y.QAnmAr~gy vnAhF eBUtfkv>vk`enAevZ.Ey aADYAt`mfk hA menA`vfdYAt`mkv>vkf.4 aADYAt`mfkt#vyn`x bADAvk` aADYAt`mfk t#vyn`egn`m pmNf.kfsfymZ bAhfredyk` mt d[wfv dRS`Xfmy vVeyn` El`Mg[nFm vfvRt mAnsfkBAvyx bADAvkf.Eyfn` mnsaAvRtevZ.aAvRt mns aADYAt`mfk k+X p&Ap`tfyx bADAvkf.QAnmAg%yx bADAvk`vn`en` s[bvfn`m1 wx.`;a;r ksldh 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a.h ld,du iq;a;"nqcuq"377-343 msgq2 u ks 2"ikaol iQ;@h"nqcuq"322msgqj3 iq ks"wgzGl j.a.h"nqcuq"ud.kaosh iQ;@h"264msgqj4 oSks 3"nqcuq"mdGsl iq;a;"20msgqjiufKda f.da;fuda ZCodKjdfoda wyuzms ZCodKjdfoda odKjdfoda
  6. 6. 364emZ aAvRt mAnsfk t#vyyf.kAlAm s>t&ey` ihtfn` d[k`evn QAnmAr~g symaAvRt mAnsfks`vBAvyn` b[vfn` asmZp>r~N QAnmAr~gb[vZ b<zsmy dk`vyf. a[sFm(an<s`sv) yn< V&vNy bAhfr aDfkArfyk`mt El`Mg[nFmt=lfn` aAvRtmAnsfk s`vBAvykx pt`vFmyf.aAvRt mAnsfks`vBAvykdF nfsfay<rfn` p&HJ`HJAv hA sArDr~m pfbfHdFmx enAh[kfvn an`demZ s`vBAvyk` s`vBAveyn`m apeg` mns ur[mkregn pvtF.E` t#vy yxet`‘an<s`svy’sAr~Tk hA sv%smZp>N% QAnmAr~gyk` els pfLfg[nFm b<zsmeyn` b[h[rkrn<l[ebZ.1 I LHgx‘prmZprA’yn QAnmAr~gyd kAlAm s>t&ey`dF QAny pfbfdvFmx enAh[kf QAnmAr~gyk` els slkA p&tfeOS`pekAx tfebZ.prmZprA yn< pArmZprfkv !kegn En<lbnaAkl`p pd`Dtfykf.emm pArmZprfk aAkl`p hrfd v[rdfd kfyA mnfn<lbn mfn<mZ dN`wvfyy<t`et`b<d`Dfmy hA p&eyA`gfk ps<tly mfs Ey pArmZprfkv p[vetn edyk`y yn mfN<mZdN`w pAdkekAxegn enAevZ.pArmZprfkv p[vetn ekAyfed`t` nfv[rdfy[yf Ehf El`bg[nFm vfvRt mAnsfk#veyn` b[h[rvFmkf.mAnsfk aAvRtbvk`,yxt`vFm k`,vhl`BAvyk` emZt=lfn`jnft krn< lbyf.E`yxet` sArDr~m ut`pdny kr g[nFemZ k&mevZdyk` els b<zsmy b[h[rkrn< l[ebZ.2 emZ yxet` ymZ ekenk=x iht d[k`v> an<s`sv hA prmZprAyn QAnmAg%edk b<zsmymHgfn` p&tfeOS`pft QAnmAr~g edkk`nmZ b<zsmey` sHdhn` dhmZ ekAxs` EdA smAjy d[ngt`et`‘an<s`svy’ mAr~geyn` enAevZd Ey Dr~m s^gnA mAr~geyn` aAcAr~y vAdyvVeyn`(eT`rvAdy:vfBj~jvAdy) pvt`vA egn p[mfnFm‘prmZprA’yn QAnmAr~g edkm b<zsmy mHgfn<t`BAvftyx egntfebnvA en`d yn<evn` ymZ vfmtfyk` s[kyk` hxg[nfyh[kfy.nm<t` b<zsmy‘an<s`svy’hA‘prmZprAy’p&tfeOS`pkrn`en` Ey Ekm p&mANyekAx pfLfg[nFmyf.b<zsmy‘an<s`svy’hA‘prmZprAy’yn k&mevZdyn` edk QAny l[bFemZ p>r~vgAmF p&tfpdAvk` elsxan<mAny p&mANy ekAxegn pfLfg[nF a[tt` b<zsmey` prm nfS`XAv p>r~N p&tYOS p&mANydk`vA itA a{tx vffhfdF tfebn`nk` nfsA d[wfels Eemn`m mtvAdFv‘an<s`svy’ hA‘prmZprAy’yn k&mevZdyn` edk g&hNy kfrFmx an<bl enAed`.3 ffjosl iusm@odfhys jeo.;a Z{dfkdmdhlajQ Y@e;shhkak fn#oaO orAYk iuzm@odfhys wkqiaijhkak fhdod we;af;a tu ffjosl iuzm@odh.; Y@e;shyeZoskajSughsukqIHFjh blaujQ w;smrsY`oaOcSjs;.;l<" foaj;ajfhys,d .sKshq;`jQ"wkdosu;a ld,fhysjQ m@Z{d,dNSjQ iDISkaf.a m@;sNdZ{dkfhkamy<l< Z{dkialJOh f,ihs"Y@e;sh fkdfyd;a wkqiaijh ms<s.ef.kafka.md<s iZ.s idys;Hfha tujpkh fhoS we;s;eka ;eka.ek mrSCIdlrkjsg"ffjosl iuzm@odhg wh;a Ydia;Dkajsiska jsfYaI.reFjhlska wkqiaijh ms<s.;anj fmfkkakg ;sfnz4nq|=rcdKkajyafia iQ;@dka;lsysmhlu wkqiaij1 u ks 2"pxlS iq;a;"nqcuq"636msgqjf;ms f; n@yauKdkx mqnznld bifhd uka;dkx l;a;dfrda uka;dkxmj;a;dfrdafhiusox t;rys n@yauKd fmdrdKx uka;mox .S; mjq;a;x iusys;x ;okq.dhka;s";okqNdika;s"Ndis;ukqNdika;s"jdps;ukqjd fpk;s2 Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge,K.N.Jayatileke,Delhi,1980,p.231.3 u ks 2"pxlS iQ;@h"nqcuq"656msgqjmZCp fLd bfuz Ndroajdc"Ouzud osgzfGjOuzfuz oajsOdjsmdld ioaOd repswkqiaifjd wdldrmrsjs;lafld osgzGskscACOdklaLka;s4 u ks 2"pxlS iQ;@h"nqcuq"656msgqj
  7. 7. 365i;Hh jspdrhg ,lalr;sjsjdorys;j ms<s.;hq;`jQ wfm#reIhjQ tu wkqiaiji;Hh n@yauhdjsiskaBYajrhdg W.kajk,onj ffjoslfhda ms<s.ks;s nq|=yq fuz u;h jspdrhg ,lal<yn@yauhd .ek l:dl<;a tjekafkl` oelshfkdyelsnj;a"tfyhska fuz ms<s.ekSu idjoHnj;a"Wkajykafia m@ldY l<yn@yauhd oelshyelsoehs Wkajykafiam@Yakl<y(n@yud ilalus osgzfGd) (osks1"238msg"PTS) n@yauhdisgskafka fldysolshdj;a Tjqkafkdokakdnj pxlSiQ;@fhys iZoykah n@dyauKhka f.a ffjosl .reFjhg iqNiQ;@fhaoS nq|=rcdKkajykafia myr.i;sffjosln@dyauKhka fuz OrAuh m@;HCI jYfhka fkdo;aksid th wkqiaijjYfhka .;aksid ms<s.; fkdyelsnj Y`NiQ;@fhaoSlsh;sWkajykafia tysoS wdpdrjsoHd;auljYfhka iFjhkaf.a l`i,drdOkh iZoyd fuzOrAuh m@fhdackj;a fkdjknjo iZoyka lr;s ta iZoyd ;ukajsiskau m@;Hd;aufjzokSh jYfhka fuz OrAuh o;hq;`njlsh;s(uks1"199msg"PTS)ffjosl b.ekajSuz i;Hf,i nuqKka ms<s.;a;;a Tjakq th m@;Hd;aufjzokSh jYfhka m@;HCIlrfkdue;wkqiaijh Z{dfkdamdhhla jYfhka ms<s.;fkdyelsnj ikaoliQ;@fhys ;drAlslj ikd:lrwe;n@yaihdu fuzz OrAufhys ksrAud;Djrhdjqj;a ta n@yauhdf.ka weiQfoh iuyrjsg fydZoska iaurKfhys mej;`kd fjkak;a mqZMjk tfukau tfia fkdfjkak;a mqZMjk(uks1"520msg"PTS)tuksidwkqiaijh i;H fyda wi;Hjsh yelshsfufia lreKq olajk nq|=rcdKkajykafia wkqiaij hk Z{dkudrA.h m@;sfCIamlr;swkqiaijh m@;sfCIamlrk nq|=rcdKkajykafia ;ud wkHhkaf.ka fkdwidm@;Hd;au jYfhka ;ukajykafiau jsYajfhys h:drA:h oek oel OrAuh foaYkdlrknjo m@ldYl<y(uks111"186msg"PTS) wkqiaij hkakg iuznJO ;j;aZ{dfkdmdhls mruzmrdhkakiauD;sh fuysoS m@Odk;ajhg m;afjzmruzmrdj uZ.ska wjspzPskakj mj;ajdf.ktk ,oao uska woyialrhsfjzoh tfia wjspzpskakj mruzmrd.;j mej;tk nj;a"ta ms<snZoj ishZM b.ekajSuz wjsjdofhka ms<s.;hq;`nj;a n@dyauKhkaf.a u;hhs tys ljfrl`jqj;a uyd n@yauhd jsiska m@ldYlrk,oaola hhs mdruzmrsl ms<s.ekSuhswkaOhkamsrsila je,lafia tld msgqmi tld hdu nZ|=h fuz ms<s.ekSufuho fn#oaO Z{dkudrA.hg wkqjidjoHhtho nq|=r|=ka jsiska m@;sfCIamlrk ,oafoa tnejsks1 smZp&dAyvAdF ekAxs yxet` kAlm s>t&eyhf p&tfeOS`pft aenk` QAnmAr~gy vn<ey` pfxksmZp&dA yyf.emhfdF t&fpfxky QAnyl[bFemZ mAr~gyk` en`d[yf ekenk=x sftfyh[kfyf.nm<t`b<zsmy t&fpfxkyt=lfn` lbn d[n<m p&tYOS p&mANyk` els enAs[lek`.b<zsmey` QAnvfBAgey`V&Avk an<B+tfey` ekLvr atF$z&y p&tYOSy EnmZ ar~ht`Pl VAOSAt`krNyyf.Eyx t&fpfxkprfVFlny udvZvk` vfyh[kf nm<t` t&fpfxk prfVFlneyn` l[ebn V&[tmyQAny pmNk` m Ixp&mANvt` enAevZ.m>Lfkv t&fpfxk prfVFlneyn` V&[tmyQAny lbAgn`nA sd`DAn<sArF p<d`glyAEyfn` lbAgn`nAld m>Lfk avebA`Dy p&tYOSQAny dk`vA p<HPl`krg[nFm pfNfs v[wfzrxt`BAvnAv mHgfn` atF$z&fyQAnyd a[tfkregn tm QAnpTy p&tYOS p&mANy dk`vA vD%nykrgt y<t=y.21 w ks 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj..h ld,du iq;a;"nqcuq"337-343 msgq2 iuzNdjH odrAYksl .`rel`,"cScSmSis,ajd"1995"31msgqj
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  10. 10. 368 b;slsrd hkq huzlsisjla ms<snZo wdrxpsud;@fhka weoySu"jsYajdilsrSu"ms,s.ekSuwdoshhsft;sydisljYfhka fufia isoaOjQjd hkqfjka usksiqka w;rm@p,s;j mj;akd lgl:dju; hulams<s.ekSuhsiuyrjsg th ft;syd isl jkakg;a mqZMjksft;sydisl fkdjkakg;a mqZMjksiuyrjsg th lsishuzft;sydisl i;Hhlajqj;a fkdjq j;a mrSCIKhla fkdlr i;Hwi;H;djh lgl:djg muKla iSudfldg ms<s.ekSu b;slsrdhkafkka woyia fjhskuq;a fn#oaO Z{dkudrA.orAYkfhys funZ|= lgl:dms<s.ekSula fkdue;tnejska b;slsrd hkako us:HdZ {dfkdamdhhla yegshg nq|=kajykafia jsiskam@;sfCIamlrk,oS vfeV`Seyn`m sArDr~m pfLfbHdv s[lkFemZdF sArDr~mvnAhF kfsfymZ aAgmk`t=l pArmZprfkvp[vetn kfsfymZ aAkl`p pd`Dtfyk` nfsA aAgmZt=lx an`tr~g&hNyvF tfebn s{m vfV`vAsyk`msArDr~m smHg t=lnykrn`nxyAm enAkL y<t`tkf.s{m aAgmkm sdAcAryx(Moral)1 sAep`OSkv sArDr~myn`hfatfrfk`tyk` an`tr~gtvn b[vfn` sArDr~m eEtfhAsfk#vym p&mANekAxvfnfV`cyn`x lk`kfrFm enAkL y<t=y.kAlAm s>t&y mHgfn` epn`vAedn`en` s{mvfxm nfdhia ukilska udkisl jsjD;Ndjhlska hq;`j idrDr~m vfnfV`cykx p[mfeNnelsyf.nfdhs` cfn`tny ek`$z&ekAxgt` ig[n`vFmk` kAlAm s>t&eyhf aAvRtmAnsfk tt`vykx ekAeht`m !k=lk`enAl[ebZ. Eb[vfn` aAvRt mAnsfk s`vBAvykx ps<tly sks`kredn aAcFr~N aAkl`p(itfkfrAy-Prologue) QAnmAr~gyk` els b<zsmy enApfLfgnF.Ey asmZp>r~N k&mevZdyk` b[vfnf.QAnmAr~gey`dF p>r~vgAmFv p&tYOSy lHgAvFemZ upk&myk` elsx(itfkfrAy) epUrANfk#vy BAvftAkfrFmvrdk` enAevtt` Ey Ekm p&mANyk`kr E` os`es` dRS`Xfgtv El`bg[nFm aAvRt mAnsfkmxxmkx mHg pAdn`nk` b[vfn` Ey b<zsmy mHgfn` p&tfeOS`pfty. smZp&dAyvAdFn`x(Traditionalists) ayt`vn ILHg ekAxsvn kAlAm s>t&ey` d[k`evn(smeNAenAgr{-Cousultattions of Preceptor) tmn`eg` VAs`tRvryA kF edyk`y yn VAs`tRn`vhn`es`p&mANekAx g[nFm QAnmAr~gyk` vVeyn` pfLfg[nFm b<zsmy p&tfeOSp kryf.2a[t[mZvfx a[t[mZekenk=x b<zrzn`d emm VAs`tRRn`vhn`es` kfynt[nx eyAdAgt h[kfen`d[yf s[kyk` a[tfvfyh[kfy.Eyx s<zs< pfLft=r emZ p&V`nym mt=kr 5vn prfcZeC~dey`dF dk`vA a[tfb[vfn` n[vt Eyemhf enAdk`vmf.(5 prfcZeC~dy bln`n.) wdpdrAhu;hg f.#rjfhka hulams<s.ekSu iufKda fkd .re hkafkka woyia lrhss.`rejrhdflfrys oevsf.#rjfhka Tyq lshkiEufohlau wOdk.@dySj wjspdrfhka ms<s.ekSu nq|=iufha Z{dkudrA.hg wkqj wkqu;fkdl<yelalls3nqoaO ld,Sk Igz Ydia;Djreka yd Wrefjz, ldYHm"koSldYHm yd .hdldYHm hk ;`kanE cgs,hka.ek fn#oaOidys;Hfhys iZoykajk l:dmqj;a fuhgfydZoksoiqklstkuz ;u.`rejrhd flfrkatk u; isoaOdka;jYfhka f.k mqoa.,hd yd iudch ;`<frdamKhlsrSug W;aiyf.kwe;fuz ld,fhys jeo.;alujQfha YsIHixLHdj wkqj .`rejrhdf.a;;ajh uekSuhs;udjgd jevsu ixLHdjla YsIHhska /ialrf.k ;udf.a ms<sfj<g Tjqkao yev1 wOHdmk ufkdajsoHdj"ixiacsf;aka|@fudaydka"mrsiajrAKd jsfcA;`x."wOHdmk m@ldYk fomdrA;fuzka;`j"n;a;ruq,a,"1996ixjrAOkh"csf;aka|@ fudydka"155msgqj2 w ks 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a.h ld,du iq;a; nq c uq"337-343msgq3 ld,du Ou!h"isrs iSj,S"iuhjO!k uq|@Kd,h"fld<U"1961"44msgqj
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  12. 12. 370 1p<bZebZkteh`t=vAdy xyf. emZan<v V&mN nAmeyn` g[enn aAgmfk smZp&dAyt=l ar~Tvt`smZp>r~N QAnmAr~gyk` idfrfpt`enAv<n<bv p[h[dflfy.emZ yxet` b<zrzn` kAlAms>t&ey`dF‘smeNA enAgr[-Cousultations of Preceptor)’yn<evn` VAs`tRp&mANfk#veyn` g[nFm p&tfeOSpkeL` Ees` VAs`tRn`vhn`es`t` asmZp>r~N QAnmAr~gfkeyk`v sfxfydF oh< an<gmny krn`nAv>V&Avkyn`x ekes`vt` smZp>r~N QAnmAr~gy lbAgt enAh[kfb[vfnf.2 I LHgx kAlAm s<t&ey`dF asmZp>r~N QANmAr~gyk` els p&tfeOSpekAx a[t`et`‘BbZbr{ptAvy (Potentiatity)’EnmZ ehAHdy[yf tmAeg` dRS`Xfyx v[xehn b[vfn` QAnmAr~gyk` krg[nFmyf.3emhf a[tf vrdvn`en` tmAdkfn ehAHdbv tmn`eg`m cft`t p&eOS`pnykf.emZ yxet` tm sfet`sfet` a[tf r[cfar[cf bv, str agtf s`vr{py sh p>r~v s^kl`pmt pdnmZv emm cft`tp&eOS`pny n` sks`vFmyf.Evfx ymZkfsf p&s`t=yk` hrfd v[rdfd kfyA Em p&s`t=ty sRj<vnfrFOSNyekAx vfmsnvA evn<vx sfzkrn`en` Em p&s`t=tyeds ihtkF tmAeg`cft`tp&eOS`pny nm[tf pAx kN`nAwfyt=lfn` Eeds b[lFmyf.emZ mHgfn` yTAr~Tdr~VnyvnvAevn<vx adAL p&s`t=ty pfLfbHd vfkRtfv<n< menA`cft&yk` mnes` pfLfbfM<evZ. fmm k&fyAvlfynfsA mns aAvrNyvFmkx lk`vn atr b<d`Dfmy k&fyAvlfykx Ey bADAvkf.vfprFt dRS`Xfyk` tmAeg` mnes` hxg[nFmx tm s^kl`pmy eh`t= udvZkrg[nFm mHgfn` mnes`p[h[dflfbv n[tfevZ.sArDr~m pfLfbHdv a[tfkrgn`nA vfnfV`cyn` nfv[rdf E``vA enAvFm krNekAxegn jFvn p&tfpdAv ar~Tvt`krg[nFmx enAh[kfevZ.4 NjHrEm;d hkak nq|=r|=kaf.a jspdrhg ,lajS m@;sfCIamjQjlsm@jSKhkaf.a u;h uska woyialrhslsishuz Ys,amhla.ek iuyrmqoa.,hka olajkl`Y,;djh wkqj Tjqka lshkyeu fohlau wjspdrfhkams<s.ekSuhs fuhg fya;`j hulalshk mqoa.,hd wkqj iuyreka ta lshkfoa ms<s.kakg leu;sjSuhsiuyrjsg wm hula ms<s.kafka Tyqf.a ndysrm@isoaOsh wkqjhsiufKda fkd .re hkafkysoS tu ndysrm@isoaOsh ms<s.kakg is|=fjhs fuzjd fufia ms<s.kakg fya;`j tfia ms<s.;afoa we;euzjsg i;Hjshyelshstfy;a wi;HjSugo mqZMjktksid fuzjd Z{dfkdamdhf,i fn#oaO orAYkh fkdms<s.kshsjevsfokdhulams<s.;a muKska fkdjsuid ms<s.ekSula fn#oaO orAYkfhys fkdue;shsiuyr wd.usl l;!Djrekag irAjZ{;dZ{dkhfkdue;sksid ta whf.a uqjska .s,sfyk ishZMjpk i;Hhehs ms<s.;hq;`hehs iuyrelsh;s fuz wkqj hula nqoaO jpkhkuz th iqNdIs; jpkh hhs iuyre lsh;sthg fya;`j nq|=r|=kaoirAjZ{nejsksirAjZ{hkk nq|=r|=kajsiska sjsOdldrf,i js.@y fldgwe;irAjZ{jSu fyda fkdjSujs.@yhg wkqjmj;Sth ;udg .e<fmknj iZoykafldgwe;wfkla wd.uz j, irAjZ{ hkak ish,a,1 w ks";s;a:dh;k iq;a;"fn#iuzixia"598msgqjmqnzfn l;x fLd mk NslaLfj idrf;d mpzpd .pzP;x kfyd;s Pkafod jd jdhdfudjd box jd lrKshx boxjd wlrKSyka;sb;s lrKShdlrKSfh fLdmk ipzpf;df:;f;d wkqm,nzNshudfk uqgzGiai;Skx wkdrlaLdkx jsyr;x k fyd;s mpzp;a;x iyOuzusfld iuKjdfod2 oS ks 2"Wmd,s iq;a;"nqcuq"60msgqj3 w ks 1";sl ksmd;"uydj.a. ld,du iq;a;"nq c uq"377-343 msgq4 u ks 1"iSykdo j.a.h"pQ< iSykdo iq;a;"159msgqjfofjudp NslaLfj osjzGsfhdNj osgzGs p jsNj osgzGspfmiuqohZ[p wF:.uZ[p wiaidoZ[p wdoSkjZ[p ksiairKZ[p h:dN~;x kmamcdkka;s"fmkmrsuqpzpka;s cd;shd crdh urfKk fidflys mrsfofjys |=lafLys fodukiafiys Wmdhdfiysk mrsuqpzpka;s|=laLiaud;s jodus
  13. 13. 371olS hkwrA:fhka f.kwe;tfy;a iEufudfyd;u we;s irAjZ{njla ;ukajykafiag fkdue;snjnq|=rcdKkajykafia m@ldYl<yks.KaGkd:mq;a;yg iEufudfyd;lu mj;akd irAjZ{njla we;snj lshhstfy;a tnZ|= irAjZ{njla fkdue;snjo th ms<s.;fkdyelsnjo ;ukajykafiag tnZ|=irAjZ{ njla fkdue;snjo th ms<s.;fkdyelsnjo ;ukajykafiag tnZ|=irAjZ{njla fkdue;snjof;jscAcd jpzPf.d;a; iQ;@fhys iZoykalr;s(uks1"481msg"PTS) ;ukajykfia ieujsgu irAjZ{ hehs lshku;h m@;sfCIamlrk nq|=kajykafia hfula ud irAjZ{hehs lshhskuz Tyqug wi;Hfhka fodaIdfrdamKh (wnzNdpslaLkh) lrknj;a"hfula ud ;@sjsoHdokafkahehs lshkafkakuz th kshu;;ajh m@ldYlsrSula hehs lsh;s fuzz u;h ;yjqrelrk idOlhlakuz mgsiuzNsodu.a. yd l:dj;a:qjhk miqld,Sk lD;Skays (inznZ[aZC|+ inznoiaidjS)yer iZ.sidys;Hfhys lsisu;ekl nq|=rcdKkajykafia yeZoskajSug irAjZ{hk jpkh fkdfhoSuhs ihtkF eh`t=nfsA BbZbr{ptAvy ehvt` yhpt`y[yf s^kl`pny krgn`nAcft`t s^kl`pyn`mfN<mZ dHw< ekAxegn sArDr~m vfnfV`cyx lk`kfrFm prfp>N% QAnmAr~gFy kxy<t`tk` enAvnbvb<zsmy pvsA Ey b[h[rkryf.ihtfn` sAkcZCAkL ekAxs` sfyl`l ayt`vn`en` smZp&dAyvAdFn`xyf.1 I LHg ekAxs b<d`DfvAdFh<y(Rationalists) emZ ekAxsx v[exn`en` p[rNf upnfSd` eBUtfkvAdFn`, s^VyvAdFn`,eBUtfkvAdFn` hA aAjFvkyn` atrfn` v[wf edenk=t`y.tr~ky hA an<mAnyemAv<n` vfsfn` QAnmAr~gyels pfLfgnF.emZ pfrfs hHzn`vA tfebn`en`‘tk`kf vfm^sF’nmfnf.tr~kymHgfn` lbn QAny pfrfp<n` QAnyk` h[xfyx pfLfgn`nA ekAxsyf.E` cfn`tAmy QAny ov<n`egn` avDArNyevZ.sn`dk s>t&ey`dF emm k&myd QAnyl[bFmx enAs<zs<bv avDArNykrtfebZ.E`d kr[N< strk` pAdkkr egny.2(a)s<tk`tf tmZ’pf ehAtf-hrf d[n<mk` edn tr~kyk` vfyh[kfy.(aA)zt`tk`tfkmZ’pf ehAtf-v[rdf d[n<mk` edn tr~kyk` vfyh[kfy.(a[)tTA’pf ehAtf-Ees`d vfyh[kfyf.(a{)aHOd`HOdTA’pf ehAtf-an` ay<rk`d vfyh[kfy.3 stYtAv g[n s`Tfr vVeyn` shtfkvfy enAh[kfnfsA tr~kyd ast=x<dAyk d[n<mZ mHgkf.emZ b<d`DfvAdF k&myxm a[t=HPvn QAnmAr~g strk`(4)kAlAm s<t&ey`dF asmZp>r~N QnmAr~gvVeyn` slkA p&tfeOS`p kr tfebZ.E`vAnmZ(a)tk`k eh`t=-tr~kyx EkHgb[vfn` pfLfg[nFm.(aA)ny eh`t=-nYAn>k+lb[vfn` pfLfg[nFm.(a[)aAkAr prfvftk`k-ay<r[ vfsfn` pfLfg[nFm.(a{)dfxZXf nfj~ODAnk`Kn`tf-tm dRS`Xfyx EkHgy[yf pflfg[nFm.1 Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge,K.N.Jayatileke,Delhi,1980,p.170.2 u ks 2"ikaol iq;a;"nqcuq"322msgqj3 u ks 2 ikaol iq;a; nq c uq 322 msgqj
  14. 14. 372 kAlAm s>t&ey` sHdhn`vn emm QAnmAr~g strm‘tk`kf vfm^sF’ehvt` tr~ky mHgfn` lbnQAny pfrfp<n` QAnmAr~gyk`els pfLfgnF.Eeht` b<zsmy pfrfp<n` stYy l[bFmx ihtkF QAnmAr~g str asmt` ehyfn` tr~ky QAny l[bFemZ Ekm mAr~gyels p&mANykr g[nFm b<zsmy b[h[rkryf.1 emm b<d`DfvAdF(Rationalists) ekAxsx ayt`vn kAlAm s>t&eyhf epenn QAnmAr~gyk`vn<ey`‘tk`k eh`t=(Logical Implication)’nmZ tr~ky Ekm QAnmAr~gy vVeyn` pfLfgt` 2ekAxsyf. b&Ah`mN smZp&dAy yxet` upnfSd`y<gyt=L bfhfv> Em b&Ah`mN smZp&dAey` yAgy hAyQy ynedekhf amAn<Sfk mn<SY hA s#vGAtnvlx vfr[d`Dv vferA`DAkl`p egAn<kLpfrfsov<n`eg`‘tr~ky’upeyA`gFkrgt`h.stY vVeyn`m upnfSd`y<gyt=L bfhfv> aAgmfk kN`wAymZupnfSd` a[t[mZ ig[n`vFmZ p&kAVkL ay mns eBUtfk p&s`t=tyk` vVeyn` s[lk+h.3CAe$dA`gYupnfSdey` p&DAn dAr~VnfkyA els s[lekn ud`dAlk aAr[NF (egUtm) sRSfvryA emZ mtyd[r{ aeykf.oh< mns aAt`meyn` evn`v> eBUtfk z&vYyk` vVeyn` hHzn`vA tfebZ.4 emm adhs` upnfSd` ig[n`vFmZt=lfn` mt=v<en` s#vGAtn vfm<k`tfy p[t+ hf^sAvAdF b&Ah`mNig[n`vFmZvlx vfr[d`DvFmx Em ig[n`vFmZvlx phrg[sFmx prm sArDr~myk` avfhf^sAvk`elsov<n` vfsfn` s[lk+b[vfnf.5nm<t` eBUtfkvAdF rAm<vk`pfx sArDr~mpfLfbHd kfsfz aAcArvfdYAt`mkps<bfmk` bl enAp[v[t`evn bv ov<n`x v[xhFmk` enAvfnf.emZ nfsA sArDr~mFy pOSeyn` emZupnfSd` ig[n`vfmZ asmZp>r~Nels s[lek`.V&mN smZp&dAy atrfn` ajftek`skmZbl d[r{eBUtfkvAdF dr~Vnyd ayt`vn`en` emm ekAxsxyf.6 cAr~vAk dr~Vny mHgfn`d emm eBUtfkvAdFig[n`vFmZVk`tfmt`vfy.7kAlAms>t&ey`dF emmig[n`vFmZ pffrfp<n` QAnmAr~gels pflfenAgn`en` sArDm% vD%ny sHdhA in`kfsfz pfx<vhlk`enAs[lesn h<z eBUtfkvAdF ig[n`vFmk`b[vfnf.tr~ky g=r[krgt` tvt`ekAxsk` v>ey` s^VyvAdFn` ehvt` s[ky pAdkkr sfy ig[n`vfmZ idfrfpt`kL aAgmfk smZp&dAyyf. V&mN smZp&dAy atrfn` s^jy ebl`lxZXfp<t`t VAs`tRvryA embHz aAgmfk ig[n`vFmk`idfrfpt`kL ekenkf.8oh<eg` ig[n`vFmZ amrAvfk`eKZpvAdy nmfn` h[Hdfn`evn aeQyvAdF,s^VyvAdFaeQyvAdF,s^VyvAdF s`TAvryk` a[s<r[ kLAv> dr~Vn mAr~gyk`vfy.QAnmAr~gy vVeyn`oh<BAvftAkL s^VyvAdF s`TAvry kfsfz sArDm% vD%n k&fyAvlfykx t=w< enAzn` ig[n`vFmk`1 w ks 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a. ld,du iq;a;"nqcuq"377-343 msgqj2 u ks 2"ikaol iq;a;"nqcuq"322msgqj3 Ndr;Sh oY!kh"kdrdjs, Ouzur;k ysus yd yevsmkak, mZ[aZ[df,dal ysus"jsoHd,xldr hka;@d,h"le<Ksh"1950"14msgqj4 Pdkafoda.H WmksIoh"111"Tusf;H;oCIruqo.S:uqmdiS; Tus;shH+oa.dh;s ;fiHdm jHdLHdkuz5 ixCIsma; Ndr;Sh orAYkh"weuzysrshka;"wOHdmk fomdrA;fuzkafjz m@ldYkh"fld<U"1970"xixmsgqj6 oS ks 1"iduZ[aZ[M, iq;a;"nqcuq"96msgqjk;a:s uydrdc oskakx k;a:s hsgzGx k;a:s yq;x"k;a:s iqlg|=lalgdkx luzudkx M,x jsmdfld"k;a:s whx f,dfldk;a:s mfrd f,dfldk;a:s ud;dk;a:s ms;dk;a:s i;a:dTzmmd;sld k;a:s f,dfl iuKn@dyauKd iuzu.a.;d iuzud mgsmkakd fh bux p f,dlx mrx p f,dlx ihxwNsZ[aZ[d ipzPslFjdmfjoka;s7 pdrAjdl orAYkfhys wdoS l;Djrhd ms<snZo jsjsO u;hka mj;Sflfiafj;;a uq,afmf,a WmksIoa iDISka w;rihq.ajd ffrCp kuz iDIsjrfhlq jQ nj;a fudyqf.a b.ekajSuz fN#;sljdoS pska;khg mokuzjQ nj;a i,lkq,efnz8 oS ks 1"iduZ[aZ[M, iq;a;"nqcuq"98msgqj
  15. 15. 373vfy.Eyfn` p&DAn vVeyn` sfzekr[en` dRS`Xfg&hNy kfrFemn` v[LkFsfxFmpmNf.sArDm%vD%nykfrFemZ kfsfz pflfevtk` idfrfpt` enAv> nfsAm emm ig[n`vFmZ QAnmAr~gyk` els asmZp>r~N aAvRt v[s<N< mAnsfk mxZxmk` bfhfkrvn`nAv> mtvAd vfy. EmnfsA QAnmAr~gyk`els emm s^VyvAdFn`eg` ig[n`vFmZ asmZp>r~Nb[vfn` kAlAm s>t&ymHgfn` E`vA b[h[reker~.emm ekAxs ayt`vn<ey`d b<d`DfvAdFn`vn(Rationalists)tr~ky hAan<mAny p&mANekAxgt` pfrfsxyf.b<d`DfvAdF ekAxs ayt`vn ILHg ekAxsvn<ey` aAjFvkyn`y.aAjFvkeyA` akfrfyvAdy ek`$z&ekAxgt` aeh`t=kvAdy s^sAr V=d`DvAdy v[nf ig[n`vFmZd[r{h.aAjFvkeyA` pArmZprfk g=r[vr[n` tfedenk= g[n vfV`vAs kLh.nn`dvcZc,kfs s^kfcZc,yn p>r~v g=r[vr[n`x ant=r[v ov<n`eg` Dm%y p&cArykL etevnf g=r[vryAv>ey` V&mNsmZp&dAyxayt` mk`KlF egA`sAly. aAjFvkyn`eg` nAykyAels h[Hdfn`evn mk`KlF egA`sAl pfLfbHdv eejnyn`eg` ps`evnf a^gyv> BAgvtF s>t&eyhfsHdhn`evn`en` mk`KlF egA`sAl pfHw<sfHgA v[LdFemn` jFvfkAv egngfy p<d`gleyk= bvyf.mk`KlF egAsAl idfrfpt`kL nfytfs^gtfvAdy (Determinism)mHgfn` p<d`gl s`vcZC$dtAvy(Free Will)p&tfeOS`pvn b[vfn` vfvRt mAnsfkt#vykx E` mHgfn` bADAvnbvt` emes` aAvRtmAnsfkbv eh`t=ekAxegn sArDm% pOSeyn` mfnfs<n` agtfgAmFkrvn dhmk`bvt` kfyA b<zrzn` itA tdfn` emm QAnmAr~gy p&tfeOS`pkL ay<r[ a^g=t`trnfkAey` dk`nx l[ebZ.‘mk`KlF’nmZ emA`Gp<r[SyA mfnfs<n`al`ln ekmnk`v[nfyyf EhfdF b<zrzn` dk`vAtfebZ.1a[t[mZ vfx sAmAnYepAzjntAv atr emAh<eg` Dr~my ebehvfn` jnp&fyv pvtfn`nx a[tfbv iht b<zrzn`emAh<eg` Dr~myx mfnfs<n` vsHgvgfybv dk`vnld sHdhn an<v epen`. ;rAlh ;j;a Z{dfkdamdhlsyq|=flaj, ;rAlhu u;msysgd Z{dkh ,oyelshehs nq|=kajykafia fkdjod<y tuksid ;rAlhu;Z{dkh,enSu nq|=r|=kag wNsu;fkdfjzml`Olpzpdhk bosrsm;alf<a ;rAlhu; f.dvkeZ.`Kq orAYkhls2;lalmrsydlfoa i;HjSug wi;HjSugo bvwe;tfy;a i;Hh ks;ru;rAldkQl~,hsfn#oaO orAYkfha w.hlrkafka m@;HCIKfhka m@;Hd;aufjzokShjYfhka ,nd.kakdZ{dkhhs(mpzp;a;x fjzos;nzfnda jsZ[aZC|+yS;s)Y@e;shg yd wdma;hg nq|=iuh myrfokafka tnejsks3 ;rAlfhka fyda Y@e;sfhka fyda wdma;fhkafyda fkdj hulams<s.;hq;af;a Z{dkhu fufyhjdnj;anqoaOjpkh mjd tfia Z{dkh fufyhjd ms<s.;hq;`nj;a"ld,duiQ;@fhys iZoykalr;sfn#oaOb.ekajSuz wkqj ;rAlYnzofhka .uHjk wrA:lsysmhlawe;4nq|=iufhys ;rAlh m@;sfCIamlrkafkathska lskuzwrA:hlskao hk nj jsuishhq;`hsthg fya;`j nq|=iufhyso ;rAlh ;rAlh tla;rd iSus;m@udKhlg Wmfhda.Slr.kakdnejskstkuz fn#oaO Ndjkdl@u.ek lshkjsg m@:uOHdk .;1 w ks 1"tll ksmd;h"nqcuqrd.x NslaLfjz wZ[afZ[a talmq.a.,uzms iukqmiaidusfhd tjx nyqck ys;dhmgsmkafkd nyqck wiqLdh nyqf;d ckiai wkJ:dh wys;dh |=laLdh fojukqiaidkx h:hsox NslaLfjz ulaL,Sfuda> mqrsfida2 oS ks 1"iduZ[aZ[M, iq;a;"nqcuq"98msgqjkF:s kF:s yka;djd >df;;djd fid;djd idfj;d jd jsZ[aZ[d ;djd jsZ[aZ[dfm;d jd fhdms ;sKafyk i;af:k iSix csJo;sk fldps lZ[aps cSjs;d fjdfrdfm;s i;a;kakx fhj i;aldhdkx wka;frAk i;a:x jsjrukqm; ;S;s3 kQ;k iudch iZoyd fn#oaO cSjk orAYkh"f.dv.u ux., ysus"Y@S ,xld iuQmldr jsoHd,hSh uq|@Kd,h"fmd,af.d,a,"1998"115 msgqj4 u ks 2"ikaol iq;a;"nqcuq"322msgqj
  16. 16. 374mqoa.,hdg ;u is;`js,s yiqrejd.ekSfuzoS ;rAlh wjYHnj iZoykalr;s(oSks 1"73-75182-183uks1" 159181&435-436 wks1"53&188msg P.T.S.) ta wkqj ;rAl Ynzofhka .uHk wrA:lsysmhla we;thska fn#oaO orAYkd.; Z{dkudrA.hms<s.kafka lskuz wrA:fhkao $(w);rAlh hkq wodk.@dySfkdjknjhsfuz wrA:fhka nq|=rcdKkajykafia ;rAlhm@;sfCIamfkdlr;sudwkqiaifjzk hk ;kays fuka wjspdrj;af,i .ekSfuzoS ;rAlh m@;sfCIamlr;s(wd)ifya;`lnj(iksodkx imamdgsydrshx)hk wrA:h ;rAlkfhka .efkhsimamdgsydrshx nqoafOdaOuzuxfofia;s hkqfjka fhfokksid ifya;`lnj fn#oaO orAYkfhys ms<s.efkhstuksid ifya;`lnjhk wrA:fhkao nq|=rcdKkajykafia ;rAlh m@;sfCIamfkdlr;s1(we)jspdrmQrAjl jsoHd;aulnjo ;rAlfhka n,dfmdfrd;a;`fjhsfuz wrA:fhkao fkdfjz fn#oaOorAYkfha ;rAlh m@;sfCIam lrkafka2 fn#oaO orAYkfhys ;rAlh m@;sfCIamlrkafka l`ukwrA:hlskao hkakg fydZou ksorAYkhlaikaol iQ;@fhys thstawkqj fmfkkafka th lsishuz m@d.dkQN~; ks.duS;rAll@uhla wkqj pska;kYla;sh fufyh jSfuka tla;rdl@shd moaO;shla wkqj ,efnkaklanjhsm@d.dkQN~;j ;rAlfldg jsjsOks.ukf.k h:dfndaO ;;ajh .ek wjfndaOhla ,nd.;fkdyelsnj nq|=rcdKkajykafia jod<yud;lalfya;` hkafkka thhs Wkajykafia foaYkdlf<atu wrA:fhka ;rAlh m@;sfCIamjshks.duSf,i;rAl lsrSfuka iuyrjsg wfmaCIs; i;Hfhys Pdhdud;@hla fyda ,efnkakg;a mqZMjkiuyrjsg fkd,efnkakg;a mqZMjktuksid ;rAlh iuyr jsg i;H jkakg;a bvwe;wi;Hfjkakg;a bvwe;tnejska nq|=rcdKkajykafia ;rAlh m@;sfCIaml<y b<d`DfvAdF(Rationalists)ekAxsx ayt`vn kAlAm s>t&eyhf asmZp>r~N QAnmAr~gyk` elsp&tfeOS`pkL ILHg smZp&dAynmZ‘nYAy eh`t=(Nomological Implication)’yn nYAy pdnmZkrymZkfsf p&s`t=tyk` pfLfbHdv sArDm% vfnfV`cykx EleMn`nAv> smZp&dAyyf.nYAy p&mANkrgn`nAQAnmAr~gy nYAydr~Vnyyf.3nYAy VbZdey` p[t=r[N<(vYAp`t)aT%ynmZ‘p&mANy mHgfn` aT%prFOSNy’yn<yf.elA`keyhf dty<t= sfyl`lm p&tY OSAdF ct=r~vfD p&mANyn`egn` prFOSAkrnehyfn` emZ dr~Vny nYAy nmfn` p&sfd`Dy.Em ct=r~vfD p&mANnmZ,p&tYOSy,an<mAny,upmAn hAVbZdyyf.4an<mAn p&mANeyhfEn p&tfQAdF pHOd`cAvyv vAkYeyA`m‘nYAy’VbZdey` vfeV`SAr~Tyyf.5p&tYOSeyhf nYAyyx avkAVyk`n[t.nYAeyhf p[v[t`man<mAneyhfmy. p&tYOS aAgm edkfn` dk`nAld edy an<v ap&tYOS edyd an<mAneyn` avebA`Dkrnehyfn`an<mAn sADkv> nYAy an`vFOSAyyfd an`vFOS vVeyn` pvt`nA ehyfn`‘an`vFOSFy vfdYA’y[yfd1 u ks 1"uyd hul j.a.h"uyd ipzpl iq;a;"nqcuq"584msgqjjsjspzfpj ldfuys jsjpzp wl`if,ys Ouzfuysijs;lalx ijspdrx jsfjlcx mS;siqLx mGux COdkx WmiuzmcAc jsydisx2 u ks 1"Tmuzu j.a.h"pQ< idfrdamu iq;a;"nqcuq"488msgqj"bO n@dysuK NslaLq jsjspzfpj ldfuys jsjspzpwl`if,ys Ouzfuys ijs;lalx ijspdrx jsfjzlcx mS;siqLx mGuCOdkx WmiuzmcAc jsyr;swhuzms fLd n@dyauKOuzfud Z[dKoiaifkk W;a;rs;frd p mKS;;rdp3 kHdh NdIHh"111"m@udffKr:!mrSlaIKx kHdh%4 kHdh orAYkh"wCImdo kHdh iQ;@"113"m@;HCIdkqudk Wmudj Ynzo5 kHdh iQ;@"1132
  17. 17. 375 1nYAy VAs`t&y hHzn`vn< l[ebZ. emhf p&tYOSy p&mANyk` vVeyn` nYAyvAdFn` p&mAN krgn`nA nm<z Ehf aw<pAw<kmZ shfty.emAv<n`eg` p&DAn p&mANy els g[enn`en` an<mAnyyf.nYAyx an<k+lv> an<mAnyyf. nYAy vnAhF s^kl`pFyb[vfn` mAnsfk aAvRtbvk` p[en`.EmnfsAemAv<n` p&mANkrgn`nA kfsfz p&s`t=tykfn` p>N%mAnsfk vfksftbvk` a[tfkrvFemhflA asmt`vnb[vfn` emAv<n` idfrfpt` krn`nAv> QAnmAr~gy smZp>r~N QANmAr~gyk` els b<zsmy pfLfenAgnF. sArDm% vD%neyhflA emZ QAnmAr~gy ast=x<dAyky.Eemn`m an<mAn p&mANy BAvftA ekAxQAny gevZSNykfrFemZdF Ix BAvftAkrn ld nAmyk`nmZ tr~kyyf.tr~kyx amtrv‘vAd’nAmeyn` g[enn tr~myx s<zs< eh`t= idfrfpt`kfrFmd kr a[t.emes`ehyfn` kAlAm s>t&ey`dk`vn aAkAryx sArDr~m pfbfHdvFm sHdhA avVYkrn cfn`tn nfdhs p>r~NvVeyn` nYAyg=r[ekAxgt` emZ kN`wAymZ t=lfn` p&mANy enAkrnldbv epen`. khfya;` nq|=rcdKkajykafia jsiska m@;sfCIams; wgfjks Z{dfkdamdhhhskhfya;` ms<snZoj jsuiSfuzoS jsfYaIfhka wmf.a wjOdkh ffck ima;Nx.SkHdh(wfkaldka;jdoh) yd wkqudkm@udKhflfryswjOdkh fhduql<hq;`h2ffckYdia;D jO!udk uydjSr nq|=r|=ka Orudk ld,fhysu ush.shnjld,duiQ;@fhysu iZoykajnejska Wkjykafiaf.a iuld,slfhl` jYfhka Tyqf.a bekajSuflfrysie,ls,a, fhduqlsrSu jeo.;ahffck ima;Nx.Skho Tyqf.a foaYkdjlsiHdoajdohhkqo fuhgujHjydrjkaklsffckd.u f.dvkeZ.S we;af;a tu iHdoajdoh fkdfyd;a ima;Nx.S kHdhu; nj(iHdoajdfodNs ffckd.u imnScuz)ffck orAYkidrkuz lD;shg wkqj ks.ukh l<yelshs wfklaw;g iHdoajdoh wfkaldka;njo iZoykal<hq;`hs wfkaldka; isoaOdka;h tys mokuh(iHdoajdo uxcrSldrsld5)(iHdos;s wjHhx wfkaldka; dkafoHda;lx l;%iHdoajdfod wfkaldka;jdfoda ks;H wks;HdoS wfkalOrAu Ynff,l jia;` wNm@m.ub;s)iHdoa wia;s(hula ta iajrEmfhkau jSu)iHdoa kdia;s(hul fkd;snSu)iHdoa wjla;jHh(huzlsisjlafjzkuz thg ysus;;ajh lsjfkdyelsnj fkdfyd;a wksrAjpkShnj)iHdoia;s kdia;Hjla;jH(hulawe;snjla fyda ke;snjla fyda lsjfkdyelsnj)fuz ima;Nx.S khhs f,#lsl pska;kh oshqKqjSug(bO f,dal pska;dh)usi mrf,dj oshqKqj iZoyd(mrf,dal pska;dh)fuzjd fya;` fkdjknj;a"funZ|= m@udKhkaf.ka t<fUk pska;k ksYaps; jYfhka i;Hhehs ks.ukhl< fkdyelsnj;a" idudkH Z{dkhusi mQrAKm@;HCIZ{dkhla fuzuZ.ska fkd,efnknj;a"tuksidZ{dfkdmdhf,i fuzjd .;fkdyelsnj;a fn#oaO u;hhs Z{dfkdamdhhla jYfhka ;;ald,Sk iuyrodrAYkslhkajsiska wkqudkho ms<sf.k we;mgspzpiuqmamdoh jsia;rlrk iuyrwjia:dj, wkajhZ{dkh.ek iZoyka fjzld,hla ;siafia m@jD;a;jQisoaOshl taliajrEmh foin,d th wkd.;ld,fhys is|=fj;ehs fuhska woyialrhsfn#oaO orAYkfhys wkqudkhg ,efnk;ek wkqudk iQ;@fhys iZoykafjhstludkhla wkqj ;j;audkhla .ekSu1 kHdh Ydia;@uz"kHdh iQ;@"111"m@;HdCId.udNjHduSCIs;iHd lajSCIK ukajSCId";hd m@j;!k b;Hd;ajSlaIslskHdh jsoHd2 u ks 3"foajoy iq;a;"nqcuq"3msgqj
  18. 18. 376wkqudkhhsflfkla ;uka.ek is;uska wkqka.eko tfiau is;hskuz thidjoH jQjlanj nqoaOjpkfhysiZoykaj we;(uks1"97msg P.T.S.)wkqudkfhka wjsmrS;Z{dkh fkd,efnzbka ,efnkafka idudkHZ{dkh muKlsth ,sx.iuznJOhwkqj ixjdlHdkqidrfhka ,efnk oekquls nq|=iuh ms<s.kq,nkafka YdlaId;aZ{dkh usi wkqfuzh Z{dkhla fkdfjznq|=kajykafia fn#oaOZ{dkudrA.fh ka wfmaCIdlf<a mrsZ{dk"myd;nzn"ipzPsld;nzn"Ndfjz;nzn"wdoS jpkj,ska fmfkk mrsoswmg ks.ukhl< yelafla fn#oaO Z{dkudrA.h orAYkfhka m@;Hd;auf,i idlaId;alD;jQ w;SJ|@shorAYkZ{dk iuzm;a;sh nq|=ka jykafiaf.a tlu wNsm@drA:s;drA:hnjhstuksid wkqudkh nq|=kajykafiaf.a jspdrhg ,lajsh wdldrmrsjs;lal hkako nq|=kajykafiaf.a jspdrhg ,lajQ ;j;a Z{dfkdmdhhlslsishuzfohlaiuznJOfhka tyswdldrlsysmhla muKlan,d js;rAlkfhysfhoS huz huz ks.ukj,g t<eUSu wdldrmrsjs;rAlkfhka wfmaCIs;h;j;ajsOshlska lshf;d;a lsishuz m@Yakhla ms<snZoj taldxislf,i n,diuia;hlaf,i ks.ukj,g t<USuhsnq|=r|=ka fuh tla;rd wNsksfjzYhlaf,i i<ld m@;sfCIamfldgwe;id;sNsCIqqjf.a jsZ{dkjdoS oDIaGsh nq|=kajykaafia m@;sfCIamlf<a(jsZ[aZ[dKx ikaOdj;s ixir ;swkZ[aZ[x)fuzksidhtuksid fn#oaO Z{dk udrA.hg wkqj wdldrmrsjs;rAlh ms<s.;hq;` Z{dkm@fNaohla fkdfjz b<d`DfvAdF(Rationalists) ekAxsx ayt`vn kAlAms>t&y mHgfn` asmZp>r~N QAnmAr~gyk`elsp&tfeOS`pft by; QAnmAr~gy vn<ey`‘aAkAr prfvftr~kn(Diver sification of thought)’ehvt`kl`pnAvx an<r{pvn ed` QAnmAr~gyels pfLfg[nFmyf.emhfdFd kl`pnAvx an<r{pvned` 1tmAeg` sftfn` tr~ky egA`crkregn sp&mAN krgnfyf. b<zrzn` p&AgAn<B+t tr~knymHgfn` tmAeg`kl`pnAvx an<r{pvned` sArDm%yk` elsfn` pfLfg[nFmd s^y<k`t s^kl`pnyd QAnmAr~gyk` elsfn` p&tfeOS`pkLh.mk`nfsAdyt` un`vhn`es`xan<v tr~keyhf mfN<mvn`en` sp&mANtAv mfs stYyenAevZ.EmnfsA ymZkfsf tr~knyk`sp&mANv>pmNfn` Ey stYy[yf adhs`vn`en` n[t.Ees`m Eb[vfn` Ey sArDr~m vD%nypfNfsivhl`vn QAnmAr~gyk` elsfn` pfLf g[enn`en`d n[t.2 Evfx ekenk=x emes` g[xHPvk` a[tfvfy h[kfyf.EnmZ kAn`tAvx ar~ht`PlyVAOSAt`kfrFmxpvA h[kfyAvk` a[tfbv b<zrzn` pvA pfLfegn tfbfydF kAn`tAvx p[vfd`d lbAdFemZdF b<zrzn` m[lfbvk` d[k`vFmxt`,aS`Xgr[Dm% nAmeyn` vfnyx atfer~k vYvs`TAvk` BfOS<NFn` ekerhf pmNk`k&fyAt`mk kfrFmxt` b<zrzn` ut`s<kv>ey` EdA BArtFysmAjDm% atr l[bFtfb> smAjyFy s`TAny‘aAkAr prfvftr~k ny’kfrFmt=lfn` bvt`,p[vfdf s^s`TAvt=lx aAgn`t=k kAn`tAvk` BfOS<Nfyk`els bHdvA bAhfr smAjey` a[yx hfmfvtfb> p<r[SADfptYy yxet` kAn`tAv vfsFemZ smAj avVYtAvy s[lkfl`lxegn (eyA`gYy[yf sftA)kAn`tAv E`t=lfn` avtk`es`r[vx lk`kfrFmt` sfzkrtfebZ1 w ks 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a.h ld,du iq;a;"nqcuq"377- 343 msgq2 ldrAkagshdkq orAYkh ms<snZo jspdrmQrAjl wOHhkhla"tiacSweuzjSrisxy"le<Ksh jsYajjsoHd,hShm@ldYkhls"1998"iiimsgqj
  19. 19. 377yn`n n>tn pV`cAt` nvYvAdFn`egn`(The Part of Post modernism)ekAxsk`v> s`t&FvAdFn``(Femanism)nHgntr~kykf. ov<n` dk`vn`en` BfOS<n` vhn`es` lAx yxt`vvfsFemZ ekAn`ed`sfy aS`Xgr[Dm%vl an`tr~gtey`hry bvyf.E` yxet` p[vfdfsmAjy t=ld BfOS<Nfyk` els p[vfdf bfmxpt` kAn`tAv bAhfr smAjey` a[yxhfmfv tfb> sAmAjfk tt`vyx an<r{pvm p<r[SBfOS>n`x yxt`kr t[bFemZ v<vmnAevn`b<zrzn` k&fyAkLAy yn ecA`dnAv ov<h< El`l krtf. s<nFt esA`pAk v[nf ay BfOS<s^s`TAvx an`tr~g&hNy kfrFemZdFt`,k=lvAdy pn`tfeB`dysmAj asADArNy v[nf kr[N<vldF E`vAx Eerhfv b<zrzn` k&fyAkL aBFt aAkAryt` emmBfOS<NF p[vfd`d smZb$Deyn` k&fyAkL aAkAryt` smZp>r~Neyn`m Ekfenkx prs`pr vferA`DFbvov<h< epn`vAedtf. kAlAm s>t&eyhfdF b<zrzn` nfdhs` cfn`tny pfLfgt`tt` ihtkF t#vy yxet`Em s`vBAvy dk`nx enAl[ebnbv ov<h< v[wfzrxt` avDArNy krtf.1 emyx dFmx a[tfpfLft=r itAmt`m ehAHdfn`‘ebUd`D smAjvfdYA p&evZVy’yn g&$Tey` 96pfx<evZdFDr~m es`n ehxZxfaArcZcf mhtA m[nvfn` smZpfN`wnykr dk`vyf.2kAn`tAvn` BfOS<nFn`vVeyn`aBfnveyn` p[vfdf s^s`TAvt=lx an`tr~g&hny krvA g[nFemZdF p&AeyA`gfk sAmZp&dAyfk BfOS<smAjey` aAkl`pyn` sks`kfrFemZ avVYtAvy pfLfbHdv mhAvAr~y DFres`kr dk`vn kr[Nk`,BfOS<NF p[vfd`d p&mAdkfrFemZ eh`t=v vVeyn` mhAcAr~y nn`des`n rt`npAl3 up<xA dk`vyf. EnmZ kAn`tAv p[vfdfkfrFm sms`tp[vfdf s^vfDAnyekerhf blp{h[kf aAkAry g[nsftAb[lFmyf. b&h`m cyY%BAvy prmaAgmfknfS`XAv vVeyn` s[lekn E` vnvfxt` aArmZBvp[vt=nAv> p<r[SpOSey n` pmNk` smn`vftv> Bfk`S< s^s`TAevZ sAm>hfk yhpt sHdhAkAn`tAvvffsfn` ymZ ymZ k[pvFmZ kLy<t=vtfbfnf.p[vfdfpOSyt=L s`vkFy nFtYAn>k+l p[v[t`mthv<r[kfrFmpfNfs axZXgr[ DmZm p[nvFmx emZ kr[N blp{bv epen`.axZXgr[DmZmvlp&DAnm arm<N BfOS<NFn`eg` kAyfk hA mAnsfk s<rOSftBAvy a[tfkrlFmyf.4 E` mfsk kAn`tAvAdFn`(Femenism)kfynAkAreyn` b<zrzn`‘aAkArprfvftk%ny’kfrFmnfsA 5enAevZ. E` t=L g[bZvn<ey` sArDm% s^rOSNy sHdhA m>Lfk ps<bfm els QAnmAr~gy pfrfsfzvpvt`vAg[nFm pfNfs krnld av^k ut`sAhykf.6yeTA`k`t kr[eNhflA b<zrzn` emZ ay<rfn`s[lkflfmt` enAv<nAnmZ vr~tmAny vnvfx b<zss<n vnsA d[mFemZ ecZtnAevn` y<t=v sfzr[esAymfn` sfxf anYsmyvAdFh< BfOS<n`eg` hA b<zrzn`eg` p<r[SBAvyt` BfOS<NFn`eg` kAn`tA1 Gothama the Man,Sakya or Buddhist Origins,A Manual of Budhism,Outline of Buddhism,EarlyBuddhist Theory of Man Perfected jeks lD;Skays fydakrA ue;sKshf.a;a"rSia fvzjsvzia ue;sKshf.;a ydrdOd l@sIaKkaf.a;a nq|=oyfuz we;euz ixl,am ms<snZojjQ wkjfndaOd;aul m@ldY wvx.`h2 fn#oaO iudcjsoHd m@fjzYh"OrAufiak fygzgswdrpzps"tiaf.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda"fld<U"2001"96msgqj3 Buddist Sociology,Nandasena Ratnapala,pp.70-72.4 Md md"NslaLqKS jsNx.h"mdrdcsld ldKavh"nqcuq"1-3 msgq5 rSgd weuz;DDIagz ue;sksh mjikqfha nq|=r|=ka ldka;djkag mejsoao ,ndoSug is;d isgsfha wdkkao ysushka nq|=r|=kafj;ska th b,a,disgSug fmrd;`j njhswdkkao ysushkaf.a wdhdpkh ksid u fkdjknjhsweh olajkafkanq|=iiqk uq,isgu mqreIflaJ|@Sh jHdmdrhla f,i mej;snjhs6 vhkd fnda,agz ue;sKsh nq|=r|=ka ia;@Skag oafjzIlrkafkl`nj b;d wdfjz.YS,sj m@ldYlrhsweh tfia m@ldYlrkafka tl, mrsirh ms<snZoj nq|=r|=ka i,ldne,Sfuka miq.kq,enQ we;euz ;SrK ms<snZoj wkjfndaOfhks
  20. 20. 378BAvyt` upk&mVFlFels BAvftyxegn E` mHgfn` b<zss<n ekerhf mhjnyAt=L klkfrFmk` a[tfvn aAkAreyn` mtvAdFmy p&cAryk` egnyAmx pvA ehAHdfn` iwkwtfb>bv,b<zrzn` aS`Xgr[Dm%pnvAtfbfydFt` ymZ ymZ avs`TAvl emZ pfLfbHd mhjn ud`eGA`SN p[nn[Hg=N< aAkAry pfLfbHdvfvfD etArt=r[ vfnyg&$Tvl sHdykajSu;`,ska ikd:fjz. sAmAnY smAjy ebAehA`zrx anYyn` vfSeyhf vfvfDastY etArt=r[ p&b$Dkrmfn` E`t=lfn`ymZkfsf mAnsfk vf$dnyk` l[bFmx p<r[zv sfxf pfrfsk`bv b<zrzn` vxhAegn sfxfb[vfnf ps<va[tfvfyh[kf vrdkx klfn`m pfLfymZ eyAdAt[b<evZ.1 kAlAm s>t&y yxet` aAkArprfvftr~kny ehvt` tmAeg` s^kl`pyx EkHg b[vfn` pfLfg[nFmyn kr[N sArDr~mFy pOSeyn` smZp>r~N QAnmAr~gyk` enAevtfyf yn adhs d[rFmx eh`t=vk`vn>ey` emZ mHgfn` aAvRt mAnsfks`vBAvyk` s[kesnb[vfnf. aAvRt mAnsfk s`vBAvyk`t=ldF QAnmAr~gyx iwk` a[tf enAevZ.idfn` ihtkF udAhrNyxsAep`OSkv kAn`tAvx p[vfd`d il`l> s[enkfn`m aS`Xgr[Dm% rhftv lbAzn`en`nmZ EyaAkArprfvftr~kny elsx g[enn`n kf.eh`t=v b<zrzn` kAn`tAvx ar~ht` Plyxpt`vFmxh[kfbv pfLfegn tfbFmy.idfn` a[yx ar~ht` Plyx pt`vFmx h[kfnmZ il`l> s[enkfn`p[vfd`dlbAdFemZ kfsfz g[xHPvk` enAvfnf.nm<t` vfcAr p>v%kv in`obZbxd kl`pnAkrb[lFemZVk`tfyk` b<zrzn`t=L v>b[vfn` pV`cAt`kAlFnv emmgfn` a[tfvfyh[kf smAjmy hA p[vfdfs^s`TAvx sfzvfyh[kf ant=r un`vhn`es` klfn`m zx<evZ vfvRt mAnsfk s`vBAvyk` pfbfznmAnsfk s`vBAvyk` un`vhn`es`hx tfb>b[vfn` aAkArprfvftr~knyx an<v un`vhn`es` kl`pnAkeL`n[t.2 b<d`DfvAdFn`x(Rationalists)x ayt` kAlAm s>t&eyn` p&t`eOS`pft QAnmAr~gyvn<ey` dfxZXfnfj~ODAn k`Kn`tfyyf(Coincide the Aspects).ehvt` tmAeg` dRS`Xfyx EkHgy[yf pfLfg[nFm QAnmAr~gyk` vVeyn` asmZp>r~N Ekk`bv dk`vAtfebZ.dRS`Xfy yn< v[s<n< mAnsfk s``vBAvyyf.mnsv[esn`en` ymZymZ kr[N< mt dRS`Xfy eh`t=evn` vn mAnsfk aAvrNynfsA stYd[kFemZ iwkwa[hfrFyyf.mAnsfk s^vD%nyx Ey bADAvkf.ymZkfsf mAnsfk ps<tlyk`t=ldF QAny glAy{mxsFmAp[nv<vehAt` bADAvn` mt= v<vehAt` Ey b<d`DfvfSyfk vVeyn` asAr~Tk QAnmAr~gyk`els slkn< l[ebZ.(uks1"133 msg"P.T.S.) BASAv hA tr~kny mADYyekAx a[tf vfkl`pny d`vft`v crNy pdnmZ ekAxegna[tfvAk` emn`m dRS`XfcrNy p&tY<ps`TAny ekAxa[t.3emZ an<v dRS`Xf nfpdvFm vfkl`pney`aT%k&fyAkArF#vy vVeyn` pvtF.aAt`m g&hNyd anAt`m g&hNyd dRS`XfvfSyx Ekes`1 fcda;sh OSrfialr uy;d fn#oaO wdrdusl md,kh kuz .@J:fhaoS olajkafka md;sfudlaLfha ijk LJOlh ydNslaLqKS LJOlhfol wjidk LJOlfol nejska tajd ;@smsglhg miqj tl;`lrk,o njhsfuhg idOlf,ipq,a,j.a. md,shg ix.dhldfjz jdrA;dj tl;`jSu olajd;sfnz2 rSgd weuz ;DDIagz ue;sKsh mjikafka nq|=r|=ka l`ukdldrhlska fyda mqreIdOsm;Hh m@shlrkafkl`jS kuzwIaG.reOu! mKjd fyda NsCIqKS Ydikh we;slsrSug l@shdfkdlrk njhs3 fyrla,Sgia(orAYkjdoh"2 l,dmh)"tiacStuzjSrisxy"le<Ksh jsYajjsoHd,hSh m@ldYkhls"1962-63"27msgqj
  21. 21. 379 1ayt`evZ. Eeht` VfOSAvpfNfs dRS`Xfp&eyA`gy avVYvpvtF.i$z&Fybd`Dmnsfn` lbn avebA`DyvfvfD p<d`glyn` atr vfvfDv pvt`nAb[vfn` vfvfDg=Neyn` y<t= dRS`Xfsm<dAy k&mvt`vzr[kxy<t=y.sArDm%yn` vD%nyvFm sHdhA avkAVs[lesn`en` dRS`Xfzr[kfrFemZ p&m<KtAvy 2mty.aAyY%mAr~gey` arm<N sv%dRS`Xf p&hANyyf. dRS`Xfp&hANy yn< an`kfsfvk` enAv tt`vQAnaDfgmyyf.dr~VnQAn smZp&Ap`tfyyf.QAnmAr~gey` avsAn b<d`Dfmy smZp&Ap`tfy:prfpAky emyyf.dRS`Xfy,dRS`Xf s`TAny,dRS`Xf aDfS`XAny,dRS`Xf pr~yY<s`TAny hA dRS`Xf sm<s`TAny pfLfbHd yTA tt`vQAny Ekvr l[bFm asFr[y.EmnfsA k&mvt` dRS`XfnfvArNy hA p&hAny pfNfs b<zrzn` vfsfn` aAyY%mAr~gy ed`VnAkrn ldF.aAyY%mAr~gy yn< ebUd`D QAnmAr~gyyf. pLm<vrx p<d`gleyk= dr~Vn smZpt`tfy lbn`en`emkF ebUd`D QAnmAr~gy smZp>r~NkfrFemnf.pLm<evnf pfyvr esA`tApt`tf QAn dr~Vn B+mfyels DmZms^gnFp&krNey` dk`vAtfebZ.‘ktemZ DmZmA ds`sen`n phAtbZbA? ct`tAerA` dfxZXfgt AshgetA`smZpy<t`t cft`t=p`pAdA,vfcfkfcZCAshgetA` cft`t=p`pAedA`,iemZ DmZmA ds`sen`n phAtbZbA’. DmZms^gnFp&krNey` d[k`evn`en` pLm<QAn dr~VnB+mfyx p[mfnFemn` aAvRt mAnsfks`vBAvy els s[lekn dRS`Xfg&hNy hA E`eh`t=v nfsAm hxgn`nA sfet` vfpfLfsrs`vBAvy(vfcfkfcZCAv) zr[vynbvyf.3prfkl`pft vVeyn` lebn s#vp<d`glAdF dRS`XfnfvArny pfNfst&flOSNAdF dRS`XfnfvArn vfDFn` b<zrzn` vfsfn` upeyA`gFkrgn`nA ldF.4Eb[vfn` kAlAm s>t&ymHgfn` tmAeg` ehA` an<n`eg` ehA` kfsfm aAkArykfn` dRS`Xfy aDfkArykrgn`nAv> mAnsfkp&eOS`pn p&tfeOS`pkrtfebZ.emZ mHgfn` Z{An mAr~gy aAvrNyvnb[vfnf.aAvrNyv> QAnmAr~gy sFmAshfty.stY dr~Vny enAevZ.sArDm% pfbfdvFemZ h[kfyAevn`d y<t=enAevZ.Eb[vfn` kAlAm s>t&ey`dFdRS`Xfy asmZp>r~N QAnmAr~gyk` els slkAivtlfy y<t=bv ed`VnAekAxtfebZ.5 sArDr~m gevZSNeyhflA eyAdAgt` QAnmAr~gyan<v vfn`tkyfn` vg%kLvfx etv[nfekAxsx ayt`vn`en` an<B+tfvAdFh<y(Experientialists).6mDYkAlFn hA m{tkAlFn ebAehA` upnfSd`m<nfvr[n` a[t[mZ aAjFvkyn` sh eejnyn` emZ ekAxsx ayt`evZ.emZ an<v b&Ah`mN smZp&dAey`avsn`ekAxs`v> mDY hA m{t kAlFn upnfSd` m<nfvr[n`d V&mN smZp&dAyx ayt` aAjFvk hAeejn v[nf ekAxs` sfxFemn`d p[h[dflfvn<ey` an<B+tfvAdFn`(Experientialists) b&Ah`mN hA V&mNyn smZp&dAyd`vey`m nfdhs` adhs` gr[kLAv> ebAehA`pfrfsk` emZ smZp&dAh oajfhau jQ njhs.tfukau fuz ia:rh i;Hhg fndfyda wdikakj sfxfyh.1 Ndr;Sh orAYk b;sydih(ffjosl WmksIoa)"vSfcAlZMmyk"rdcH NdId fomdrA;fuzka;`fjz m@ldYkh"fld<U"1963"1msg2 ixCIsma; Ndr;Sh orAYkh"weuzysrshka;"wOHdmk m@ldYk fomdrA;fuzka;`j"1970"5msgqj3 u ks 1"inzndij iq;a;"nqcuq"22msgqjw;a:s fu w;a;d;s jdiai ipzpf;d osgzGs WmamcAc;s4 u ks 2"w.a.sjpzPf.d;a; iq;a;"nqcuq"256msgqj|=lafL f,dfl m;sgzfGd5 oS ks";sl ksmd;h"ld,du iq;a;"fn#iuzixia"638msgqj6 u ks 2"ix.rdj iq;a;"nqcuq"738msgqj;;@ Ndroajdc"tfl iuKn@dyauKd mqnzfn wkkqiaif;iq Ouzfuiqiduxfhj Ouzux wNsZ[aZ[dodh ipzPslFjd osgzGsOuzudNsZ[aZ[d fjdidk mrdusmm;a;d wdoS n@yauprshxmgzcdkd;s"f;diyuiaus
  22. 22. 380 emAv<n`vfsfn` an<dt` QAnmAr~gy ebUd`D QAnmAr~gyx sAep`OSkv pmNk` asmZp>r~NEkk`els s[lkfnf.n[tehAt` b<zsmeyn` prfbAhfrv ebAehA`zrx dfy<N< smZp&dAykx ayt`QAnmAr~gyk` tfb<en` emZ ekAxsxy.1 p<d`glQAny hA at`d[kFmt` atF$z&fyp&tYOSyt` emAv<n`eg` QAnmAr~gyvfy.2emm etvnkN`wAym pfLfbHd s>t&vfvrNy emhfdF slkAb[lFmavVYy.3mj~ODfm nfkAy II,s^grAv s>t&eyhfemm etvn kN`wAym pfLfbHdv vfvrNyvn`en` ov<h< epr enAa[s>vfr{ Dr~myk` pfLfbHdvtmAvfsfn`m vfeV`Seyn` avebA`Dkr sAOSAt` krgt` QAnyk`an<v b&h`mcr~yAv p&kAVkrnpfrfsk`bvyf.4‘ymZ Dr~myk` rAmetemZ tmA vfeV`Seyn`d[n VAOSAt`ekAxevesmfyf p&kAVkryfdE`Dr~my mmd p&tYOSkrmfyf,E` mm enAebA`klkfn` E` Dr~my tmAm vfeV`Seyn` d[n 5VAOSAt`ekAx Eyx ELMvfsfmf yn<evnf.’ mfn` p[h[dflfvn`en` k=mk`d?rAmeg` QAny astYyk`enAevZ.Eeht` Ey jrAmrNnferA`DysdhA p&mANvt`enAevZ’.yn`nyf.edednAeg`m QAnmAr~g Ekm bv mfn`epen`.Etk=zv<vt` BAvnAmAr~geyn` axsmvt ps<kr pfyvrk` idfrfyx tbn`nx sfzht` tv<s`t=mA smt`vfy.Ees`m tvt`a^Vykfn` E` pfyvr atfvfVAl cfn`tn vfp`lvyk`;prfvt%nyk` elsh[Hdfn`vfyh[k`ek` smTcfn`tneyn` vfps`snA vfn`tnyx p&vr~tnyvFemZ k&fyAvlfyd emZt=L g[bZvn b[vfnf.6 sfzht`tv<s`t=mA ud`dkrAmp<t`teg` ig[n`vFm an<gmnykeL` h<zpfLfg[nFmZ mAt&eyn`(ek`vl^sd`DA mt`tek`n) QAny p&kAVenAkrn nfsyf.7QAny uedsA h<zBAvnAmy p&QAv upeyA`gFkrgt` pfrfsx ayt`v<vt` b<zrjANn`vhn`es` ov<n`eg` QAnyx sFmAenAvF idfrfyx gmn`kLVAs`tRvryAy.emZ an<v b>zrjANn`vhn`es` an<B+tfvAdF(Experientialists) ekAxsx ayt`v>evk=v<vt`emkL p&kxvsfxf an<B+tfvAdFn` atrfn` uss`m b<d`Dfmy prfpAkyxpt`vsfxf ud`dkrAmp<t`t pvA‘envsHOd`HOdAnAsHOd`HOdAytny’yn ar{pAvcr strvn DYAneyn` tmn`eg` QAnmAr~gey` 8vD%ny sFmAkregn sfxFbvt` emhfkfsfymZ aphs<vk` zx< b<zrzn` m<lfn` ud`dkrAmp<t`teg`VfSYeyk=v oh<eg` k&mvfDFn` an<gmnkr ud`dkrAmp<t`t p[mfNf ar{pAvcr strvn DYAnyxmp[mfNfyt` in`d s{hFmkx pt`enAvF QAnmAr~gey` tv ebAehA` idfrfyx yA h[kfbvd[n rAm1 oS ks 1"n@yaucd, iq;a;"nqcuq"22msgqjwdma;ukajdh mOdkukajdh wkqfhda.ukajdh wmamudoukajdhiuzudukisldrukajdh ;:drEmx fpf;diudOsx Mqi;sh:d iudysf; ps;af;a wfkljsys;x mqnzfnzksjdixwkqiair;s ia2 Lq ks"PpzpJO j.a.h"nqcuq3 Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge,K.N.Jayatileke,Delhi,1980,p.356.4 ucACOsu ksldh 2"ix.rdj iq;a;"nqcuq"754msgqjwNscdkdus fLd mkdyx ms;`ilaliai luzukaf; iS;dhcuznqpzPdhdh ksikafkd jsjspzfpj ldfu mGucACOdkx WmiuzmcAc jsyrs;d ishd kq fLd tfid u.af.dfndOdh5 ucACOsu ksldh 1"wrshmrsfhaik iq;a;"nqcuq"404msgqjhkakQyx hx Ouzux rdfud ihx wNsZ[aZ[d ipzPslFjdWmiuzmcAc jsyrduS;s mfjfois";iai Ouzuiai ipzPslsrshdh mofyhHka;s fid fLd wyx NslaLfj k psriafijLsmamfuzj ;x Ouzux ihx wNsZ[aZ[d ipzPslFjd WmiuzmcAc jsydisx6 u ks 2"ix.rdj iq;a;"nqcuq"756-758msgq7 u ks 1"Umuzu j.a.h"wrshmrsfhqik iq;a;"nqcuq"405msgqjk fLd rdfud bux Ouzux flj,xioaOdu;a;flk ihx wNsZ[aZ[d ipzPslFjd WmiuzmcAc jsyrduS;s mfjoiswoaOd rdfud Ouzux cdkx miaix jsydiS;s rdfud8 u ks 1"Umuzu j.a.h"wrshmrsfhqik iq;a;"nqcuq"405msgqjtjx jq;af; NslaLfj Woaofld rdumq;af;dfkjiZ[aZ[dkdiZ[aZ[dh;kx mfjois
  23. 23. 381p<t`tegn` evn`vF nvcfn`tnyk` os`es` tm QAngevZSNy idfrfyxm egnyAmx kl`pnAkfrFmvfvRt QAngevZSyk=eg` lOSN p&kxkrvn`nk` vfy.1 Eetk` a[s<r[kL VAs`tRvr[n`egn`ivt`v> sfd`DAr~T egUtmyn`vhn`es` k&meyn` cArfkAkrmfn` ur[evlAevZ‘es`nAnf’nfgmyx v[wmkr h<dklAv vFyY%vwn`nx v>h.un`vhn`es` sAv<r[d`dk` kx<kv> zS`krk&fyAv keL` emZ avs`TAevZdFy.zS`kr k&fyAvnfsA VArFrfk vVeyn` ebehvfn`zr~vlv> egUtmyn` vhn`es` epr ymZ mhNbm<N< ekenk` at`tkflmTAn<eyA`gF upk&myxayt`v> tFv&v> kx<kzk`evZdnAvn` vfn`dh<nmZ Ey h<edk` evZdnAvx pmNk`m sFmAv>vk`bv et`r[mZgt`h.emy smZebA`Dfyx mAr~gy enAevZ.Eb[vfn` an` mHgk` vn`en`d[yf esAyAb[l>h.pfy VAkYyn`eg` dMgs` esveN` kAmeyn` hA ak=Vleyn` etAr vftk`k vfcAr shft p&Tm DYAnyxELM vfs> aAkAry sfhfpt`vfy.Ey smZebA`Dfyx mAr~gy yyf un`vhn`es`x sft`vfy. emyfn` ant=r[v zr~vl sfr[r shftv stYAvebA`Dy kLenAh[kfb[vfn` VrFry sn`tr~pNykr p&Tm,ztfy,ttfy hA ct=#Tf DYAnvlx ELMFmxt` smAhft v> sft pfLfevlfn` p<bZebZnfvAsAn<s`stf HOdANyxt`,c<t+ppAt HOdANyxt`,aAsvk`Ky HOdANyxt` nt=kr smZebA`Dfyx p[mfNfyh.2 b<zsmeyhf QAnmAr~gFy m>elA`pAyk` elsfn` aDfkArmy cfn`tnyx d[wfels vfr[d`Dv>cfn`tnk&mykf. kAlAm s>t&eyhf vfg&hvn`en` QAnmAr~gy gevZSNy kfrFemZdF at`h[r d[mfyy<t=EbHz aDfkArmy lOSN p&kxkrn`nAv> QAnmAr~g dhykf.(10) tmn`x tmAh[r an` kfsfevk=ehA` kfsfvk` tmAvfsfn` aDfkArmy s`vr{peyn` s[lkFmx b<zn`vhn`es` smZp>r~Neyn`m vfr[d`Dv>h.(at`t srNA anHOd`HOdsrNA) mfnfs` cfn`tn itfhAsey` asmsm b<d`Dfmetk`v> b<zrjANn`vhn`es` emm m>LDr~my itAm ehAHdfn` kAlAms>t&ey`dF p[h[dflfkL es`k. ‘kAlAmeynf,ob s[k kfrFmt` vfmtfyx p[mfNFmt` s<zs<my.obeg` s[kya[tf v>ey`s[kshftt[nkmy.3kAlAmeynf,aAr^cfeyn` ehA` prmZprAevn` p[mfNfnfid fyda ‘fufyu,q’ hk lgl:dksid ehA` emZ apeg` pfxk(aAgmfk g&$T)smZp&dA’yf sftFemn` ehA` tr~k eh`t=evn` ehA` nyeh`t=evn` ehA` emZ kArNy yhpt` vVeyn` epen’yyf kl`pnAkfrFemn` ehA` emy ap sftAblA st=xfn`gt` dRS`Xfyx g[lep` yyf sftFemn` ehA` emAh< s<zs`esk=yyf s[lkFemn` ehA` emAh<apeg` g=r[y’ynh[HgFemn` ehA` enApfLfgn<.4ymZvfexk emZed` ayhpt`y.ak=sly vrdyyf obxmv[xehn`en`d Evfx Ey ath[rdmn<. Ees`m ymZvfexk emZed` ayhpt`y ak=sly nfvrdyyfobxm v[xehn`en`d Evfx Ey pfLfpdfn<.5’1 tu"406 msgqjkdhx Ouzfud ksnznsodh k jsrd.dh k ksfrdOdh k ksnzndkdh ixj;a;;S"hdjfoj fkjiZ[a fkjiZ [dkdiZZ[dkdiZ[aZ[dh;kQm m;a;shd;sfid fLd wyx NslaLfj ;x Ouzux wk,xlrsFjd ;iaud Ouzud ksnznscAcwmlalusx2 u ks 1"Umuzu j.a.h"wrshmrsfhaik iq;a;"nqcuq"408msgqjZ{dKZ[ap mk fu oiaikx Womdos wl`mamd fujsuq;a;swhuka;sud cd;skF:sodks mqknzNfjd;s3 w ks 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a.h ld,du iq;a;"nqcuq"377-343 msgqw,x ys fjd ld,dud lxLs;`x" w,xjspslspzPs;`x" lxLksfha p mk fjd Gdfka jspslspzPd Wmamkakd4 w ks 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a.h ld,du iq;a;"nqcuq"377-343 msgq t: ;`uzfy ld,dud"ud wkqiaifjzk"udmruzmrdh"ud b;slsrdh"ud msgl iuzmodfkak"ud ;lalfya;`" ud khfya;`"ud wdldrmrsjs;laflk"ud mrdh"udosgzGskscACOdklaLka;shd"ud NnznrEm;dh" ud iufKd fkd .rE;s5 tu"hod ;`uzfy ld,dud w;a;kdj cdfkhHd:"bfuz Ouzud wl`i,d"bfuz Ouzud idjcAcd"bfuz Ouzud jsZ[aZC|+.rys;d"bfuzz Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd wys;dh |=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S;sw: ;`uzfya ld,du cdfkhHd: d"bfu
  24. 24. 382 an<n`eg` ig[n`vFmZ pmNk`enAv,tmn`vhn`es`eg` ig[n`vFmZpvA ekenk=vfsfn` pfLfg[nFmxepr,sfy<mZ prFOSNykx BAjnykLy<t=bv un`vhn`es` sHdhn` kLh.tmn`vhn`es` b<zrzn`h[xfyx pfLfg[nFmx epr,vfmsflfmt`v> BfOS<v vfsfn` tmn`vhn`es` pvA a[t`tvVeyn`m b<zvFa[t`d[yf pLm<v setYOSNykr b[lfyy<t=bv kfyAsfxFmx trmZ un`vhn`es` apOSpAtF hAnfhtmAnFels emZ kr[N< avDArNy kLh.1 kfsfymZ QAnmAr~gyk` p&AeyA`gfk vVeyn` aT%smZpn`nvn<ey` Ey eketk` zrkx vfvRtmAnsfk mxZxmk` p[v[t`vFm sHdhA an<bledn`en`d ynkArNy mtyf.emZ yxet` kAlAm s>t&ey`dFp&tfeOS`pekAx a[tf QAnmAr~g dhyvnAhF pfrfp<n` vfvRt mAnsfk mxZxmk` a[tfkrg[nFm sHdhAan<bl enAednb[vfn` E`vA p&AeyA`gfkbvfn`etAr a#T%smZpn`nenAv> QAnmAr~gels slkAb[h[rkr a[t. mAnvyAt=L mAnvg=NDr~m avDfekAx sArDr~m vD%nykfrFemhflA emehyvn<ey` emm vfvRtmAnsfk ps<tlyyf.mns p[h[dflfv p&BAs`vrv pvtfnvfx ehAHded` vhA sftx arm<N<evZ.2Eemn`m kLy<t`et` k=mk`d[yf vhA v[xhFemZ Vk`tfya[tfevZ.sArDr~m arm<N<vn>ey` emkFp[h[dflfnfrv<l` p&BAs`vr mnsxy.3mns vfvRtv>trmx mAnsfk p&BAs`vryd vD%nyevZ.iht d[k`v<n<prfdf vfvRt mAnsfk s`vBAvyk` jnftkrn`en` kfsfzaDfkArmy s`vBAvykfn`etArv> QAnmAr~gyk`b[vZ kAlAms>t&y mHgfn` p&kxeker~.E` tt`vyt=ldF sArDr~mvD%ney` uprFmtt`vyk` at`vfHdfyh[k.sArDr~m vD%ney` uprFm t#vy smZmA smZb<d`D#vyyf.vfps`snA cfn`tny m<l`vrx esAyAgn<lbn`nA hA V&Avkyn` E`os`es` gmn` krvn`nA vn<ey` smZmA smZb<zvr[yf.b<zvr[ epn`vAzn`mAr~gy nYAyAt`mkv an<gmnykfrFm t=lfn` b<d`Dfy vfksftkrg[nFm ar~ht`vyyf.4emZnfsA rhtn`vhn`es`x sAep`OSkv b<zvr[n`eg` vfvRt mAnsfk#vy os`es` vD%ny krgn`nAld s`vy^b<d`Dfp&BAv itAmt`m gmZBFrb[vZ p[h[dflfevZ. ebA`Dfs#vyn`vhn`es`lA nfytvfvrN lbn`en`d ebAehA`zrx b<d`DkArkDm% p&g=Nkrn<lbn`en`d smZmA smZb<zvr[ jFvmAnv v[wsfxfn smyn`vldFy.E` h[m avs`TAvldFmpAeh` ar~ht`vypfNfs un`vhn`es`lAv epLMvFmkfn`etArv un`vhn`es`lAeg`m aBfp&AypfNfsm b<zvr[ un`vhn`es`lAx uprFm an<g&hydk`vtf.ebA`Dfs#vyn`vhn`es`lAeg` pArmftA Vk`tfyx b<zvr[ tmn`vhn`es`lAeg` aAVFr~vAd Vk`tfy Ek`krtf. kAlAm s>t&eyhf d[k`evn aDfkArmy s`vBAvyk` enAm[tf QAnmAr~gyk` an<gmnykfrFmt=lfn` itAm ihL sArDr~ vD%yk` at`pt`krgth[kfy.Ey ar~ht` V&AvkmxZxmxd Etnfn` obZbxd,vfhfedn vfVAl prAsyk`shft vD%nykf.Etnfn` obZbx gmn`krn vfvRt mAnsfk mAr~gyar~ht`v mxZxm ps<kr pcZeck b<d`D mxZxm dk`vAd pcZeck b<d`D mxZxm ps<kr smZmA1 u ks 1"uyd idfrdamu iq;a;"nqcuq"463msgqjfhd mgpzp iuqmamdox misi;s fid Ouzux miai;sfhd Ouzuxmiai;s fid mgspzpiuqmamdox miai;sOuzu mofhys fhd Ouzux miai;s fid ux miai;ssfhd ux miai;s fid ;Ouzux miai;soe;afjkakdjQ iZoyka fol ;`,khlr ne,SfuysoS nqoaO hk jHjydrh fhoS we;af;a mgspzpiuqmamdoh hk wrA:fhka njfmfka2 Lq ks"Ouzumoh"hulj.a."ufkdmqnznx.udOuzud ufkdfigzGd ufkduhd ukid fp mikafkk Ndi;sjdlfrd;sjd ;f;d kx iqLukafj;s Pdhdj wkmdhsks j;s3 tu"ps;a;j.a.h"|+rZv.ux tlprx wirSrx .`ydihx fh ps;a;x iZ[aZ[fuiaika;s fudlaLka;s udrnJOkd4 tu"wryka; j.a.h"ika;x ;iai ukx fyd;s ika;d jdpd p luzu p iuzuoZ[aZ[d jsuq;a;iai Wmika;iai;dosfkd
  25. 25. 383smZb<d`D mxZxm dk`vAd p[tfer~.emZ ay<rfn` p[tfern`nAv> ebUd`D QAnmAr~gey` k+xp&Ap`tfavs`TAv smZmA smZb<d`D#v sArDr~m mxZxmyf.emZ mxZxmx p[mfNf smZmA smZb<zvryA sAmAnYV&AvkyAx ayt`vn vfnyp&Qp`tfvlfn` pvAenAmfnfyh[kf itAm ihL s<pfrfsfz mAnsfk k&fyAkArF#vyk`a[tf QAnmAr~gFy vD%nyk` shft p<d`gleyk= bvx p[mfeN`. fuysoS uydpdrAh fla tka ch;s,l uy;d Early Buddhst Theory o Knowledge hk lD;shysoSnq=iufhys wOsldrh ms<snZo lreKq jeo.;afjz ta uy;d iZoyka lrk mrsos nq|=iuh ;`< wOsldrhgwh;a ia:dkh meyeos,s lsrSfuysoS wm wjxlju wmf.kau m@Yak ;`kla wid tajdg ,efnk ms<s;`rewkqj ta ms<snZoj wmu ksjeros ;SrKhlg meusKSu jeo.;a nj olajd ;sfnz tlS m@Yak kuz fuzjdh1 nq|=iuh fyda nq|=kajykafia l,ska meje;s iuzm@odhhkaf.ka huz u;hka wOsldrhu; ms<sf.k weoao$2 fjk;a iuzm@odhhkays wOsldrh foig nq|=iuh fy<dwe;s oDIaGsh fyda wdl,amh ta wdldrfhkaunq|=iufha b.ekajSuz foigo fhduqfldg ;sfnzo$3 fuz fojk m@Yakhg fok ms<s;`r fkdi<ld nq|=r|=ka ms<snZo wOsldrh u; Wkajykafiaf.a Y@djlhkalsishuz u;hla ms<s.kq ,en ;sfnzo$ fuu m@Yakfoi ne,Ql< jegfykqfha tlS m@Yak b;d ;shqKq jspdrd;aul uqyqKqjrla f.k we;snjhs.TzkEu jspdrYS,S pska;lfhl`;`< we;sjsh yelswdldrfha jsurAYkd;aul .egZM ;`kla nq|=iuh wrUhdofla tka ch;s,l uy;d olajhs fuz .egZM ;`k;`< nq|=iuh wfma fohla fjk;a wd.usl b.ekajSuz wfmatajd fkdjk foaj,a hk wdldrfha wOdk.@dyS pska;kfhka usoS iajdOSk wmCImd;S jsurAYkd;aulpska;khlg fuz uZ.ska u.fy<sfmfy<s lrfohs. tmuKla fkdj fuzuZ.ska uSg by;oS wm mejiQ lreKlajk ld,duiQ;@d.; b.ekajSuzys m@;sfCIams; pska;k wOsldrhka j,x.`jkqfha nq|=iufhka mrsndysr fjk;a b.ekajSuz flfrys muKlao ke;skuztajd tf,iskau nqoaOfoaYkd iZZoyd j,x.`jkjdo hk ldrKh ms<snZoj wjOdkh fhduqfldg we;snjlao fmkShhs.huz fyhls;a ld,duiQ;@.; foaYkd jx.`jkqfha nqoaO foaYkd yer wkafoaYkd flfrysmuKla kuz ld,du iQ;@fhys wka;rA.; wmCImd;SFjh thska.s,syS hkq we;.fuu wmCImd;SFjh.s,syS hkq iuZ.u ld,diQ;@fhys wka;rA.; odrAYksl jgskdluo thska .s,syS hkq we;.ta ulaksidoh;a ld,duiQ;@fhys jgskdlu rZod mj;skafka fuu wmCImd;SFjh u; nejsks.tod fuod;`r lsis|=wd.usl idia;Djrfhla foaYkdlrkq ;nd foaYkd lr;shs isysfkkqZ|= fkdis;sh yels;ruz iajdOSkwmCImd;S jsjrKhla ukqIHnqoaOshg jgskdlula ,nd|=kafka nq|=r|=ka nejsks.ta ld,duiQ;@h foYkdlsrSu uZ.sks. fla tka ch;s,l uy;df.a Early Bubbhist Theory of Knowledge .@J:h mqrd jsia;rd;auljolajkafka ld,duiQ;@fhysoS nq|=r|=ka jsiska m@;sfCIam lrk,o oijsOjQ wOsldruh pska;khg wka;rA.;jkakdjQ b.ekajSuz ms<snZoj fjz.fnfyjska fn#oaO odrAYksl pska;khg wkq.;j ;`,kd;auljngysr u;o jsuiqug ,lalrkakdjQ fuz .@J:h ;`,ska fy,sjkafka by; nq|=r|=ka m@;sfCIam lrk,opska;k wOsldrhg wka;rA.k we;euz Z{dk udrA.hka tlfy<d ms<sfljz lsrSula fkdj tlfy,dms<s.ekSu m@;sfCIam lsrSu muKla nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz.ngysr pska;khg keUqrej A.D.Woozley
  26. 26. 384 1jsiska rps; The Theory of Knowledge jeks lD;shlgo jvd fuz;`, nq|= oyfuz mokuo fy,sfjz.tkuz hula taldka; fldg oelajSfuz we;s idjoH;djhhs.hula ;j fohlg idfmaCIl nj usiuqZMukakau we; fyda ke; hkqfjka mejiSu oDIaGs .;Skag meusfKk l@ufjzohla nj fuhska m@ldYfjz. fuz lreK b;du iqZM ksoiqkla udrA.fhka meyeos,s l<yelsh tkuz ld,duiQ;@fhys msg; iuzm@odh fyj;a wd.usl ,shjs,s iZoykajSu pska;k wOsldruh jQjla f,i f.k nq|=iufhys nqoaOfoaYkdowd.usl .@J:hkays ,shejS we;s foaj,au jk fyhska tajdo uqZMukskau neyerl< hq;`o$ld,duiQ;@foaYkdj uZ.ska lshefjk woyi idfmaCIfldg fkdj taldka; fldg .kakd ;eke;af;l`g wkqj kuzth tfianj fmfkkq we;.tfy;a tfia ie,lSu hqla;shqla; fkdfjz fuysoS wd.usl ,shejs,sj, iZoykajQ muKska hk jpkhla we;. tkuz fuysoS m@;sfCIam lrkafka wd.usl ,shejs,sj, ;sfnk ishZM foau fkdj we;euz tajdnjfmfka.fuys iSudj fld;ko hk m@Yakhla u;`fjz fuys iSudj kuz m@fhda.slFj hhs m@dfhda.sljYfhka wrA:dkajs; foj,ao wd.usl ,shjs,s;`, .enzjsh yelsh m@fhda.sl fkdjk foaj,ao .enzjshyelsh.nq|=iuh fuysoS m@;sfCIam lrkafka m@fhda.sl fkdjkakdjQ foaj,ah.nq|=iufhys wd.usl,shejs,sj, wka;rA.k jkakdjQ foa m@fhda.slFjfhka wkQk jQ ksid tajd fuz hgf;a m@;sfCIamfkdfjz.fuf,i m@fhda.slFjfhka neyerjk wd.usl j;ams<sfj;a j,g nq|=iuh iS,nzn; mrudihkqfjka jHjydr lrhs.tfukau th oi ixfhdachkago we;`,;a tla ixfhdackhla jYfhka olajd;sfnz.ta m@fhda.sl fkdjkakdjQ foa ms<smeoSu uZ.ska wrA:dkajs; wdOHd;ausl ksIaGdjlg meusKshfkdyels w;r tfia meusKSug ndOdldrS jkakdjQ fohla jYfhkao ms<sf.k ;snqKq ksidh. ld,duiQ;@fhys m@ldYjkafka nq|=oyuska m@;sfCIams; oijsOjQ pska;k wOsldrfhka iukajs; Z{kudrA. muKs.fndfydajsg jsh;`ka f,aLlhka nq|=iufhka ksrAosIaG Z{dkudrA.h fyda Z{dk jsNd.hfyda Z{dkuSuxidj ms<snZoj idlpzPdlsrSfuzoS ld,duiQ;@fhka m@;sfCIams; pska;k wOsldrh muKlabosrsm;a fldg ish jsurAYkh wjika lr;s kuq;a i;Hfhkau mq|=iufhka bosrsm;a flfrkakdjQ Z{dkudrA.h tf;lska wjika flfrAo$ ke;.th jkdyS nq|=iuh tmd lshQ foahhs.lrkakglshQ tfiafkdue;skuz wkq.ukh lrkakg lshQ foa fkdfjz nq|=t|=ka ks;ru hula jsfjzpkh lf<a thg jsiZ|=ulao bosrsm;a lruskah.tnejska nq|=iuh tlgm@p,s;j meje;s fiiq iuhjdohkag jvd irAjiuzmQrAKFj fhka hqla;jQjla jsh.fjk;a iuhjdohkaf.ka bosrsm;a lrk,oaodjQ wd.usl lsIaGdj fnfyda|=rg tal foaYsl jQjls.fuz ksid tajduZ.skabosrsm;a flfrkakdjQ b.ekajSuz uZ.ska nqoaOsh yd Ndjuh hk wxY folskau iukajs;jQ l~Gm@dma;shlalrd<Z.d jsh fkdyelsjS ;snsK.tlaflda tjdhska ,efnkafka nqoaOsuh lreKq muKls.tlaflda Ndjuh sjYfhka iu:OHdk jeks ;;ajhla muKs.Tjqkaf.a wd.usl jevms<s fj< w;a;ls,u:dkq fhda.h ydlduiqL,a,sldkqfhda.h w;r foda<kh jkakla jS ;snqK.tfukau Ydiaj;jdoh yd WpzfPAojdoh w;r sfldgqjS mej;sk. s1 The Theory of Knowledge,A.D.Woozley,London,1959
  27. 27. 385 oeka wm fidhd hdhq;af;a ld,duiQ;@fhka m@;sfCIam l< fulS pska;k wOsldrh fjkqjg oDIaGs nsyslrjkakd jQ l@ufjzohka fjkqjg ienjskau th wmf.a ;sfnkakdjQ oDIaGs yd u;` we;sjsh yelaldjQoDIaGs m@ydKh msKsi bosrsm;a lrkakdjQ l@ufjzoh l`ulao hkakhs.nq|=iuh jsr;s fyj;a je<lsh hq;`wxYh uq,ska bosrsm;a lrk w;r iudodk fyj;a jevshhq;` wxYh miqj bosrsm;a lrkq ,nhs.fuzhgf;a ishZM pska;k wOsldrhka fkdue;s ;;ajhla ukfiys m@;sksrAudKh lr.ekSu iZoyd ukimsrsis|= lsrSfuz l@shdj,shlg ,lal< hq;`nj fmkajdoS ;sfnz.i;a;lskau pska;kuh wOsldrhkaf.kauki jshqla; lr.ekSfuz l@ufjzoh kuz isf;ys pska;khg n,mdkq ,nkakdjQ neyerska tk yd ukiwNHka;rfhka we;sjkakdjQ ishZMu m@;sfrdaOhkaf.ka uki ksoyia lrjd.; hq;`h.tfia jSug ukim@n, jQ mdrsfYdaOk l@shdj,shlg ,lal< hq;`nj nq|=iuh fmkajdoS ;sfnz.fuh Wmudjlska meyeos,slrf;d;a ksrka;rfhka wmsrsis|= foa jegSu ksid ls,sgsjS we;s fros lvla uekjska fidaod msrsis|=lr.ekSulg iudkh. i;a;lskau flfkl`g ld,duiQ;@fha oelafjkakdjQ ishZMu pska;k wOsldrhkaf.ka uq,qukskau je<lSisgSug kuz fy;u ;ukaf.a udkisl mjs;@;djh by; lS wkaouska we;slr.;hq;` nj nq|=ysushkajsiska fmkajdoS ;sfnz.msrsis|= ukila we;a;dg muKla ld,duiQ;@fhys oelafjk wkaoug ishZMuwOsldruh pska;khkaf.ka f;drj lghq;`l< yelsfjz.ta ;dla wm fldmuK psk;k wOsldrfhka.e<jS wmf.a pska;kh fufyjSug ;e;a l<;a wm fkdoekqj;aju pska;k wOsldrfha f.d|=re njgm;afjz.ug lsis|= oDIaGshla ke;ehs mjikakdo orkafka ;j;a tla oDIaGshla nj Tyqu fkdoksh. s fuz;a tjeks fohla nj o;hq;`h.oDIaGSka jkdyS b;du;au ishquzh fld;ruz ishquzoehs lshf;d;a s;uka orkafka oDIaGshla lshdj;a ta ork ;eke;a;d fkdoksh.fuhg idfmaCIlj wdfjzok smCIfhys,d kuz Ndjuh .`Khka b;dm@lgh flfkl`g ;ryla meusKsl< ta mqoa.,hdg muKlafkdj Tyq wjg isgskakkago Tyqf.a uqyqfKa brshjq fjkiajSu wOHhkh fldg ta nejz o< jYfhkajgyd.; yelsjkq we;.fiiq Ndjuh ;;ajhkajk ffu;@sh BrAIHdj ldudYdj jeks ;;ajhkao tamqoa.,hdg muKla fkdj wjg isgskakkago Tyqj jsOsu;a f,i wOHhkhfldg oek.; yelsh.kuq;ahuz mqoa.,fhl`f.a oDIaGs.;sl iajNdjh jkdyS tfia fiiq mqoa.,hka muKla fkdj ;ukag mjdyZ|=kd.; fkdyelsh. tla;rd |=rlg fuz ;;ajh wkqih uZ.ska ksrEmKh jkafka hehs mejish yelshosgzGdkqih uZ.ska fuh b;d fydZoka m@ldYhg m;afjz. fuz ksidu fldmuK oDIaGs.;sl jqj;a ta mqoa.,hd is;kqfha ;uka isgskqfha lsis|= oDIaGshla rys;j isgsk njhs WodyrKhla f,i jrA;udkfhys ksoyia pska;lhka hkqfjka ;ukag ;ukau jHjydrlr.kakd mqoa.,hka mjikafka ;uka lsis|= oDIaGsjdohla ms<s fkd.kakd njhs.th;a tla;rd oDIaGshla nj ienjskau Tjqka oks;ao$we;af;kau oDIaGsfhys ienE iajNdjh thhs.oDIaGsh ks;ru tlS mqoa.,hdf.a pska;kh ish .@yKhg .ksh.tfukau ta ksidu oDIaGshla hkq ks;r pska;k ksoyig ndOd sldrS jkakdjQo iDcq yd wkshuz f,i pska;kh flfrys wOsldruh n,mEula lrkakdjQo fohls.nq|=iufha fuu oDIaGsuh n,mEu wjsoHdj f,io fudayh f,io uspzPdosgzGs f,io we;euz jsg ilaldh
  28. 28. 386ogzGsh f,io wiausudkh f,io rZM yd ishquz jYfhka tajdfha l@shdldrAFjhg wkqrEmjk mrsoafokajsjsO kuz Ndjs;d lruska yZ|=kajd oS ;sfnz. fn#oaO Z{dk udrA.h jsYaf,aIKhjk whqre;@sjsO l`i, ;@s YsCIdj wdhH! |=relghq;`pska;k ima; jsY`oaOshuQ< wIaGdx.sluZ. wdruzNl iuzud osgzGs wkqY@jh" iS, jsY`oaOsh" wfuday (m@Z{dj) iuzud ixlmam mruzmrdh" ps;a; jsY`oaOsh" iS, iuzud jdpd b;slsrdh" osgzGs jsY`oaOsh" iuzud luzuka; msgl iuzmodfkak" lxLdjs;rK wfodai iuzud wdcSj ;lal fya;`" jsY`oaOsh" iudOs iuzud jdhdu kh fya;`" u.a.du.a.Z[dK iuzud i;s wdldrmrsjs;laflak" oiaik jsY`oaOsh" wf,daN iuzud iudOs osgzGskscACOdklaLka;s" mgsmodZ[dK msrsmqka iuzud Z[dK NjH;dh" oiaik jsiqoaOsh" (m@Z{dj) iuzud jsuq;a;s iufKda fkd .re Z[dKoiaikjsY`oaOsh tfia kuz oDIaGsh |=rel< fkdyels fohlao$ ke; oDIaGsh wksjdrAhfhkau wvql<yels yd |=rel<yels fohls.ud.!M, uZ.ska is|=lrkqfha o fulS oDIaGSka wvqlsrSu yd |=relsrSuhs.ksoiqkla f,i m<uqud.!M,fhaoS oDIaGsh uqZM ukskau |=re fkdlrk w;r is|=lrkafka u;` wmdh.duS jSug YlH;djholajkakdjQ oDIaGsfhys we;s ;Sj@;djh wvqlsrSuhs.fuu oDIaGSkaf.a is|=jk W#K;djh ilaldh osgzGskue;s oDIaGsfhys Tz,drsl fldgi |=rejSu f,i wrA: ksrEmKh flfrA.tys fiiq ixfhdack jkiS,nzn; mrudi uZ.ska ksrEmKh jkafka ilaldh osgzGsh keue;s oDIaGSkays Tz,drsl fldgi |=relsrSuiZoyd wkqukh lrkq,enQ l@ufjzoh ms<snZoj ,;a wjfndaOh mokuz lrf.k b;srs oDIaGSkao |=re lsrSug wrA:j;a l@shdud.!hla ;udu wjfndaO lr.;anj yd ta wjfndaOh;,ska ,;a oekqu mdollrf.kb;srs oDIaGska|=re lsrSfuz YlH;djhlska iukajs; njhs jspslspzPd ixfhdackh uZ.ska ksrEmKh jkqfha tlS l@shdud.!h ms<snZo we;a;djQ meyeos,s yd l@uj;a jegySu lrkfldg f.k tlS jevms<sfj< ielfkdlrk iajNdjhhs.oeka wmf.a W;aiyh jkqfhald,du iQ;@fhka |=relrk f,i olajd we;s wOsldruh pska;kh |=rel< yelafla l`uk jsOsl@u fhkaohkakhs.fuu jsOsl@uh OrAufhys iZoyka jkafka ima; jsY`oaOsh hk kusk.fuh ima; jsY`oaOsh hehs sjHjydr jkqfha i;ajrloS is; l@udkQl~,j jsfYdaOkhg ,lajk w;r ta uZ.ska wOsldruh pska;kfhys n,mEu uqZM ukskau bj;ajS hhs. ima; jsY`oaOsfhys iZoykajkakjQ idrOu! b;d mqZM,a fCIa;@hla wjrKh lrkq njhs tfukauima; jsY`oaOsfhys idlpzPdlrkq ,nkakdjQ idrOu! tys moku f,i ie<flk me;slv ;`kla TiafiaidrOu! f.dkqlr olajhs fuu me;slv ;`k jkdyS m@cdkk me;slv wdfjzok me;slv yd prAhduhme;slvhs ima; jsY`oaOsfhys th Ndjs;d lrkakdjQ mqoa.,hdg Wmfoia fokqfha l@udkQ;~, njlskahq;`j fuu me;slv ;`k Tiafia ish nqoaOs mrsmdlh lrd fhduqjk wkaouhs.fn#oaO m@;smodfjys
  29. 29. 387wjidk idrOu! l~gm@dma;sh f,i jsia;r flfrkakdjQ fulS ksIaGdj ksrAjdKdjfndOh f,iskajHjydr flfrA. fuhska iS, jsY`oaOsfhka fmkakquz lrkafka idrOu! ixl,amhkays prAhduh fyj;a ufkdapd<lme;s lvhsps;a; jsY`oaOfhka wdfjzokd;aul me;s lv uQrA;su;a fjzfiiq jsY`oaOska jk osgzGs jsY`oaOsh"lxLdjs;rK jsY`oaOsh"u.a.du.a. Z[dK oiaik jsiqoaOsh"mgsmod Z[dKoiaik jsiqoaOsh yd Z[dKoiaik jsY`oaOsh hk mxpjsY`oaOSka wh;a jkqfha m@cdkk fyj;a ixcdkk me;slvghfuh jkdySidrOu! ixl,amhkays nqoaOsuh me;slvhs idrOu! ixl,amhka wOHhk ldrAhh iZoyd fhdod .ekSfuzoS wOHdmk ufkda jsoHd;aul uQ<Ou! taiZoyd bjy,a lr.; hq;`fjzfuz iZoyd Ndjs;d jS we;s uQ<Ou!h jkqfha wOHdmk ufkda jsoHd;aulixl,amhla jQ m@l@usl fyj;a mshjr l@uhhswOHhk ldrAhhfhys fhfok flfkl`g lsishuz wruqKla idrA:l lr.ekSu iZoyd mshjfrka mshjr wruqK lrd <Z.djSug ud.!h ilialr lsrSu m@luslfyj;a mshjr l@ufhys uQ<Ou!h f,i oelajsh yelsh ngysr wOHdmk lafCIa;@fhys wZM;a u;jdohla fidhd.ekSu ksid uy;a wdkafoda<khlg <lajQjsma,jldrS udkhla cks;l< l@ufjzohla f,i o fuu m@l@usl fyj;a mshjr l@uh ms<s.ekSug md;@j;sfnzuydpdrAh nS ta ialskrA mshjr l@ufhys mqfrda.dushd f,ig kuzl< yelsh 1954 oS fuzuydpdrAhjrhd jsiska rpkh lrk,o‘bf.kquz jsoHdj yd bf.kquz l,dj’kue;s mrAfhaIKm;@sldfjys fuz l@uh .ek uq,ajrg jsoHd;aul f,i js.@ylr;sfnzz1 fuu mshjr l@ufha m@Odk;u,CIKh jkqfha tla msjrla mshjrla mdid l@udkQl~,j ir< wjia:dfjz isg .eUqrg hdfuz l@ufjzohhsnq|=rcdKka jykafia ima; jsY`oaOsh olajd ;sfnkqfhao fuz wdldrfhks th ima; jsY`oaOsh ;j|=rg;a jsuid ne,Sfuka ;j|=rg;a meyeosms lr.; yelsh r: jskS; iQ;@fhys iZoyka fjkafka fufiahiS, jsY`oaOsh ps;a; jsY`oaOsh olajdufjhs ps;a;jsY`oaOsh osgzGs jsY`oaOsh olajdu fjhsosgzGs jsiqoaOsh lxLdjs;rK jsY`oaOsh olajdu fjhslxLdjs;rKjsY`oaOsh u.a.d u.a.Z[dK oiaik jsiqoaOsh olajdu fjhsu.a.du.a. Z[dK oiaik jsiqoaOsh mgsmodZ[dK oiaik jsiqoaOsh olajdu fjhsmgsmod Z[dK oiaik jsiqoaOsh Z[dK oiaik jsiqoaOsh olajdufjhsZ[dK oiaik jsiqoaOsh wkqmod mrsksj!dKh olajdu fjhsuQ,sl wruqK jQ ksj!dK idlaId;alrKh olajdu fuz ima; jsY`oaOsh mshjr l@uh uZ.ska bosrsm;a flfrAnq|=r|=ka olajQ fuu mshjrl@uh ialskrAf.a mshjr l@uhg;a jvd bosrshg hdula f,i oelajsh yelafla ialskrA yqfola fuz ;`,skawF:! olajk ,oafoa bJ|@sh wdkqN~;sl b.ekajSuzjk w;r nq|=r|=ka fuz uZ.ska m<uqj bJ|@sh wdkqN~;shofojkqj tho blaujd w;SJ|@sh wdkqN~;sho fuz uZ.ska m@;HCIlr.; yelsnj fmkajd oSu ksidhfuysw;sJ|@sh m@;HCIh hkq ksrAjdKdjfndaOhhs fuu ksrAjdKdjfndaOh msKsi bjy,alr.kakd uQ<sl l@ufjzohf,i ima; jsY`o`Osh iuzNdjkdjg amd;@ jS we;.jsmiaikd Ndjkdj hkqfjkao idudkH jHydrfhaoS ima; jsY`oaOsh wrA: oelafjz. fyj;a1 nq|=oyuska ms<snsUqjk b.ekajSfuz Ys,amSh l@u welsrsh., kkao ysus tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda fld<U 1999 95-110msgq
  30. 30. 388jsmiaikd Ndjkdj is|= lrkjd hkafkka woyia lrkafka l@usl yd l@udkQl~, wdldrfhka ksis.`rEmfoaY iys;j ima; jsY`oaOsh jevSuhs.1fuu ima; jsY`oaOsh kduslj my; iZoyka f,i oelajshyelsh.tkuz1 iS, jsY`oaOsh.2 ps;a; jsY`oaOsh.3 osgzGs jsY`oaOsh.4 lxLdjs;rK jsY`oaOsh.5 u.a.dyu.a.Z{dK oiaik jsiqoaOsh.6 mgsmodZ[dK oiaik jsiqoaOsh.7 Z[dK oiaik jsiqoaOsh.1 iS, jsY`oaOsh - fuhska wrA:j;a jkqfha mqoa.,hdf.a lh jpk hk fldgia fol ixjr lr.ekSu uZ.ska ps;a; mdrsfYdaOkh iZoyd th Yla;su;a w;a;sjdrula f,i Ndjs;dl< yels njhsfyj;a wOsldruh pska;kfhka uki ksoyi lr.ekSu iZoyd wjYHjkakdjQ m@d:usl prAhd ixialrK jsOsl@uhla f,i YS,hNdjs;hg f.k we;snjhsjsY`oaOs udrA.fhys YS, jsY`Osh olajkafka nSc frdamKhg fmr N~ush ilialr.; hq;` fia uS <Z.g ,enshhq;` jQ ps;a; jsY`oaOshg fmr is;keue;s N~ush tlS ps;a; jsY`oaOsh,enSug fhda.H whqrska ilialr fokafka iS, jsY`oaOsh ;`,ska njhs.YS,h wmsrsis|= kuz ndysr oDIaGSkayst<aUisgskqfha kuzps;a;ho msrsis|= fkdjkafkah.oDIaGs.;sl jkafkah YS,h mxpYS,h wIaGdx. YS,hoYYS,h jYfhka kdkdjsOh.tys uq< mxpYS,hhsld,duiQ;@fhys moku f,i mxpYS,h olajd ;sfnkqfhao fuz ksidh.islaLdmo jsNx.fhys;a jodf< mx[YS,hhsfuys W;alDIaGh kuz i;r ixjr YS,hhs.i;r ixjr YS,h hkq my; iZoykajk fldgia i;rhs. tkuz 1 m@d;sfudaCI ixjrYS,h. 2 bJ|@sh ixjrYS,h. 3 wdcSj mrsY`oaOs YS,. 4 m@;H ikaksY@s;YS,.1 m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS,h m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS,h kuz YsCIdmo YS,hhs nq|=rcdKkajykafia jskfhys jod< YsCIdmo /lSum@d;sfudCI ixjr YS,hhsjskfhys jkdyS jsNx. nJOl mrsjdrhhs fldgia;`klg fnok ,oafoahjsNx. kuz NslaLq jsNx. NslaLqKS jsNx. hk WNf;da jsNx.fhka hq;a mdrdcsl md<s mdps;a;sh md,shk fmd;a folhLkaOl kuz pq,a,j.a.md,s uydj.a.md,s hk fmd;afolhmrsjdr kuzz mrsjdrmd,shk fmd;hfuz ish,af,ys we;`,;a ysCIdmo mdrdcsl ix>dosfiai mdps;a;sh mdgSfoaikSh |=lalg hkwdm;a;s ialJO myg fyda mdrdcsl |=lalg |=nzNdis; hk wdm;a;s ialJO i;g fyda we;`,;a lrk,oafoahtys oelajqKq tl YsCIdmohl`|= jH;sl@uKh lsrSfuka wdm;a;Skag fkdmeusK yosisfhameusKsho thska keZ.S Y`oaOj jsiSu m@d;sfudCI ixjr YS,hhs1 nq|=oyuska ms<snqUqjk b.ekajSfuz YS,amSh l@u welsrsh., kkao ysus tia f.dvf.a iy ifydaorfhda fld<U 1999 95-110msgq
  31. 31. 389 jsY`oaOs udrA.fhys m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS,h fufia olajhs ‘bO NslaLq md;sfudlaL ixjrixjqf;djsyr;sz wdpdr f.dpr iuzmkafkda wkqu;af;aiq jcAfciq NhoiaidjS iudodh islaL;s islaLdmfoiq’hsm@d;sfudlaI ixjrfhka ixjD;j wdpdr f.dpr folska hqla;j iaj,am ud;@ jrfoys mjd nsh olakdiqZMj YsCIdmo iudokaj f.k jsiSu m@d;sfudlaI ixjrYS,h fjz hkq tys w:!hs ‘m@d;sfudlaI ixjrfhka ixjD;j’hkafkys f;areu fuys lshk ,oaouh ‘wdpdr f.dapr hk folskahqla;j’hk fuys wdpdro we;wkdpdro we;f.dapro we;wf.dapro we;wkdpdr kuz lfhka jpkfhka YsCIdmo jH;sl@uKh lsrSuhishZM |=is,alushfjzZMjkdoS wIag l`,|+IK tlajsis wfkikdosfhka|=rej jsiSuhwf.dapr kuz fjiZ.kka jekaoUqjka <usiaishka mKavlhka NsCIqKSka mdkd.drhka rdcrdcdud;Hhka ;SrA:l ;SrA:l Y@djlhka weiqre lsrSuhkqiq|=iq .sys ixirA.fhka jsiSuh NsCIQkagwfl@dY mrsNj fnfKk Y@oaOd m@ido ke;s l`,hka weiqre lsrSuh f.dapr kuz tfia kqiq|=iaika weiqrefkdfldg iq|=iq ;eka weiqre lsrSuhs oijsO jQ pska;kuh wOsldrhka j,ska f;drjQ ps;a; ixl,amkd jO!kh lsrSu m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS,h wdrCIdlsrSu msKsi bjy,ajk nj ld,du iQ;@h wkqj meyeos,sfjz wkqY@jh (Report)1 uZ.ska ,nd.kakd m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj ms<snZo oekqu ;yjqre jSugkuz ;ukao th Ndjs;hg f.k jsuidn,d tu oekqu ;ukaf.a njg tkuz ;od;auShlKhlgNdckh lr.; hq;`htfia fkdjkakdjQ m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSfuz jsOsl@uhka fyj;a weiSuz wkqY@jh ud;@fldgf.k muKla tys ksjerosNdjh ukskq,nkafkkuz th ksjerosm@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj /lSfuz l@shdj,shla fkdjk nj nq|=iuh mjihs tfukau m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS mdruzmrslNdjh(mruzmrdhTradition)2 mokuzlrf.k tu m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjk m@;sm;a;Ska ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjeros fkdfjz n@dyauKhkaf.a fjzoh iuznJOfhkao Tjqka yqjdolajkafka tu weiSuz mdruzmrsljk nejska tajs ksrjoHjk njhsmrmqfrys meusKsh;a tu Y@jKhkamokuz jS we;af;a i;H milalsrSug jvd ;u;ukaf.a wd.usl wrA:oelajSuz yqjd oelajSug jk nejskatajd ksjeros m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjk m@;sm;a;Ska fkdfjz tfukau m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS fufia fmrlshd ;sfnzhkak(b;slsrdh Prologue ; Presuppose)3 mokuzlr f.k tu m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjk m@;sm;a;Ska ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjeros fkdfjzfmrlshd ;snqkqnjhkak m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSfuz l@shdj,sh ;`, fm#rdKslFjh yd ineZ|=kq fohlajkjd usi tu m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjk m@;sm;a;Ska ksjerosnj;yjqrelsrSfuys,d usKquz oKavla lr .ekSu idjoHnj nq|=iuh olajhs1 w ks 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a.h ld,du iq;a;"nqcuq"377-343 msgq ud wkqiaifjzk2 tu ud mruzmrdh3 w ks 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a.h ld,du iq;a;"nqcuq"377-343 msgq ud b;slsrdh
  32. 32. 390 tfukau m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS msgl iuzmodh(Given inthe Scripture) 1mokuzlrf.k tu m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjkm@;sm;a;Ska ksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu ksjeros fkdfjzf,aLk.;nj hkak wd.usl woyia ixrCIKfhys,d bjy,ajk l@ufjzohla usi tu m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjkm@;sm;a;Ska ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d th usKquz oKavla lr.ekSu nq|=iuh wkqu; fkdlrhs tfukau m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS ;rAlkh(Logical Implication)2 mokuzlrf.k tu m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjk m@;sm;a;Skaksjeroshehs ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hh ;drAlslnj hkak hula ta;a;` .ekajSfuz ls@hdj,sfhysoS BgwdOdr WmldrSjk woyia yd m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjk m@;sm;a;Skabosrsm;a lsrSfuz jsOsl@uhla jkjd yefrkakg tlS woyia yd m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjk m@;sm;a;Ska ksjerosnj ;yjqrelsrSfuys,d th usKquz oZvqjla lr.ekSu nq|=iuhwkqu; fkdlrhs tfukau m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS kHdhdkQidrSjSu (Nomalogical)3 mokuz lrf.k tu m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjk m@;sm;a;Skaksjeros hehs ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hh kHdkQidrSjSu hkak hula fuz whqrska m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS,m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSu l< hq;`hehs ks.ukhla ,ndoS ;snqKq l@shdoduhlgu wkq.;j tu m@d;sfudCIixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSu is|=lrkjd yefrkakg jspdrmQrAjl jSfuys lsis|= bvlvla ta ;`,skafkdiemfhatfukau taksid th mdol fldgf.k tlS m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSugWmldrjk m@;sm;a;Skays ksjerosnj ;yjqre lsrSfuys,d th tlu usKquz oKavla lr.ekSu nq|=iuhwkqu; fkdlrhs tfukau m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSfuz l@shdj,sfhaoS huz fohla jkafka fuz whqrskahehs(wdldr mrsjs;rAlh Diversification of Thought)4 ;ukaf.a mQj!ixl,amkhka mdol fldgf.ktu m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjk m@;sm;a;Ska ms<snZoj ksjeros ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohsidys;HOrhka l,dlrejka ;u ksu!dK jia;`nSc iZoydfnfyjska fuu mQj!ixl,amkd Ndjs;dlr;stksid mQj!ixl,amhkhka lsishuz ksu!dKd;aul lghq;a;lg yerekqfldg m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjk m@;sm;a;Ska jeksjsoHd;aul js.@yhkag t<Ushhq;` wjia:dj,oS Ndjs;dlsrSu wfhda.Hh tfukau m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSfuz l@shdj,sfhysoS jsh yelsnj fyj;a iuzNdjs;dj(NjH;dj Potentity)5 mdollrf.k tu m@d;sfudCI ixjrYS, m@;smodj wdrCIdlsrSug Wmldrjk m@;sm;a;Ska ms<snZoj ksjeros ;SrKhlg t<USu wfhda.Hnj nq|=iuh fmkajdfohsiuzNdjs;djjkdyS lsishuz wkqudkhlstlS wkqudkhg mdollr.kafka tu lreKg iudk fjk;a mQj!w;aoelSuzh1 tu ud msgl iuzmodfkak2 tu ud ;lal fya;`3 tu ud kh fya;`4 tu ud wdldr mrsjs;laflak5 w ks 1";sl ksmd;h"uydj.a.h ld,du iq;a;"nqcuq"377-343 msgq ud NnznrEm;dh

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