Successfully reported this slideshow.

Masonry for sustainability

1,829 views

Published on

Masonry materials can be used to create buildings with significantly less impact on the environment than many other materials, often yielding immediate and measurable results toward sustainability. Brick, stone, tile, terrazzo, marble, and plaster are known for their beauty and performance, and these same materials also play an important role in addressing the requirements for up to 52 points in LEED v.3 certified projects. This seminar will identify the specific contributions that masonry makes in the area of Sustainable Sites, Energy & Atmosphere, Materials & Resources, Indoor Environmental Quality and Innovation & Design. The program will also address the new requirements in LEED v. 3 and how they differ from those in LEED v. 2.2.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Masonry for sustainability

  1. 1. MASONRY FOR SUSTAINABILITYpresented by International Masonry Institute
  2. 2. INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEAPPRENTICESHIP& TRAININGMARKET DEVELOPMENT& TECHNICAL SERVICE
  3. 3. Craftworkercertification trainingSustainable MasonryCertification ProgramContractor CollegePre-job and apprentice trainingInternational Unionof Bricklayers andAllied CraftworkersInternationalMasonryInstituteLIFELONG LEARNINGJourneyman upgrade trainingSafety, scaffold, OSHA trainingSupervisor certification
  4. 4. BAC CONTRACTORSIMI-TRAINED CRAFTWORKERSInternational Unionof Bricklayers andAllied CraftworkersInternationalMasonryInstitute
  5. 5. Buildingsare the single largestcontributor to globalwarming.
  6. 6. Source: USGBC
  7. 7. TestAverageSavings ofGreenBuildingsENERGYSAVINGS30%CARBONSAVINGS35%WATERUSESAVINGS30-50%WASTECOSTSAVINGS50-90%Source: USGBC
  8. 8. ASTM E 2114-06a, “Standard Terminology for Sustainability Relative tothe Performance of Buildings,” Vol. 4.12, ASTM International, WestConshohocken, PA, 2006“Meeting the needs of thepresent without compromisingthe ability of future generationsto meet their own needs.”SUSTAINABILITY:MASONRYFORSUSTAINABILITY
  9. 9. FACILITY LIFE CYCLEProject Resource Manual – CSI Manual of PracticeFacility evaluation mayidentify needs that leadto expansion, remodel-ing, renovation, orrestoration of anexisting facility toaccommodate growthor changes in function;or may result inabandonment,deconstruction, sale, oradaptive reuse of anexisting facility.
  10. 10. SUSTAINABLEDESIGNTOPICSActive Solar Thermal SystemsAlternative EnergyAlternative TransportationAppropriate Size and GrowthBiomimicryBuilding FormBuilding MonitoringBuilding OrientationCarbon OffsetsCavity Walls for Insulating AirspaceCo-GenerationConserving Systems and EquipmentContract Documents(related to sustainable design)Construction Waste ManagementCool RoofsDeconstruction and SalvageMaterialsDaylightingEarth ShelteringEfficient Artificial LightingEfficient Site Lighting SystemsEnergy ModelingEnergy Source RamificationsEnergy-Saving Appliances andEquipmentEnvironmental EducationGeoexchangeGreen RoofsHigh-Efficiency EquipmentIndoor Environmental QualityIntegrated Project DeliveryLife Cycle AssessmentMass AbsorptionMaterial Selection and EmbodiedEnergyNatural VentilationOpen, Active, Daylit SpacePassive Solar Collection OpportunitiesPhotovoltaicsPrefabricationPreservation/Reuse of ExistingFacilitiesRadiant Heating and CoolingRenewable Energy ResourcesRightsizing EquipmentQ: What topics are considered as Sustainable Design topics?Safety and Security Systems(defensive planting, innovativedesign, defensive space)Smart ControlsSpace ZoningStaff Training (tech. training, only)Sun ShadingSystems CommissioningSystems Tune-UpThermal BridgingTotal Building CommissioningVegetation for Sun ControlWalkable CommunitiesWaste-Heat RecoveryWater ConservationWindows and OpeningsGreen SpecificationsZoning, regulatory, codeswww.aia.org FAQsA:
  11. 11. Possible pointsLEED-NC v.2.214Sustainable Sites5Water Efficiency17Energy & Atmosphere15Materials & Resources13Indoor Environm. Quality5Innovation in DesignN/ARegional Priority69LEED-NC v. 3Possible points2610351415100TOTAL26-32Certified33-38Silver39-51Gold52-69Platinum40-4950-5960-7980+LEED NC v.2.2 vs. LEED v.364110
  12. 12. With revised credit weightings, LEED now awards morepoints for strategies that will have greater positive impacts onwhat matters most – energy efficiency and CO2 reductions.LEED v. 3 CREDIT WEIGHTINGSThe result: more value is given to credits thathave the highest potential for making thebiggest change.Each credit was evaluated against a list of 13 environmentalimpact categories, including climate change, indoorenvironmental quality, resource depletion and water intake.The impact categories were prioritized, and credits wereassigned a value based on how they contributed tomitigating each impact.
  13. 13. LEED v. 3 MINIMUM PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS• Whole-Building Energy andWater Usage Data• 5 year period• Data supplied on regular basis• Commitment carries forward ifowner changes
  14. 14. RequirementsTechnologies& StrategiesIntentCredit – Identifies intent, requirements,technologiesPoints – One or more available withincredit achieved by specified requirementsLEED CREDIT FORMAT
  15. 15. Intent:• Conveysgoals andobjectives• Measure forgrantingpointLEED CREDIT FORMAT
  16. 16. Requirements:• Identifiesspecifics• Action items• ReferenceStandards• SubmittalsLEED CREDIT FORMAT
  17. 17. Strategies:• Acceptedmethods• Coordinationitems• Guidelines• CautionLEED CREDIT FORMAT
  18. 18. • Sustainable Sites (11)• Energy and Atmosphere (19)• Materials and Resources (12)• Indoor Environmental Quality (5)• Innovation and Design (5)LEED MASONRY CONTRIBUTIONSMasonry impacts 52 LEED v 3 points
  19. 19. MATERIALS & RESOURCES
  20. 20. MATERIALS & RESOURCES LEED v. 314 13 13Potentialcontributionof masonry3 points5 points1 point2 points2 points2 points2 points12 points, NC11 points, SCH13 points, CS
  21. 21. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 BUILDING REUSEINTENTExtend the life cycle ofexisting building stockReduce waste and environ-mental impacts of new buildingsPOSSIBLE LEED POINTSMaintain 75% of existingwalls, floors & roofsMaintain 95% of existingwalls, floors & roofsMaintain 50% of interiornon-structural elements(1)(2)(3)
  22. 22. Reuse existing structural and non-structural walls and elements.Masonry materials (Brick, CMU,Stone, Concrete, Tile, Terrazzo,AAC, Plaster) are:– Strong– Durable– Long life-cycle– Easily repaired– Fire-resistant– Energy efficient– Easily adaptableMasonry structural walls canremain.MATERIALS&RESOURCESSTRATEGIESMR CREDIT 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 BUILDING REUSE
  23. 23. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 BUILDING REUSE
  24. 24. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 BUILDING REUSECase Study: Walsh Construction Headquarters,Chicago, IL
  25. 25. MR CREDIT 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 BUILDING REUSEWalsh Construction Headquarters, Chicago, ILCommon brick facade removed. New face brick installed onexisting concrete structure.
  26. 26. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 3.1 & 3.2 MATERIAL REUSECommon brick from facade is preserved and cleaned.Walsh Construction Headquarters, Chicago, IL
  27. 27. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 3.1 & 3.2 MATERIAL REUSECommon brick used as interior finish at corridor wallsand elevator lobbies.Walsh Construction Headquarters, Chicago, IL
  28. 28. afterafterbefore
  29. 29. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 BUILDING REUSE“The most sustainable building is an existing masonrybuilding being restored.”- Lori Sipes, FAIA, Preservation Architect
  30. 30. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 BUILDING REUSE
  31. 31. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 BUILDING REUSE
  32. 32. REPOINTING DETAILDETAIL 16.101 REV. 05/08/09© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEN.T.S.DETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry InstituteDETERIORATEDMORTAR1.FINAL PASS TOOLED TOCONCAVE OR VEE PROFILETO MATCH EXISTING8.1/4” LIFT, FIRST PASS5.1/4”FINAL PASS INCORRECTLYSMEARED ABOUT BRICKEDGES RESULTS IN EXAG-GERATED JOINT WIDTH7.1/4” LIFTS, SUB-SEQUENT PASSES6.1/4”2. JOINT GROUND TOINCORRECT PROFILEJOINT GROUND TOINCORRECT PROFILE3. JOINT RAKED TO SOUNDMORTAR (d/3 MAX.) ANDGROUND TO 90º PROFILE4.d/3MAXd
  33. 33. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 2.1 & 2.2CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENTINTENTDivert debris from disposalin landfillsRedirect recyclable material tomanufacture processRedirect reusable materialsPOSSIBLE LEED POINTSRecycle / salvage 50% non-hazardousconstruction and demolition debris(1)Recycle / salvage 75% non-hazardousconstruction and demolition debris(2)(3-ID) Recycle / salvage 95% non-hazardousconstruction and demolition debris
  34. 34. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 2.1 & 2.2CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENTSTRATEGIESBrick, stone, and concretemasonry waste used foraggregates and fill for roadbase, construction fill, andother productsRedirect reusable materialsto appropriate sitesDonate materials
  35. 35. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 2.1 & 2.2CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT
  36. 36. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 2.1 & 2.2CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT
  37. 37. MATERIALS&RESOURCESExample: Recycle or donate demolished brickMR CREDIT 2.1 & 2.2CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT
  38. 38. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 2.1 & 2.2CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT
  39. 39. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 3.1 & 3.2MATERIAL REUSE
  40. 40. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 3.1 & 3.2MATERIAL REUSEINTENTReuse building materialsand productsReduce demand for virginmaterialsPOSSIBLE LEED POINTSUse 5% salvaged, refurbished,or reused materials(1)(2)(3-ID)Use 10% salvaged, refurbished,or reused materialsUse 15% salvaged, refurbished,or reused materials
  41. 41. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 3.1 & 3.2MATERIAL REUSESTRATEGIESSave and use leftovermaterial for use on otherprojectsGranite waste is cut to4”x4” pieces for paversSalvaged brick Salvaged brickon house
  42. 42. REUSED MATERIALSExample: Aldo Leopold Legacy Center, Madison, WIMATERIALS&RESOURCESAldo Leopold Legacy Center, Baraboo, WI, completed 2007Kubala Watshatko Architects; Construction by The Boldt Company and Monona MasonryProject used reclaimed stone from a 1930’s Madison airportterminal recently demolished.
  43. 43. REUSED MATERIALSMATERIALS&RESOURCESALDO LEOPOLD LEGACY CENTERReclaimed stoneAldo Leopold Legacy Center, Baraboo, WI, completed 2007Kubala Watshatko Architects; Construction by The Boldt Company and Monona Masonry
  44. 44. REUSED MATERIALSMATERIALS&RESOURCESALDO LEOPOLD LEGACY CENTERStone chips were saved and used around the site for erosion control
  45. 45. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2 RECYCLED CONTENT
  46. 46. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2 RECYCLED CONTENTINTENTIncrease demand for buildingproducts that incorporaterecycled content materialsPOSSIBLE LEED POINTSUse 10% recycled content (post-consumer + ½ pre-consumer)(1)(2)(3-ID)Use 20% recycled content (post-consumer + ½ pre-consumer)Use 30% recycled content (post-consumer + ½ pre-consumer)Post-consumer: materialgenerated by households orcommerce that has been used,e.g. plastic, paper, glass, metalPre-consumer: material diverted fromwaste stream during manufacturingprocess; may not be used in sameprocess, e.g. fly ash, sawdust
  47. 47. • Clay Brick– Recycled andindustrial wasteaggregates can bemixed with clay &shale:• Fly ash, incineratorash, bottom ash(10-12% by wt)• Waste glass,ceramic waste• Sawdust• Manganese• Contaminated soilMidland BrickMATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2 RECYCLED CONTENTCLAY MASONRY EXAMPLES
  48. 48. – Post-Industrial / Pre-Consumer: fly ash,silica fume, slag cement can be used toreplace cement– CMU Post-Consumer: glass, recycledconcrete masonry, recycled aggregates– Give consideration to ensure quality ofCMU– Lightweight aggregates are producedusing waste oil– SealTech Block –uses 10% recycledplastic materialMATERIALS&RESOURCESCONCRETE MASONRY EXAMPLESMR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2 RECYCLED CONTENT
  49. 49. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2 RECYCLED CONTENT
  50. 50.  Post-consumer glass Post-industrial marble &granite Post-consumer metals Grout may use recycledcontent Low VOC sealantsMATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2RECYCLED CONTENTTILE/MARBLE/TERRAZZO EXAMPLES
  51. 51.  Post-consumer glass Post-industrial marble & granite Post-consumer plastic chips Aluminum divider strips may userecycled contentriVitro CorpMATERIALS&RESOURCESTILE/MARBLE/TERRAZZO EXAMPLESMR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2RECYCLED CONTENT
  52. 52. MATERIALS&RESOURCESFiberglassinsulation contains26% post-industrialand 9% post-consumer recycledcontent (35% totalrecycled content).Foam extruded polystyrene (XPS)insulation products contain 15% post-industrial recycled content.MR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2 RECYCLED CONTENTINSULATION EXAMPLESsource: Owens Corning, owenscorningcommercial.com
  53. 53. MASONRY ACCESSORIESDETAIL 14.101 REV. 07/07/08© 2008 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEMASONRYACCESSORIESDETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry InstituteCAVITY INSERT/MORTAR COLLECTIONDEVICEDEBONDEDSHEAR ANCHORLADDER-TYPE HORIZONTALJOINT REINFORCEMENT W/WALL TIESTRUSS-TYPE HORIZONTALJOINT REINFORCEMENTSPLIT-TAIL ANCHORWALL TIEVENEER ANCHORWEEP SCREEDNO SCALEHORSESHOESHIMSWEEP VENTSREBAR POSITIONERFLASHING END DAMDRIP EDGESASH CORDCORRUGATEDWALL TIE
  54. 54. D213 WALL TIE,LONG PINTLEMASONRY ACCESSORIESDETAIL 14.102 REV. 08/18/08© 2008 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEMASONRYACCESSORIESDETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry InstituteSINGLE BRICK TIE,EYE & PINTLESMALL TRIANGLE TIEW/ DOVETAIL TABNO SCALECORRUGATEDWALL TIEWEEP VENTD213 WALL TIE,SHORT PINTLELARGE TRIANGLE TIEW/ DOVETAIL TABFERO TIE –BLOCK SHEARCONNECTORCOLUMN RODWELDEDMOUNTINGWEEP VENT
  55. 55. The Caravel635 N. DearbornChicago, IllinoisPark Alexandria125 S. JeffersonChicago, IllinoisThe Lancaster201 N. WestshoreChicago, IllinoisThe Regatta420 WatersideChicago, ILThe Chandler420 WatersideChicago, ILCHICAGO HIGHRISES USING AAC
  56. 56. State Place CondominiumsRoosevelt & State, Chicago, ILCHICAGO HIGHRISES USING AAC
  57. 57. MATERIALS&RESOURCESExample: Project uses brickmade with fly ash aggregateMR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2 RECYCLED CONTENT“Recycled Material: 40%fly ash by weight… pre-consumer”
  58. 58. MATERIALS&RESOURCESExample: Project uses brick made with fly ash aggregateMR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2 RECYCLED CONTENTBrick cost $25,000Value of bricks’ recycled content= 40% x $25,000 = $10,000 pre-consumerValue of materials = 45% x $1,000,000 = $450,000Project Cost(total construction cost of CSI Divisions 2-10): $1,000,0001/2 credit for pre-consumer = $5,0005,000 + X + Y + Z450,000= 0.10brick’s contributionother materials’ contributionTotal material cost (CSI Div. 2-10)10% req’d for one point20% req’d for two points
  59. 59. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 5.1 & 5.2 REGIONAL MATERIALSINTENTIncrease demand for regionalbuilding materials and productsPOSSIBLE LEED POINTSTo qualify, materials must beextracted and manufacturedwithin 500 miles of siteUse 10% regional materials(1)(3-ID)Use 20% regional materials(2)Use 40% regional materials
  60. 60. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 5.1 & 5.2 REGIONAL MATERIALS500-mile radius from Springfield
  61. 61. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 5.1 & 5.2 REGIONAL MATERIALSClay and shale come from open pit mines.Brick is manufactured in 38 statesProcessing plants are usually within 2 miles of the mine.
  62. 62. MATERIALS&RESOURCESMR CREDIT 5.1 & 5.2 REGIONAL MATERIALSBrick is manufactured in 38 statesAll 50 states have multipleconcrete masonry manufacturingplantsCast stone and tile plants arewithin 500 miles of every majormetropolitan area
  63. 63. MATERIALS&RESOURCESTotal Cost of Regional Mat’ls ($)Total Materials Cost ($)=RegionalPercentMaterialsMR CREDIT 5.1 & 5.2 REGIONAL MATERIALSActual Value Method: Tally of actualmaterials cost (CSI Div 2-10)-Default Value Method: 45% of totalconstruction cost (CSI Div 2-10)-
  64. 64. SUSTAINABLE SITES
  65. 65. SUSTAINABLE SITESPotentialcontributionof masonry1 point5 points1 point1 point1 point1 point26 24 28 10 pointsLEED v. 3
  66. 66. SS CREDIT 2DEVELOPMENT DENSITY & COMMUNITY CONNECTIVITY
  67. 67. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 2DEVELOPMENT DENSITY & COMMUNITY CONNECTIVITYChannel development to urbanareas with existing infrastructureNOT HEREProtect greenfieldsPreserve habitats and naturalresourcesPOSSIBLE LEED POINTSBuild on previously-developedsite and in high-density comm-unity (60,000 s.f./acre) …or(1)INTENTBuild on previously-developedsite and within ½ mile of 10basic servicesBUILD HERE
  68. 68. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 2DEVELOPMENT DENSITY & COMMUNITY CONNECTIVITYThe development density requirement of 60,000 sf/peracre is based on a typical 2-story downtown development
  69. 69. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 2DEVELOPMENT DENSITY & COMMUNITY CONNECTIVITYMasonry lends itself well todesigns that can take advantageof small, irregularly-shaped lotsand infill sites.
  70. 70. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 2Utilizing noncombustible masonry on the exteriormeans that buildings can be closer together.DEVELOPMENT DENSITY & COMMUNITY CONNECTIVITY
  71. 71. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 2DEVELOPMENT DENSITY & COMMUNITY CONNECTIVITYMasonry units can be used for fire-ratedinterior walls and firewall separations,offering 1 to 4 hours of fire resistanceCaravel Condominiums,downtown Chicago
  72. 72. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 2DEVELOPMENT DENSITY & COMMUNITY CONNECTIVITYMasonry easily adapts!Challenging urban site?
  73. 73. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 2DEVELOPMENT DENSITY & COMMUNITY CONNECTIVITYSmall modular masonry units do no require largeequipment for delivery and staging
  74. 74. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 5.2SITE DEVELOPMENT: MAXIMIZE OPEN SPACEProvide a high ratio of openspace to development footprintPOSSIBLE LEED POINTSReduce footprint and/or provideopen space exceeding zoningreq’ts by at least 25%(1)INTENTFor projects in urban areasachieving SS2, pedestrian-oriented hardscape areas cancontribute to credit compliance,provided 25% of open space isvegetated.
  75. 75. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 5.2SITE DEVELOPMENT: MAXIMIZE OPEN SPACEProvide a high ratio of open spaceto development footprintSTRATEGIESUse masonry site walls andretaining wallsUse loadbearing masonry tostack building programUse concrete masonry belowgrade for parking
  76. 76. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 7.1 & 7.2HEAT ISLAND EFFECTS, NON-ROOF & ROOFReduce heat islands, (thermal gradient differencesbetween developed and undeveloped areas)INTENTPOSSIBLE LEED POINTSProvide the following for 50% ofsite hardscape (roads, sidewalks,courtyards, and parking lots):- Shade; or- High-albedo paving(SRI 29 min)- Open-grid paving(1)or… 50% of parking spacesunder cover(2) High albedo roofing materials
  77. 77. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 7.1 & 7.2HEAT ISLAND EFFECTS, NON-ROOF & ROOFTemperatures increasing over two decadesAtlanta heat island effect
  78. 78. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 7.1 & 7.2HEAT ISLAND EFFECTS, NON-ROOF & ROOF
  79. 79. SUSTAINABLESITESSS CREDIT 7.1 & 7.2HEAT ISLAND EFFECTS, NON-ROOF & ROOFUse light-colored masonrymaterials- clay pavers- concrete pavers- stamped concrete- stoneSTRATEGIESUse masonry for below-gradeparking for its durability, structural,and fire-resistive propertiesPaving materials w/ SRI 29 min.Open grid pavement
  80. 80. ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE
  81. 81. ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE LEED v. 3Potentialcontributionof masonry19 points35 points 33 points 37 points 19 points
  82. 82. ENERGY&ATMOSPHEREEA PREREQUISITE 2MINIMUM ENERGY PERFORMANCEDemonstrate 10% improvement in the proposed building performancerating compared w/ baseline building performance rating.REQUIREMENTS Option 1 – Whole Building Energy SimulationCalculate baseline building performance rating according to thebuilding performance rating method in Appendix G of ASHRAE 90.1-2007, using a computer simulation model for the whole buildingproject.Baseline building performance is the annual energy cost for abuilding design intended for use as a baseline for rating abovestandard design. Option 2 – Prescriptive Compliance Path:ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide Option 3 – Prescriptive Compliance Path:Advanced Buildings Core Performance Guide
  83. 83. ENERGY&ATMOSPHEREEA PREREQUISITE 2MINIMUM ENERGY PERFORMANCEThis Standard establishes minimumrequirements for the energy efficient design ofbuildings (not low-rise residential).ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007
  84. 84. ENERGY&ATMOSPHEREEA PREREQUISITE 2 MINIMUM ENERGY PERFORMANCE Prescriptive building envelope requirements are determinedbased on the building’s climate zone classification. All buildingenvelope components must meet the minimum insulation andmaximum U-factor and solar heat gain coeffecientsOptions 2 and 3:Prescriptive CompliancePaths Each country in the U.S. is assigned to 1 of 8 climate zones Window area must be less than 40% of gross wall area
  85. 85. ENERGY&ATMOSPHEREEA CREDIT 1: 1-19 POINTSOPTIMIZE ENERGY PERFORMANCEEnergy performance abovebaseline, per ASHRAE 90.1-2007POSSIBLE LEED POINTSINTENTReduce environmental andeconomic impacts of excessiveenergy useUse masonry cavity wall forthermal resistance andthermal mass propertiesSTRATEGYMASONRYLEED Reference Guide for Green BuildingDesign and Construction, 2009 Edition
  86. 86. ENERGY&ATMOSPHEREEA CREDIT 1 OPTIMIZE ENERGY PERFORMANCEThe simulation program shall be acomputer-based program for theanalysis of energy consumption inbuildings ( a program such as, butnot limited to, EnergyPlus, EcotectDOE-2).G2.2 Simulation ProgramG2. SIMULATION GENERAL REQUIREMENTSG2.2.1The simulation program shall beapproved by the rating authority andshall, at a minimum, have the abilityto explicitly model all of the following:a. 8,760 hours per yearb. hourly variations in occupancy…c. thermal mass effectsd. ten or more thermal zones…ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007, Informative Appendix G – Performance Rating Method
  87. 87. ENERGY&ATMOSPHEREEA CREDIT 1LEED Reference Guide for Green Building Design and Construction, 2009 EditionOPTIMIZE ENERGY PERFORMANCE
  88. 88. Material Kind R-ValueMasonry Brick, 4 inch face 0.44Common 4 inch 0.80Limestone/sandstone, 1 inch .08Stucco 1 inch 0.20Concrete Block, 8 inch 1.93Concrete Block, 8 inch, grouted 1.04Insulation Expanded polystyrene 1 inch 3.85Expanded polyurethane 1 inch 6.64Extruded Polystyrene 1 inch 4.92(Styrofoam blue board)ENERGY&ATMOSPHERER-VALUES, MASONRY & INSULATION
  89. 89. Thermal values forconcrete masonry walls arecorrelated to density, sincethe thermal conductivity ofconcrete increases withincreasing concrete densityR-VALUES
  90. 90. ENERGY&ATMOSPHEREof buildingcomponents are used toestimate a building’senergy consumption understeady-state conditions.In order to estimate abuilding’s actual energyconsumption, other factorsmust be considered:Building designThermal massClimateR-VALUESTypes of heat transfer
  91. 91. R-Value is an estimate of theoverall steady-state resistanceto heat transfer.STEADY STATE R-VALUES vs. THERMAL MASSIt is determined in the laboratoryby applying a constanttemperature difference across awall section, then measuring thesteady state heat flow throughthe wall under this condition.HEAT heatHEATheatThermal mass, or theheat storage ability of the wall,is not considered in the R-Value.
  92. 92. STEADY STATE R-VALUES vs. THERMAL MASSHEAT heatHEATheatThermal storage is the temporarystorage of high or low temperatureenergy for later use. It allows a timegap between energy use andavailability.Using thermal storage, heating orcooling energy is stored so that it isavailable for space conditioningduring peak demand periods.Buildings constructed with masonrycan require 18%-70% less insulationthan similar frame buildings, while stillproviding an equivalent level ofenergy efficient performance.
  93. 93. Exterior mass,core insulation,interior massExterior insul.,core mass,interior insulationExterior insul.,interior massExterior mass,interior insulationMASSWALLS“Masonry or concrete walls having a mass greater than or equal to30 lb/ft2 are defined by IECC and ASHRAE 90.1 as massive walls.”
  94. 94. ENERGY&ATMOSPHERETHERMAL MASS BENEFITS3AM 6AM 9AM 12PM 3PM 6PM 9PM 12AMHEATLOSSESHEATGAINS2-HR LAG6-HR LAGDAMPINGSource: National Concrete Masonry Association
  95. 95. High-mass achieves betterenergy performance.Masonry walls are permittedto have lower RValues (insulation)than frame wall systems toachieve same level of energyefficiency.Dynamic Benefitof Massive WallsSystems
  96. 96. DBMS = Less InsulationNote Reductions in R-Value for Massive Wall Systems
  97. 97. Insulation:High R-ValueMasonry:HighThermalMassCavitywallsystemENERGY&ATMOSPHERETHERMAL MASS & R-VALUES
  98. 98. ENERGY&ATMOSPHEREMASONRY CAVITY WALL
  99. 99. © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEAIR SPACE2” recommended4½” max. betweenbrick and backup1” min. for veneersper ACI 530 CodeMOISTURE RESISTANCE
  100. 100. INSULATION TYPESENERGY&ATMOSPHEREFiberglassLoose fillExpandedPolystyrene (EPS)Extruded Polystyrene (XPS) Polyisocyanurate
  101. 101. INSULATED BLOCKENERGY&ATMOSPHERE
  102. 102. SPRAY POLYURETHANE FOAMENERGY&ATMOSPHERE• Two-component system• Mixed together expandsup to 30+ times in volumeto form solid product• General features of spraypolyurethane foam:– Lightweight• 1.5 lbs per square foot– Closed-cell rigid plastic– Superior insulationproperties
  103. 103. INJECTED FOAM INSULATIONDETAIL 19.101A REV. 12/13/08© 2008 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTESUSTAINABLEMASONRYDETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry InstituteCONCRETE MASONRYGROUT & REINF.AS REQ’DINJECTION PORTS DRILLEDIN BED JOINTS @ 8” O.C.EXCEPT @ GROUTED CELLSCONCRETE MASONRYGROUT & REINF.AS REQ’DGROUT & REINF.AS REQ’DCONCRETE MASONRYGROUT & REINF.AS REQ’DCONCRETE MASONRYCONT. INJECTEDFOAM INSULATIONGROUT & REINF.AS REQ’DCONCRETE MASONRYCONT. INJECTEDFOAM INSULATIONGROUT & REINF.AS REQ’DCONCRETE MASONRYCONT. INJECTEDFOAM INSULATIONPATCH INJECTIONPORTS W/ MORTAR TOMATCH EXISTING
  104. 104. INSULATION AT INTERIORDETAIL 08.301 REV. 02/09/09DETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEWALLTYPES
  105. 105. INSULATION IN CAVITYDETAIL 08.302 REV. 02/09/09DETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEWALLTYPES
  106. 106. INSULATION INSERTS IN BLOCKDETAIL 08.303 REV. 02/09/09DETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEWALLTYPES
  107. 107. FOAMED-IN-PLACE INSULATIONDETAIL 08.304 REV. 02/09/09DETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEWALLTYPES
  108. 108. LOOSE FILL INSULATIONDETAIL 08.305 REV. 02/09/09DETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEWALLTYPES
  109. 109. EXTERIOR INSULATIONDETAIL 08.306 REV. 02/09/09DETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEWALLTYPES
  110. 110. INSULATION AT MULTIPLE LOCATIONSDETAIL 08.307 REV. 02/09/09DETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEWALLTYPES
  111. 111. 114
  112. 112. R-Values of Multi-Wythe Concrete Masonry WallsR-Values for Single Wythe Concrete Masonry WallsEnergy Code Compliance Using COMCHK-EZ6-1A6-4A6-2A6-11Insulating Concrete Masonry Walls- constructionoriented discussion of various insulation methodsSUMMARY OF NCMA ENERGY TEKS
  113. 113. WALL TYPE 08.101 2” RIGID EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE INSULATIONDETAIL 08.101 REV. 02/09/09WALLTYPESDETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEN.T.S.BRICK VENEERAIR/WATER/VAPORBARRIER AS REQ’DHORIZONTAL JOINTREINFORCEMENT W/INTEGRAL WALL TIESCMU BACKUP2” EXTRUDEDPOLYSTYRENEINSULATION16”3 5/8” 2¾” 2” 7 5/8”2¾” AIR SPACE
  114. 114. WALL TYPE 08.102 2” RIGID XPS INSULATION W/ INSERTSDETAIL 08.102 REV. 02/09/09WALLTYPESDETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEN.T.S.BRICK VENEERAIR/WATER/VAPORBARRIER AS REQ’DHORIZONTAL JOINTREINFORCEMENT W/INTEGRAL WALL TIESCMU BACKUP2” EXTRUDEDPOLYSTYRENEINSULATION16”3 5/8” 2¾” 2” 7 5/8”EXPANDEDPOLYSTYRENEINSULATION INSERTS2¾” AIR SPACER-19 BENCHMARK
  115. 115. WALL TYPE 08.103 3” RIGID XPS INSULATION W/ INSERTSDETAIL 08.103 REV. 02/09/09WALLTYPESDETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEN.T.S.BRICK VENEERHORIZONTAL JOINTREINFORCEMENT W/INTEGRAL WALL TIES16”3 5/8” 1¾” 3” 7 5/8”AIR/WATER/VAPORBARRIER AS REQ’DCMU BACKUP3” EXTRUDEDPOLYSTYRENEINSULATION1¾” AIR SPACER-19 BENCHMARK
  116. 116. WALL TYPE 08.104 3” RIGID XPS INSULATIONDETAIL 08.104 REV. 02/09/09WALLTYPESDETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEN.T.S.BRICK VENEERAIR/WATER/VAPORBARRIER AS REQ’DHORIZONTAL JOINTREINFORCEMENT W/INTEGRAL WALL TIESCMU BACKUP3” EXTRUDEDPOLYSTYRENEINSULATION16”3 5/8” 1¾” 3” 7 5/8”EXPANDEDPOLYSTYRENEINSULATION INSERTS1¾” AIR SPACE17% INCREASE FROMR-19 BENCHMARK
  117. 117. WALL TYPE 08.105 3” POLYISOCYANURATE INSULATIONDETAIL 08.105 REV. 02/09/09WALLTYPESDETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEN.T.S.BRICK VENEERAIR/WATER/VAPORBARRIER AS REQ’DHORIZONTAL JOINTREINFORCEMENT W/INTEGRAL WALL TIESCMU BACKUP3” POLYISO.INSULATION16”3 5/8” 1¾” 3” 7 5/8”1¾” AIR SPACE28% INCREASE FROMR-19 BENCHMARK
  118. 118. WALL TYPE 08.106 3” POLYISOCYANURATE INSULATION W/ INSERTSDETAIL 08.106 REV. 02/09/09WALLTYPESDETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry Institute© 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEN.T.S.BRICK VENEERAIR/WATER/VAPORBARRIER AS REQ’DHORIZONTAL JOINTREINFORCEMENT W/INTEGRAL WALL TIESCMU BACKUP3” POLYISO.INSULATION16”3 5/8” 1¾” 3” 7 5/8”EXPANDEDPOLYSTYRENEINSULATION INSERTS1¾” AIR SPACE46% INCREASE FROMR-19 BENCHMARK
  119. 119. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
  120. 120. LEED 20095 points, NC6 points, SCHOOLS4 points, CSPotentialcontributionof masonry1 point1 point1 point1 point1 point1 point1 point15 23 12INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
  121. 121. EQ CREDIT 3.1CONSTRUCTION IAQ MANAGEMENT PLANINDOORENVIRONMENTALQUALITYINTENTReduce air quality problemsresulting from the construction /renovation processPOSSIBLE LEED POINTS(1)Masonry materials not organicand therefore not a food sourcefor moldMasonry materials are easilyprotected from moisture duringconstructionMeet minimumrequirements of ASHRAE62.1, Ventilation forAcceptable Indoor AirQualityDURING CONSTRUCTION
  122. 122. EQ CREDIT 4.1LOW-EMITTING MATERIALS, ADHESIVES & SEALANTSINDOORENVIRONMENTALQUALITYINTENTReduce quantity of indoor aircontaminants that are odorous,irritating, and/or harmful to thecomfort and well-being ofinstallers and occupantsPOSSIBLE LEED POINTS(1) All adhesives and sealantscomply with reference standards
  123. 123. EQ CREDIT 4.1LOW-EMITTING MATERIALS, ADHESIVES & SEALANTSINDOORENVIRONMENTALQUALITYAnchored masonry veneer doesnot require adhesivesMasonry requires less sealantthan many other wall systemsUse low-VOC sealants forexpansion and control joints
  124. 124. • Most masonry materialsdo not require paints orcoatings.• Paints and coatings forCMU comply with VOCrequirements.• Ground Face and Split-Face CMU do not requirepaint.• Tile does not requirecoatings or sealers.EQ CREDIT 4.2LOW-EMITTING MATERIALS, PAINTS & COATINGSINDOORENVIRONMENTALQUALITYPOSSIBLE LEED POINTS(1) All paints and coatings complywith reference standardsINTENTReduce quantity of indoor aircontaminants that are odorous,irritating, and/or harmful to thecomfort and well-being ofinstallers and occupants
  125. 125. • Insulated masonry wallsystems provide superiorThermal Resistant (R)values for consistenttemperatures.• Masonry thermal massquality moderatestemperatures.EQ CREDIT 7.1THERMAL COMORT: DESIGNINDOORENVIRONMENTALQUALITYINTENTProvide a comfortable thermalenvironment that supports theproductivity and well-being ofbuilding occupantsMASONRYPOSSIBLE LEED POINTS(1)Design HVAC and buildingenvelope to meet ASHRAE 56Thermal Comfort Conditions
  126. 126. EQ CREDIT 7.1THERMAL COMORT: DESIGNINDOORENVIRONMENTALQUALITYMasonry walls can assist in regulating temperature andcontrolling mold and moisture penetration
  127. 127. EQ CREDIT 9ENHANCED ACOUSTICAL PERFORMANCEINDOORENVIRONMENTALQUALITYINTENTProvide classrooms thatfacilitate better teacher andstudent communicationsthrough effective acousticaldesignPOSSIBLE LEED POINTS(1) Comply with requirementsfor sound transmissionand background noise
  128. 128. EQ CREDIT 9ENHANCED ACOUSTICAL PERFORMANCEINDOORENVIRONMENTALQUALITYREQUIREMENTSDesign building shell andclassroom partitions to meetSTC requirements of ANSIStandard S12.60-2002andReduce background noiselevel in classrooms to 40dBA or less from HVACsystems.
  129. 129. EQ CREDIT 9ENHANCED ACOUSTICAL PERFORMANCEINDOORENVIRONMENTALQUALITYSTC Requirements for Classroom Assemblies
  130. 130. EQ CREDIT 9ENHANCED ACOUSTICAL PERFORMANCEINDOORENVIRONMENTALQUALITYACOUSTIC CONCRETE MASONRYAcoustic CMUs can provide sound control for abetter indoor learning and working environmentMuch like a car muffler, theclosed-end cavities resonatesound waves and convert themharmlessly to heat
  131. 131. REGIONAL PRIORITY
  132. 132. Regional Priority Credits (RPCs) incentivize theachievement of credits that address geographically specificenvironmental priorities.LEED 2009 REGIONAL PRIORITY CREDITSEach specific area – referenced by ZIP code – has sixRPCs per rating system. A project may earn upto four bonus points as a result of earning RPCs, with onebonus point earned per RPC.RPCs are not new LEED credits, but are existing creditsthat USGBC chapters and regional councils havedesignated as being particularly important for their areas.The incentive to achieve the credits is in theform of a bonus point. If an RPC is earned, then a bonuspoint is awarded to the project’s total points.
  133. 133. LEED 2009 REGIONAL PRIORITY CREDITS
  134. 134. LEED 2009 REGIONAL PRIORITY CREDITS
  135. 135. SSc4 SSc6 WEc3 MRc6 IEQc1.3 IEQc1.4For ZIP Code 60137, LEED EB-O&M, priorities are:LEED 2009 REGIONAL PRIORITY CREDITS
  136. 136. SUSTAINABLE SITES LEED 2009
  137. 137. WATER EFFICIENCY LEED 2009
  138. 138. ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE LEED 2009
  139. 139. MATERIALS & RESOURCES LEED 2009
  140. 140. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY LEED 2009
  141. 141. INNOVATION IN DESIGN
  142. 142. INNOVATION & DESIGN LEED 2009Potentialcontributionof masonry5 points6 points 5 points 6 points 5 points NC4 points SCH5 points CS
  143. 143. Cured concrete reabsorbs CO2 from the atmosphereOver several years, 100 lbs of portland cement willabsorb 20 lbs of CO2, or 0.6 lbs of CO2 per concretemasonry unitIf the concrete masonryunits are painted orsealed, the absorptionwill be reducedAbsorption is higher forconcrete masonry thanfor cast-in-place due toconcrete masonry’shigher porositysource: AIA Environmental Resource Guide, 1996-1998, Concrete Masonry 04220, pp. 16-17INNOVATION IN DESIGNINDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITYINNOVATION&DESIGN
  144. 144. INNOVATION IN DESIGNImprove sound quality by using acoustically efficientmasonry materialsACOUSTIC PERFORMANCEINNOVATION&DESIGN
  145. 145. Example: Project uses masonry with mortar containingmasons’ sand, an abundant materialINNOVATION IN DESIGNINNOVATION&DESIGNABUNDANT MATERIALS
  146. 146. Ongoing geological processesgenerate new deposits of sandin the hundreds of millions oftons each year.source: North American Insulation Manufacturers Association, naima.orgMuch more raw sand isgenerated annually than isused by man.INNOVATION IN DESIGNINNOVATION&DESIGNABUNDANT MATERIALS
  147. 147. By proportion, Type N Mortar is approximatelyNOT LESSTHAN 2¼ ANDNOT MORETHAN 3 TIMESTHE SUM OFSEPARATEVOLUMES OFLIME, IF USED,AND CEMENT¼OVER ¼ TO ½OVER ½ TO 1¼OVER 1¼ TO 2½------------------------------------------------1111MSNOCEMENT-LIMENSMNSMAGGREGATERATIO(MEASURED INDAMP, LOOSECONDITIONS)HYDRATEDLIME OR LIMEPUTTYMASONRYCEMENTMORTARCEMENTPORTLANDCEMENT ORBLENDEDCEMENTTYPEMORTARPROPORTIONS BY VOLUMEsource: ASTM C 2701:1:6Portland Cement : Lime : SandABUNDANT MATERIALSINNOVATION IN DESIGNINNOVATION&DESIGN
  148. 148. Structural masonry uses theinherent strength of masonryto minimize or eliminate therequirements of a separatestructural frameINNOVATION IN DESIGNSTRUCTURAL MASONRYINNOVATION&DESIGNExpidite design time andconstruction schedule, saveon cost
  149. 149. STRUCTURALMASONRYTYPE I HYBRID EXAMPLEFIG. 20.514c) TYPE I HYBRID∆= 0.02” (0.5 mm)a) RIGID FRAME10 KIPSW12x35∆W12x40∆= 4” (100 mm)W12x40W8x24W8x15W8x1510 KIPSb) BRACED FRAME∆= 0.04” (1 mm)W8x15W8x15W8x2410 KIPS
  150. 150. HEAD DETAILDETAIL 01.304 REV. 09/27/07© 2007 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTEBRICK&BLOCKCAVITYWALLDETAILINGMASONRYSERIESwww.imiweb.org800-IMI-0988International Masonry InstitutePLATE WELDED TO I-BEAMDETAIL FEATURES• PLATE WELDED TO I-BEAM• CUT BLOCK AROUND BEAM
  151. 151. STRUCTURAL MASONRYPrecast masory lintel fabricated on thegroundHoisted by liftPRECAST LINTELS © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  152. 152. © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTESTRUCTURAL MASONRYPrecast lintel set into place 10-foot spanPRECAST LINTELS
  153. 153.  Time savings4-6 weeks by hand vs 3-4 days w/ software Perforated shear walls! Layout changes easy to accommodate Models can easily be saved, modifiedand reused for future projects Whole building results not justcomponents Entire building does not have to bedesigned for localized worse case Integrates with other material design,software, BIM, etc.

×