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PreCast Construction

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THE FOLLOWING PPT. GIVES A BRIEF INFORMATION ABOUT PRECAST CONSTRUCTION AND ITS MANUFACTURING.

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PreCast Construction

  1. 1. PRE-CAST CONTRUCTION AAYUSH LAKHAWAT ABHISHEK GUPTA AYUSHI BANSAL DEEKSHA MANCHANDA
  2. 2. Plant-Cast Precast Concrete • Concrete elements, cast and cured in a manufacturing plant, then transported to the construction site. • Plant casting allows increased efficiency and higher quality control. • Durable, permanent steel forms are reused many times, reducing formwork costs compared to sitecast concrete. • Use of Type III, high early strength cement and steam curing allow concrete members to be cast and cured in as little as 24 hours. • Controlled casting conditions and high quality forms allow for greater control of surface finishes. 15 PRECAST CONCRETE FRAMING SYSTEMS
  3. 3. Plant-Cast Precast Concrete • Structural elements are commonly reinforced with tightly stretched pretensioned steel strands, which provide increased structural efficiency. • Conventional steel reinforcing is added for resistance to thermal and other secondary stresses. 15 PRECAST CONCRETE FRAMING SYSTEMS
  4. 4. Plant-Cast Precast Concrete • On the construction site, precast concrete elements are lifted into place and assembled into structural assemblies in a process similar to that used for structural steel. • Compared to sitecast concrete, precast concrete erection is faster and less affected by adverse weather conditions. A vacuum lifting device is used to lift and place precast concrete pranks. 15 PRECAST CONCRETE FRAMING SYSTEMS
  5. 5. PRECAST, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 15 PRECAST CONCRETE FRAMING SYSTEMS
  6. 6. Precast Concrete Slabs • Used for floor and roof decks. • Deeper elements (toward the right below) span further than those that are shallower (toward the left). • Right: Hollow core slabs stacked at the precasting plant. PRECAST, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  7. 7. Precast Concrete Beams and Girders • Provide support for slabs. • The projecting reinforcing bars will bond with concrete cast on site. • Right: Inverted tee beams supported by precast columns. PRECAST, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  8. 8. Precast Concrete Columns and Wall Panels • Provide support for beam and slab elements. • Since these elements carry mainly axial loads with little bending force, they may be conventionally reinforced without prestressing. • Or, long, slender multistory elements may be prestressed to provide resistance to bending forces during handling and erection (columns at right). PRECAST, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  9. 9. Precast Concrete Columns and Wall Panels • Precast concrete wall panels may be solid (right), hollow, or sandwiched (with an insulating core). • Wall panels can be ribbed, to increase their vertical span capacity while minimizing weight, or formed into other special shapes (below). PRECAST, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  10. 10. Other Precast Concrete Elements • Precast concrete stairs (below) • Uniquely shaped structural elements for a sports stadium (right) • Etc. PRECAST, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  11. 11. Assembly Concepts for Precast Concrete Buildings • Vertical support can be provided by precast columns and beams (above), wall panels (below), or a combination of all three. • The choice of roof and floor slab elements depends mainly on span requirements. • Precast slab elements are frequently also used with other vertical loadbearing systems such as sitecast concrete, reinforced masonry, or steel. PRECAST, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  12. 12. Assembly Concepts for Precast Concrete Buildings • Above: Precast concrete structure consisting of solid wall panels and hollow core slabs. • Below: A single story warehouse consisting of double tees supported by insulated sandwich wall panels. PRECAST, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  13. 13. Assembly Concepts for Precast Concrete Buildings • A parking garage structure consisting of precast double tees supported by inverted tee beams on haunched columns. PRECAST, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  14. 14. MANUFACTURING OF PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 15 PRECAST CONCRETE FRAMING SYSTEMS
  15. 15. Casting Hollow Core Planks • Precast elements are manufactured in casting beds, 800 ft or more in length. • High-strength steel strands are strung the length of the bed and tensioned. • Conventional reinforcing, weld plates, blockouts, lifting loops, and other embedded items are added as needed. • Concrete is placed. MANUFACTURING OF PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS Untensioned prestressing strands can be seen in the left-most casting bed. In the bed second from the right, low-slump concrete for hollow core slabs is being formed over tensioned strands using an extrusion process. A completed hollow core casting is visible at the far right.
  16. 16. Prestressing and Reinforcing Steel • Many precast elements contain both prestressing strands and conventional reinforcing. • Right: The prestressing strands for an AASHTO girder are depressed into a shallow v- shape to most efficiently resist tensile forces in the beam. Shear stirrups are formed from conventional steel reinforcing. MANUFACTURING OF PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  17. 17. Casting Hollow Core Planks • Once the concrete has cured to sufficient strength, the castings are cut into sections of desired length (above). • In some cases, transverse bulkheads are inserted to divide the casting bed into sections before concrete is placed. In this case, only the prestressing strands need to be cut to separate the sections (below). MANUFACTURING OF PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  18. 18. Casting Hollow Core Planks • Individual sections are lifted from the casting bed (right) and stockpiled to await shipping to the construction site. MANUFACTURING OF PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  19. 19. Casting Hollow Core Planks • Precast concrete elements are shipped to the construction site by truck and erected on site by crane. MANUFACTURING OF PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  20. 20. Casting Hollow Core Planks • Sample hollow core slab sections of varying depths. • At bottom left, note the insulated sandwich floor panel. MANUFACTURING OF PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  21. 21. JOINING PRECAST CONCRETE ELMENTS 15 PRECAST CONCRETE FRAMING SYSTEMS
  22. 22. Example Column-to-Column Connection • Metal bearing plates and embedded anchor bolts are cast into the ends of the columns. • After the columns are mechanically joined, the connection is grouted to provide full bearing between elements and protect the metal components from fire and corrosion. JOINING PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS
  23. 23. Example Beam- to-Column Connection • Beams are set on bearing pads on the column corbels. • Steel angles are welded to metal plates cast into the beams and columns and the joint is grouted solid. JOINING PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS
  24. 24. Example Slab-to- Beam Connection • Hollow core slabs are set on bearing pads on precast beams. • Steel reinforcing bars are in inserted into the slab keyways to span the joint. • The joint is grouted solid. • The slab may remain untopped as shown, or topped with several inches of cast in place concrete. JOINING PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS
  25. 25. Sitecast Concrete Toppings over Precast Slabs • Greater floor strength and stiffness • Greater fire resistance • Greater acoustic isolation • Allow easy integration of electrical services into floor system • Create a smoother, flatter floor JOINING PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS
  26. 26. Precast Concrete Construction and Seismic Design • In areas of high seismic risk, structures must be designed to respond safely to the dynamic forces imparted into the structure. • Innovations in joint design are improving the connection systems in precast concrete structures and making them increasingly suitable for use in such areas. JOINING PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS A large scale test facility for simulating seismic forces on precast concrete structural systems.

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