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Xen on ARM
A success story

Stefano Stabellini - Citrix Xen Project Team
Achievements of one year
Xen support for ARM
upstream in Linux 3.7

Xen support for ARM64
upstream in Linux 3.11

Xen 64-bit
on ARM64

You are here
11/11

08/12 09/12

Part-time Xen ARM
hacking starts

11/12

Xen running on real
ARM hardware

First Xen on ARM talk at
Xen Summit 2012

01/13

03/13

Citrix announces
that will be joining
Linaro

06/13

07/13

Xen 4.3 released with
ARM and ARM64
support
A growing community
Xen-devel ARM traffic from August 2012:
● 4685 emails: 360 emails per month!
● 39% of which are not from Citrix
Hardware support
Upstream:
● Versatile Express Cortex A15
● Arndale board
● ARMv8 FVP
In progress:
●
●
●
●
●

Calxeda “Midway”
Applied Micro “Mustang”
Cubieboard2
Broadcom Brahma-B15
OMAP5
Upstream features
Xen v4.3:
● basic lifecycle operations
● memory ballooning
● scheduler configurations and vcpu pinning
Linux v3.11:
● dom0 and domU support
● 32-bit and 64-bit support
● SMP support
● PV disk, network and console
Coming in Xen 4.4
● 64-bit guest support
● live-migration
● SWIOTLB
Coming in Xen 4.4
● 64-bit guest support
● live-migration
● SWIOTLB
The problem

1 Stage

physical address

machine address

hardware

2 stage

Xen

Linux

virtual address
The problem: dom0 DMA

1 Stage

physical address

machine address

Device DMA

2 stage

Xen

Linux

virtual address
The best solution: IOMMU

MMU

physical address
2 stage

Linux

virtual address

Device DMA

IOMMU

Xen

machine address
The workaround:
Dom0 1:1 mapping

physical address = machine address

Xen

Linux

virtual address

Device DMA
The workaround:
Dom0 1:1 mapping
●
●
●
●

rigid solution
no ballooning in dom0
no page sharing in dom0
does not work with foreign grant table
mappings
UNHAPPY
The alternative: SWIOTLB

MMU

virtual address

machine address

Device DMA

DMA ops

Linux

physical address
The alternative: SWIOTLB
● use memory_exchange_and_pin hypercall
○ create a contiguous buffer in machine memory
○ retrieve the machine address of the buffer

● introduce an additional memcpy
● remove the need for the 1:1 workaround
STILL UNHAPPY
SWIOTLB:
the improved version
pin and unpin hypercalls:
● dynamically retrieve P2M mappings
● pin a mapping for DMA
● remove additional memcpy
map_page

pfn
XENMEM_pin

pfn

mfn
pin
mfn
SWIOTLB:
the “improved” version
● Linux rbtree maintenance is expensive
● too many uncached address translations in
Xen
○ guest virtual to machine
○ guest physical to machine

cpu utilization increase
NOT AN IMPROVEMENT
SWIOTLB: the compromise
● keep the dom0 1:1 workaround
○ dom0 without ballooning and page sharing is the
default configuration in XenServer x86 today

● use the swiotlb only to handle DMA involving
foreign grants
○ we already know the p2m mappings of grants
■ no need for pin and unpin hypercalls
○ can take shortcuts: avoid many tree lookups
○ tree lookups are much faster
○ avoidable with IOMMU support
SWIOTLB: the compromise
Testing platform:
● 1.5Ghz quad-core Cortex A15
● 1 Gbit link
Benchmark results:
● same network throughput as native (line
rate)
● < 2% cpu usage increase
THAT’S BETTER
SWIOTLB: where to find it
The patches (swiotlb-xen v8):
http://marc.info/?l=linux-kernel&m=138203180707683&w=2

The kernel tree:
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/sstabellini/xen.git swiotlb-xen-8
Xen 4.5+
●
●
●
●

IOMMU support in Xen
device assignment
UEFI booting
ACPI support
DEMO
Questions?
XPDS13: Xen on ARM Update - Stefano Stabellini, Citrix

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XPDS13: Xen on ARM Update - Stefano Stabellini, Citrix

  • 1. Xen on ARM A success story Stefano Stabellini - Citrix Xen Project Team
  • 2. Achievements of one year Xen support for ARM upstream in Linux 3.7 Xen support for ARM64 upstream in Linux 3.11 Xen 64-bit on ARM64 You are here 11/11 08/12 09/12 Part-time Xen ARM hacking starts 11/12 Xen running on real ARM hardware First Xen on ARM talk at Xen Summit 2012 01/13 03/13 Citrix announces that will be joining Linaro 06/13 07/13 Xen 4.3 released with ARM and ARM64 support
  • 3. A growing community Xen-devel ARM traffic from August 2012: ● 4685 emails: 360 emails per month! ● 39% of which are not from Citrix
  • 4. Hardware support Upstream: ● Versatile Express Cortex A15 ● Arndale board ● ARMv8 FVP In progress: ● ● ● ● ● Calxeda “Midway” Applied Micro “Mustang” Cubieboard2 Broadcom Brahma-B15 OMAP5
  • 5. Upstream features Xen v4.3: ● basic lifecycle operations ● memory ballooning ● scheduler configurations and vcpu pinning Linux v3.11: ● dom0 and domU support ● 32-bit and 64-bit support ● SMP support ● PV disk, network and console
  • 6. Coming in Xen 4.4 ● 64-bit guest support ● live-migration ● SWIOTLB
  • 7. Coming in Xen 4.4 ● 64-bit guest support ● live-migration ● SWIOTLB
  • 8.
  • 9. The problem 1 Stage physical address machine address hardware 2 stage Xen Linux virtual address
  • 10. The problem: dom0 DMA 1 Stage physical address machine address Device DMA 2 stage Xen Linux virtual address
  • 11. The best solution: IOMMU MMU physical address 2 stage Linux virtual address Device DMA IOMMU Xen machine address
  • 12. The workaround: Dom0 1:1 mapping physical address = machine address Xen Linux virtual address Device DMA
  • 13. The workaround: Dom0 1:1 mapping ● ● ● ● rigid solution no ballooning in dom0 no page sharing in dom0 does not work with foreign grant table mappings
  • 15. The alternative: SWIOTLB MMU virtual address machine address Device DMA DMA ops Linux physical address
  • 16. The alternative: SWIOTLB ● use memory_exchange_and_pin hypercall ○ create a contiguous buffer in machine memory ○ retrieve the machine address of the buffer ● introduce an additional memcpy ● remove the need for the 1:1 workaround
  • 18. SWIOTLB: the improved version pin and unpin hypercalls: ● dynamically retrieve P2M mappings ● pin a mapping for DMA ● remove additional memcpy map_page pfn XENMEM_pin pfn mfn pin mfn
  • 19. SWIOTLB: the “improved” version ● Linux rbtree maintenance is expensive ● too many uncached address translations in Xen ○ guest virtual to machine ○ guest physical to machine cpu utilization increase
  • 21. SWIOTLB: the compromise ● keep the dom0 1:1 workaround ○ dom0 without ballooning and page sharing is the default configuration in XenServer x86 today ● use the swiotlb only to handle DMA involving foreign grants ○ we already know the p2m mappings of grants ■ no need for pin and unpin hypercalls ○ can take shortcuts: avoid many tree lookups ○ tree lookups are much faster ○ avoidable with IOMMU support
  • 22. SWIOTLB: the compromise Testing platform: ● 1.5Ghz quad-core Cortex A15 ● 1 Gbit link Benchmark results: ● same network throughput as native (line rate) ● < 2% cpu usage increase
  • 24. SWIOTLB: where to find it The patches (swiotlb-xen v8): http://marc.info/?l=linux-kernel&m=138203180707683&w=2 The kernel tree: git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/sstabellini/xen.git swiotlb-xen-8
  • 25. Xen 4.5+ ● ● ● ● IOMMU support in Xen device assignment UEFI booting ACPI support
  • 26. DEMO