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Writing a research paper
Lars Åke Persson MD PhD
lars.persson@lshtm.ac.uk
Dagu Scientific Writing Workshop, Gondar,
Ethiopia, July 10-14, 2017
Writing research papers
Read the literature!
• Use the net to follow the
literature in your field
• Search for relevant papers:
ask colleagues, snow-balling
• Try to read broader than just
the narrow focus of your own
study
• Literature club at your
university? (You start!)
• Learn by reading fellow
students’ manuscripts,
discuss improvements
Writing research papers
• Write up the work step by
step (literature review,
organizing references,
describing aims and
methods..)
• Learn from others (and by
reading lots of research
articles) but no plagiarism!
• What is title of the paper?
A way to focus on what the
paper really is about
Writing research papers:
Common structure of the
paper
Title
Authors (plan at an early stage, only those
contributing)
Abstract
Background, maybe theoretical framework
rationale. Maybe hypothesis.
Aims (objectives)
Methods
• Study area
• Study design
• Study population
• Sample size
• Study methods
• Analyses
Ethical considerations
Results (deliver results as promised in aims)
Discussion (short summary of findings, validity,
discuss key findings in relation to other
research)
Conclusion (of the findings presented)
Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements
References
Writing research papers:
Volume?
Title
Authors (plan at an early stage, only those
contributing)
Abstract
Background, maybe theoretical framework
rationale. Maybe hypothesis.
Aims (objectives)
Methods
• Study area
• Study design
• Study population
• Sample size
• Study methods
• Analyses
Ethical considerations
Results (deliver results as promised in aims)
Discussion (short summary of findings, validity,
discuss key findings in relation to other
research)
Conclusion (of the findings presented)
Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements
References
Please remember
that most journals do
not accept more than
3000 words (maybe
12 pages, double-
spaced) in your
manuscript!
Writing research papers:
Title
Title
Authors (plan at an early stage, only those
contributing)
Abstract
Background, maybe theoretical framework
rationale. Maybe hypothesis.
Aims (objectives)
Methods
• Study area
• Study design
• Study population
• Sample size
• Study methods
• Analyses
Ethical considerations
Results (deliver results as promised in aims)
Discussion (short summary of findings, validity,
discuss key findings in relation to other
research)
Conclusion (of the findings presented)
Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements
References
How to phrase a
good title?
• Condenses the
content
• Captures the
attention
• Differentiates the
paper from other
papers
Writing research papers:
Authors
Title
Authors (plan at an early stage, only those
contributing)
Abstract
Background, maybe theoretical framework
rationale. Maybe hypothesis.
Aims (objectives)
Methods
• Study area
• Study design
• Study population
• Sample size
• Study methods
• Analyses
Ethical considerations
Results (deliver results as promised in aims)
Discussion (short summary of findings, validity,
discuss key findings in relation to other
research)
Conclusion (of the findings presented)
Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements
References
Who is an author?
Who is an author?
An author should fulfil all four criteria:
• 1. Substantial contributions to the
conception or design of the work; or the
acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of
data for the work; AND
• 2. Drafting the work or revising it
critically for important intellectual
content; AND
• 3. Final approval of the version to be
published; AND
• 4. Agreement to be accountable for all
aspects of the work in ensuring that
questions related to the accuracy or
integrity of any part of the work are
appropriately investigated and resolved
http://www.icmje.org/recommendatio
ns/
Writing research papers:
Abstract
Title
Authors (plan at an early stage, only those
contributing)
Abstract
Background, maybe theoretical framework
rationale. Maybe hypothesis.
Aims (objectives)
Methods
• Study area
• Study design
• Study population
• Sample size
• Study methods
• Analyses
Ethical considerations
Results (deliver results as promised in aims)
Discussion (short summary of findings, validity,
discuss key findings in relation to other
research)
Conclusion (of the findings presented)
Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements
References
A first draft of the abstract is useful at
an early stage (maybe before finishing
results):
Why was it worth doing (rationale) and
aim
What did you do?
How did you do it?
What were the key results?
What are the implications of your
results?
Writing research papers:
Background and Aims
Title
Authors (plan at an early stage, only those
contributing)
Abstract
Background, maybe theoretical framework
rationale. Maybe hypothesis.
Aims (objectives)
Methods
• Study area
• Study design
• Study population
• Sample size
• Study methods
• Analyses
Ethical considerations
Results (deliver results as promised in aims)
Discussion (short summary of findings, validity,
discuss key findings in relation to other
research)
Conclusion (of the findings presented)
Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements
References
• When you are systematic in your
reading the Background is
relatively easy to outline. Most
journals want it short.
• Move from general to specific
information
• Should provide the rationale for
the study, and very naturally lead
to the Aims
• A conceptual framework may
sometimes be useful
One version of UNICEF’s
conceptual framework of
malnutrition
Sometimes a “mind-map” is a
useful way of sorting out what
the literature tells you about
your topic (more for your own
use)
Writing research papers:
Aims
Title
Authors (plan at an early stage, only those
contributing)
Abstract
Background, maybe theoretical framework
rationale. Maybe hypothesis.
Aims (objectives)
Methods
• Study area
• Study design
• Study population
• Sample size
• Study methods
• Analyses
Ethical considerations
Results (deliver results as promised in aims)
Discussion (short summary of findings, validity,
discuss key findings in relation to other
research)
Conclusion (of the findings presented)
Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements
References
• The Aims should be precise,
include sufficient information, and
easily understood. Avoid
ambiguous and general words!
Writing research papers:
Methods
Title
Authors (plan at an early stage, only those
contributing)
Abstract
Background, maybe theoretical framework
rationale. Maybe hypothesis.
Aims (objectives)
Methods
• Study area
• Study design
• Study population
• Sample size
• Study methods
• Analyses
Ethical considerations
Results (deliver results as promised in aims)
Discussion (short summary of findings, validity,
discuss key findings in relation to other
research)
Conclusion (of the findings presented)
Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements
References
We will discuss
Methods tomorrow!
Writing research papers:
Ethical considerations
Title
Authors (plan at an early stage, only those
contributing)
Abstract
Background, maybe theoretical framework
rationale. Maybe hypothesis.
Aims (objectives)
Methods
• Study area
• Study design
• Study population
• Sample size
• Study methods
• Analyses
Ethical considerations
Results (deliver results as promised in aims)
Discussion (short summary of findings, validity,
discuss key findings in relation to other
research)
Conclusion (of the findings presented)
Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements
References
What to include in
Ethical
considerations?
Major principles of
medical ethics
• The principle of respect
for autonomy
• The principle of non-
malevolence (not
causing harm)
• The principle of
beneficience (doing
good)
• The principle of justice
Writing research papers:
Results
Title
Authors (plan at an early stage, only those
contributing)
Abstract
Background, maybe theoretical framework
rationale. Maybe hypothesis.
Aims (objectives)
Methods
• Study area
• Study design
• Study population
• Sample size
• Study methods
• Analyses
Ethical considerations
Results (deliver results as promised in aims)
Discussion (short summary of findings, validity,
discuss key findings in relation to other
research)
Conclusion (of the findings presented)
Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements
References
What to include in
Results?
Writing research papers:
Results
Title
Authors (plan at an early stage, only those
contributing)
Abstract
Background, maybe theoretical framework
rationale. Maybe hypothesis.
Aims (objectives)
Methods
• Study area
• Study design
• Study population
• Sample size
• Study methods
• Analyses
Ethical considerations
Results (deliver results as promised in aims)
Discussion (short summary of findings, validity,
discuss key findings in relation to other
research)
Conclusion (of the findings presented)
Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements
References
• Participation, study flow graph
• Characteristics of the study
population
• Main findings, according to
promises made in the Aims
• Results in text, tables, when
appropriate, and graphs, when
appropriate
• Results presented without
comments or discussion – that
comes in Discussion section
Writing research papers:
Discussion, Conclusions,
References
Title
Authors (plan at an early stage, only those
contributing)
Abstract
Background, maybe theoretical framework
rationale. Maybe hypothesis.
Aims (objectives)
Methods
• Study area
• Study design
• Study population
• Sample size
• Study methods
• Analyses
Ethical considerations
Results (deliver results as promised in aims)
Discussion (short summary of findings, validity,
discuss key findings in relation to other
research)
Conclusion (of the findings presented)
Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements
References
Will be discussed
Wednesday and
Thursday
Table 1. Level of education among 30-
year old women and men in Fictitia. Fictitia
Demographic Health Survey, 2014.
Primary, Secondary, University. Women, Men.
Table? How? Make a dummy table
Making a table
Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women
and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey,
2014.
Level Women Men
Primary
Secondary
University
Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women
and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey
2014
These were the numbers, what about %?
Level Women Men
Primary 300 150
Secondary 150 250
University 50 100
Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women
and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey
2014
Data are n (%)
Level Women Men
Primary 300 (60) 150 (30)
Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50)
University 50 (10) 100 (20)
Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women
and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey
2014
Data are n (%)
Statistics? Where should that be written?
Level Women Men
Primary 300 (60) 150 (30)
Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50)
University 50 (10) 100 (20)
Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women
and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey
2014
Data are n (%). Chi2 91.7, p<0.001
Level Women Men
Primary 300 (60) 150 (30)
Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50)
University 50 (10) 100 (20)
Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women
and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey
2014
Data are n (%). Chi2 91.7, p<0.001
Level Women Men
Primary 300 (60) 150 (30)
Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50)
University 50 (10) 100 (20)
Make tables and
graphs relatively
independent of the
main text – without
overloading the table
head
Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women
and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey,
2014
Data are n (%). Chi2 91.7, p<0.001
But we would like to show this for urban and
rural areas? How?
Level Women Men
Primary 300 (60) 150 (30)
Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50)
University 50 (10) 100 (20)
Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women
and men in urban and rural areas of Fictitia. Fictitia
Demographic Health Survey, 2014
Data are n (%)
Geographical
area
Level of
education
Women Men
Urban Primary 100 (42) 50 (18)
Secondary 100 (42) 150 (53)
University 40 (16) 80 (29)
Rural Primary 200 (77) 100 (43)
Secondary 50 (19) 100 (43)
University 10 (4) 30 (13)
Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women
and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey,
2014
Could we show this in a graph?
Level Women Men
Primary 300 (60) 150 (30)
Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50)
University 50 (10) 100 (20)
Level of education among 30-year old
women and men in Fictitia 2014
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Primary Secondary University
Women Men
%
Other ways of making the graph?
Level of education among 30-year old
women and men in Fictitia 2014
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Women Men
Primary Secondary University
%
Incorporate tables and
figures into the writing
The main text should:
• Tell the reader when to
look at a table or a graph
• Introduce the content of
the table or graph
• Point at key features or
trends for the reader to
note
• Draw conclusions from the
table or graph
Incorporate tables and
figures into the writing
The achieved educational level of 30-
year old women and men was
investigated in the survey. As shown in
Figure 1, women overall had a lower
educational level than men. No
participants were illiterate. Seventy
per cent of men had secondary or
higher education, while only forty per
cent of women had reached that level.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Women Men
Primary Secondary University
Figure 1. Education levels among 30-year old
women and men in Fictitia, 2015
Table versus Graph
Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year
old women and men in Fictitia 2014
Level Women Men
Primary 300 (60) 150 (30)
Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50)
University 50 (10) 100 (20)
Data are n (%). Chi2 91.7, p<0.001
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Women Men
Primary Secondary University
Table versus Graph
• Tables more precise but are more
difficult for the reader to interpret
• Graphs less precise but often
easier to interpret and convey a
message more strongly
Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year
old women and men in Fictitia 2014
Level Women Men
Primary 300 (60) 150 (30)
Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50)
University 50 (10) 100 (20)
Data are n (%). Chi2 91.7, p<0.001
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Women Men
Primary Secondary University
Table versus Graph
• Tables more precise but are more
difficult for the reader to interpret
• Graphs less precise but often
easier to interpret and convey a
message more strongly
• When to use which depends upon
what the author wants to
emphasize: details or overall
impression
• Don’t use the graph for not so
important findings – it takes away
the attention from more important
results
Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year
old women and men in Fictitia 2014
Level Women Men
Primary 300 (60) 150 (30)
Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50)
University 50 (10) 100 (20)
Data are n (%). Chi2 91.7, p<0.001
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Women Men
Primary Secondary University
Check the logical flow of the paper!
Background,
rationale
Aims Methods Results Discussion Conclusion

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Writing research papers - July 2017

  • 1. Writing a research paper Lars Åke Persson MD PhD lars.persson@lshtm.ac.uk Dagu Scientific Writing Workshop, Gondar, Ethiopia, July 10-14, 2017
  • 2. Writing research papers Read the literature! • Use the net to follow the literature in your field • Search for relevant papers: ask colleagues, snow-balling • Try to read broader than just the narrow focus of your own study • Literature club at your university? (You start!) • Learn by reading fellow students’ manuscripts, discuss improvements
  • 3. Writing research papers • Write up the work step by step (literature review, organizing references, describing aims and methods..) • Learn from others (and by reading lots of research articles) but no plagiarism! • What is title of the paper? A way to focus on what the paper really is about
  • 4. Writing research papers: Common structure of the paper Title Authors (plan at an early stage, only those contributing) Abstract Background, maybe theoretical framework rationale. Maybe hypothesis. Aims (objectives) Methods • Study area • Study design • Study population • Sample size • Study methods • Analyses Ethical considerations Results (deliver results as promised in aims) Discussion (short summary of findings, validity, discuss key findings in relation to other research) Conclusion (of the findings presented) Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements References
  • 5. Writing research papers: Volume? Title Authors (plan at an early stage, only those contributing) Abstract Background, maybe theoretical framework rationale. Maybe hypothesis. Aims (objectives) Methods • Study area • Study design • Study population • Sample size • Study methods • Analyses Ethical considerations Results (deliver results as promised in aims) Discussion (short summary of findings, validity, discuss key findings in relation to other research) Conclusion (of the findings presented) Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements References Please remember that most journals do not accept more than 3000 words (maybe 12 pages, double- spaced) in your manuscript!
  • 6. Writing research papers: Title Title Authors (plan at an early stage, only those contributing) Abstract Background, maybe theoretical framework rationale. Maybe hypothesis. Aims (objectives) Methods • Study area • Study design • Study population • Sample size • Study methods • Analyses Ethical considerations Results (deliver results as promised in aims) Discussion (short summary of findings, validity, discuss key findings in relation to other research) Conclusion (of the findings presented) Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements References How to phrase a good title? • Condenses the content • Captures the attention • Differentiates the paper from other papers
  • 7. Writing research papers: Authors Title Authors (plan at an early stage, only those contributing) Abstract Background, maybe theoretical framework rationale. Maybe hypothesis. Aims (objectives) Methods • Study area • Study design • Study population • Sample size • Study methods • Analyses Ethical considerations Results (deliver results as promised in aims) Discussion (short summary of findings, validity, discuss key findings in relation to other research) Conclusion (of the findings presented) Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements References Who is an author?
  • 8. Who is an author? An author should fulfil all four criteria: • 1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND • 2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND • 3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND • 4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved http://www.icmje.org/recommendatio ns/
  • 9. Writing research papers: Abstract Title Authors (plan at an early stage, only those contributing) Abstract Background, maybe theoretical framework rationale. Maybe hypothesis. Aims (objectives) Methods • Study area • Study design • Study population • Sample size • Study methods • Analyses Ethical considerations Results (deliver results as promised in aims) Discussion (short summary of findings, validity, discuss key findings in relation to other research) Conclusion (of the findings presented) Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements References A first draft of the abstract is useful at an early stage (maybe before finishing results): Why was it worth doing (rationale) and aim What did you do? How did you do it? What were the key results? What are the implications of your results?
  • 10. Writing research papers: Background and Aims Title Authors (plan at an early stage, only those contributing) Abstract Background, maybe theoretical framework rationale. Maybe hypothesis. Aims (objectives) Methods • Study area • Study design • Study population • Sample size • Study methods • Analyses Ethical considerations Results (deliver results as promised in aims) Discussion (short summary of findings, validity, discuss key findings in relation to other research) Conclusion (of the findings presented) Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements References • When you are systematic in your reading the Background is relatively easy to outline. Most journals want it short. • Move from general to specific information • Should provide the rationale for the study, and very naturally lead to the Aims • A conceptual framework may sometimes be useful
  • 11. One version of UNICEF’s conceptual framework of malnutrition
  • 12. Sometimes a “mind-map” is a useful way of sorting out what the literature tells you about your topic (more for your own use)
  • 13. Writing research papers: Aims Title Authors (plan at an early stage, only those contributing) Abstract Background, maybe theoretical framework rationale. Maybe hypothesis. Aims (objectives) Methods • Study area • Study design • Study population • Sample size • Study methods • Analyses Ethical considerations Results (deliver results as promised in aims) Discussion (short summary of findings, validity, discuss key findings in relation to other research) Conclusion (of the findings presented) Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements References • The Aims should be precise, include sufficient information, and easily understood. Avoid ambiguous and general words!
  • 14. Writing research papers: Methods Title Authors (plan at an early stage, only those contributing) Abstract Background, maybe theoretical framework rationale. Maybe hypothesis. Aims (objectives) Methods • Study area • Study design • Study population • Sample size • Study methods • Analyses Ethical considerations Results (deliver results as promised in aims) Discussion (short summary of findings, validity, discuss key findings in relation to other research) Conclusion (of the findings presented) Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements References We will discuss Methods tomorrow!
  • 15. Writing research papers: Ethical considerations Title Authors (plan at an early stage, only those contributing) Abstract Background, maybe theoretical framework rationale. Maybe hypothesis. Aims (objectives) Methods • Study area • Study design • Study population • Sample size • Study methods • Analyses Ethical considerations Results (deliver results as promised in aims) Discussion (short summary of findings, validity, discuss key findings in relation to other research) Conclusion (of the findings presented) Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements References What to include in Ethical considerations?
  • 16. Major principles of medical ethics • The principle of respect for autonomy • The principle of non- malevolence (not causing harm) • The principle of beneficience (doing good) • The principle of justice
  • 17. Writing research papers: Results Title Authors (plan at an early stage, only those contributing) Abstract Background, maybe theoretical framework rationale. Maybe hypothesis. Aims (objectives) Methods • Study area • Study design • Study population • Sample size • Study methods • Analyses Ethical considerations Results (deliver results as promised in aims) Discussion (short summary of findings, validity, discuss key findings in relation to other research) Conclusion (of the findings presented) Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements References What to include in Results?
  • 18. Writing research papers: Results Title Authors (plan at an early stage, only those contributing) Abstract Background, maybe theoretical framework rationale. Maybe hypothesis. Aims (objectives) Methods • Study area • Study design • Study population • Sample size • Study methods • Analyses Ethical considerations Results (deliver results as promised in aims) Discussion (short summary of findings, validity, discuss key findings in relation to other research) Conclusion (of the findings presented) Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements References • Participation, study flow graph • Characteristics of the study population • Main findings, according to promises made in the Aims • Results in text, tables, when appropriate, and graphs, when appropriate • Results presented without comments or discussion – that comes in Discussion section
  • 19. Writing research papers: Discussion, Conclusions, References Title Authors (plan at an early stage, only those contributing) Abstract Background, maybe theoretical framework rationale. Maybe hypothesis. Aims (objectives) Methods • Study area • Study design • Study population • Sample size • Study methods • Analyses Ethical considerations Results (deliver results as promised in aims) Discussion (short summary of findings, validity, discuss key findings in relation to other research) Conclusion (of the findings presented) Contributions, Funding, Acknowledgements References Will be discussed Wednesday and Thursday
  • 20. Table 1. Level of education among 30- year old women and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey, 2014. Primary, Secondary, University. Women, Men. Table? How? Make a dummy table Making a table
  • 21. Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey, 2014. Level Women Men Primary Secondary University
  • 22. Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey 2014 These were the numbers, what about %? Level Women Men Primary 300 150 Secondary 150 250 University 50 100
  • 23. Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey 2014 Data are n (%) Level Women Men Primary 300 (60) 150 (30) Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50) University 50 (10) 100 (20)
  • 24. Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey 2014 Data are n (%) Statistics? Where should that be written? Level Women Men Primary 300 (60) 150 (30) Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50) University 50 (10) 100 (20)
  • 25. Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey 2014 Data are n (%). Chi2 91.7, p<0.001 Level Women Men Primary 300 (60) 150 (30) Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50) University 50 (10) 100 (20)
  • 26. Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey 2014 Data are n (%). Chi2 91.7, p<0.001 Level Women Men Primary 300 (60) 150 (30) Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50) University 50 (10) 100 (20) Make tables and graphs relatively independent of the main text – without overloading the table head
  • 27. Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey, 2014 Data are n (%). Chi2 91.7, p<0.001 But we would like to show this for urban and rural areas? How? Level Women Men Primary 300 (60) 150 (30) Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50) University 50 (10) 100 (20)
  • 28. Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women and men in urban and rural areas of Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey, 2014 Data are n (%) Geographical area Level of education Women Men Urban Primary 100 (42) 50 (18) Secondary 100 (42) 150 (53) University 40 (16) 80 (29) Rural Primary 200 (77) 100 (43) Secondary 50 (19) 100 (43) University 10 (4) 30 (13)
  • 29. Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women and men in Fictitia. Fictitia Demographic Health Survey, 2014 Could we show this in a graph? Level Women Men Primary 300 (60) 150 (30) Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50) University 50 (10) 100 (20)
  • 30. Level of education among 30-year old women and men in Fictitia 2014 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Primary Secondary University Women Men %
  • 31. Other ways of making the graph?
  • 32. Level of education among 30-year old women and men in Fictitia 2014 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Women Men Primary Secondary University %
  • 33. Incorporate tables and figures into the writing The main text should: • Tell the reader when to look at a table or a graph • Introduce the content of the table or graph • Point at key features or trends for the reader to note • Draw conclusions from the table or graph
  • 34. Incorporate tables and figures into the writing The achieved educational level of 30- year old women and men was investigated in the survey. As shown in Figure 1, women overall had a lower educational level than men. No participants were illiterate. Seventy per cent of men had secondary or higher education, while only forty per cent of women had reached that level. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Women Men Primary Secondary University Figure 1. Education levels among 30-year old women and men in Fictitia, 2015
  • 35. Table versus Graph Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women and men in Fictitia 2014 Level Women Men Primary 300 (60) 150 (30) Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50) University 50 (10) 100 (20) Data are n (%). Chi2 91.7, p<0.001 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Women Men Primary Secondary University
  • 36. Table versus Graph • Tables more precise but are more difficult for the reader to interpret • Graphs less precise but often easier to interpret and convey a message more strongly Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women and men in Fictitia 2014 Level Women Men Primary 300 (60) 150 (30) Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50) University 50 (10) 100 (20) Data are n (%). Chi2 91.7, p<0.001 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Women Men Primary Secondary University
  • 37. Table versus Graph • Tables more precise but are more difficult for the reader to interpret • Graphs less precise but often easier to interpret and convey a message more strongly • When to use which depends upon what the author wants to emphasize: details or overall impression • Don’t use the graph for not so important findings – it takes away the attention from more important results Table 1. Level of education among 30-‐year old women and men in Fictitia 2014 Level Women Men Primary 300 (60) 150 (30) Secondary 150 (30) 250 (50) University 50 (10) 100 (20) Data are n (%). Chi2 91.7, p<0.001 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Women Men Primary Secondary University
  • 38. Check the logical flow of the paper! Background, rationale Aims Methods Results Discussion Conclusion