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    ARPANET, “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture,
    the Internet, and “Virtual Community” 



                              Trebor Scholz
Thursday, September 9, 2010
The Victorian Internet
                                      by Tom Standage (1989)




              1746  200 monks
               Jean‐Antoine Nollet linked to electrical battery 
              1797 optical telegraphy

              telephone, radio, ...

Thursday, September 9, 2010
Thursday, September 9, 2010
1945



Thursday, September 9, 2010
"knowledge on call"

                                    hyperlinked pages and the “memex”




                              http://tinyurl.com/39mf8l

                              http://tinyurl.com/3b7h9v



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Thursday, September 9, 2010
In 1949 in his novel Heliopolis, the German Ernst Junger dreams up the 
                              communication medium "Phonophor," which connects everybody to 
                              everybody else, enabling a permanent , technically facilitated forum that 
                              also replaces the passport, watch, newspaper, library, and encyclopedia.



                                               http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_J%C3%BCnger
                                                          http://tinyurl.com/2s2zn5



Thursday, September 9, 2010
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Girl_listenin




Thursday, September 9, 2010
[A]ctivation; authorship; community ‐‐ are the most frequently cited motivations for almost all artistic 
                              attempts to encourage participation in art since the 1960s." according to art historian Claire Bishop.




Thursday, September 9, 2010
Blog: http://blog.sfmoma.org/tag/art‐of‐participation/
                              Flickr set: http://www.Zlickr.com/photos/ari/sets/72157610572023159/




Thursday, September 9, 2010
1957



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Excerpts from chapter 2, and 5  “Sputnik: DeclassiZied” (2007) 
                              http://www.netZlix.com/Movie/Sputnik_DeclassiZied/70086393

Thursday, September 9, 2010
http://www.Zlickr.com/photos/nezitic/311892760/sizes/o/
                                        Red Flag Over Reichstag 9th May 1945




Thursday, September 9, 2010
The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)




Thursday, September 9, 2010
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2QdEj8UjBc




Thursday, September 9, 2010
1961



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Leonard Kleinrock, MIT
                              "Information Flow in Large
                              Communication Nets" 
                              (May 31, 1961)


                              First paper on packet‐switching
                                                                http://tinyurl.com/23nbat

Thursday, September 9, 2010
1962



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Packet Switching, Paul Baran 1962 at RAND, US Airforce

             All the nodes in the network would be equal in status to all
             other nodes, each node with its own authority to originate,
             pass, and receive messages. The messages themselves would
             be divided into packets, each packet separately addressed.
             Each packet would begin at some specified source node, and
             end at some other specified destination node.




                                                                http://tinyurl.com/2ry3lo
Thursday, September 9, 2010
“On Distributed Communication Networks,” March 1964
                                  c) a network without central authority or single
 Paul Baran
                                  outage point


                                                                           http://tinyurl.com/ywq8nk

Thursday, September 9, 2010
1965



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Ted Nelson coins the term "Hypertext" in "A File Structure for the 
            Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate". 20th National 
            Conference, New York, Association for Computing Machinery




Thursday, September 9, 2010
1965




                  Already in 1965, Fernando Corbato and his colleagues at
                  MIT developed a program to allow individual users to
                  swap messages on one single computer.




Thursday, September 9, 2010
1967



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Excerpts from: American Experience | Summer of Love | PBS
                                           www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/love/




Thursday, September 9, 2010
People’s Park ‐‐ Excerpt from “Berkeley in the Sixties”
                                        http://akas.imdb.de/media/rm1389337600/tt0099121




Thursday, September 9, 2010
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQbEjPzfDmc&feature=PlayList&p=C97DC8509C17275A&index=2


                              Macy conferences 1946‐53, NYC video: 10 mins




Thursday, September 9, 2010
Excerpts from: The Commune (2005)
                                        http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0439511/




Thursday, September 9, 2010
1968



Thursday, September 9, 2010
"In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine
             than face to face...We believe that we are entering into a technological age, in which we
             will be able to interact with the richness of living information -- not merely in the passive
             way that we have become accustomed to using books and libraries, but as active
             participants in an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with
             it, and not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it. (53)"

                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2c9uaf




Thursday, September 9, 2010
Louis Pouzin designed and directed the development of
            the Cyclades network in France, which then stopped in
            1974.
                                  http://tinyurl.com/22ykun




Thursday, September 9, 2010
1969



Thursday, September 9, 2010
In 1968, ARPA sent out a Request for
                              Quotation to build a network of
                              four Interface Message Processors.
                              BBN made it.
                              Dave Walden, Bernie Cosell, Severo Ornstein, Will Crowther, Bob Kahn


                              1969: Advanced Research Projects Agency
                              commissions ARPANET to conduct research
                              on networking.

                              First ARPANET nodes connected UCLA,
                              Stanford, UC Santa Barbara, and
                              University of Utah


                                                                                      http://tinyurl.com/yuw6ho
                                                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2pxazn
                                                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2ujdes

Thursday, September 9, 2010
Norm Abramson wanted to surf - so he moved to Hawaii in
          1969. He wanted to network with the other islands and so he
          built the ALOHAnet in 1970.

          From the University of Hawaii, Abramson connected
          computers over a network of radio transmitters using a
          protocol telling the computers how to share the airwaves.




                                                         http://tinyurl.com/yvvmdc



                                     Trebor Scholz |

Thursday, September 9, 2010
The Internet in 1969
                               http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y0pPfyYtiBc&e




Thursday, September 9, 2010
http://www.wholeearth.com/index.php




Thursday, September 9, 2010
1970



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Thursday, September 9, 2010
TCP/IP

    With TCP/IP, the "global network" was
   becoming a reality. Universities and
   government offices were using the
   network for communicating with
   colleagues and exchanging data.




      1974: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet
      Network Interconnection", which specified in detail the design
      of a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
                               http://tinyurl.com/3c64vm
                               http://tinyurl.com/yvvmdc




Thursday, September 9, 2010
Thursday, September 9, 2010
Whose Standards? Proprietary or Open Standards?




        Also the fax machine is only useful if many other people have it.
        Later: If the Internet would have just connected supercomputers,
                       it would have not been as significant.



                                                Trebor Scholz |          http://tinyurl.com/yu7g2m

Thursday, September 9, 2010
http://tinyurl.com/29vvar
         PowWow

        Throughout the 1970s Instant Messaging began to appear




Thursday, September 9, 2010
•There was no single inventor of the Internet.
        •ARPANET, Usenet, BITNET, and BBS 
        •DARPA was not solely a response to the fear of a nuclear 
        armageddon.




Thursday, September 9, 2010
1971



Thursday, September 9, 2010
http://tinyurl.com/34gyk2


              1971: Ray Tomlinson of BBN creates email program to send
              messages across a distributed network.

              1972: Tomlinson expands program to ARPANET users, using
              the "@" sign as part of the address.




Thursday, September 9, 2010
Michael Hart

                                      1971. Project Gutenberg is the first and largest
                                      single collection of free electronic books, or
                                      eBooks.



                                      Project Gutenberg is the
                                      "oldest digital library built on volunteer
                                      efforts to digitize, archive, and distribute
                                      cultural works."

          http://tinyurl.com/26zq8z




                                              Trebor Scholz |

Thursday, September 9, 2010
1977



Thursday, September 9, 2010
http://tinyurl.com/35drka




      http://tinyurl.com/2n5gvy

            1977 Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw created the first MUD
            (Multi-User Dungeon) leading later to MMORPG




Thursday, September 9, 2010
1978



Thursday, September 9, 2010
CBBS (first BBS)             January of 1978, Chicago was hit by
     Ward Christensen             the Great Blizzard of 1978


      Many people did not have the Internet. They dialed in to CBSS directly via modem.
      Users had to take turns accessing the system, each hanging up when done to let
      someone else have access. Nevertheless, the system was seen as very useful, and ran for
      many years and inspired the creation of many other bulletin board systems.


                                                                            http://tinyurl.com/38zf8q
                                                                            http://tinyurl.com/3a8wru

Thursday, September 9, 2010
ASCii art on BBS




                                                 http://tinyurl.com/yukqdk
Thursday, September 9, 2010
1979



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Emoticons

                              1979 Kevin MacKenzie e-mailed his
                              fellow subscribers at MsgGroup, an
                              early Internet bulletin board, with a

                              suggestion to put some emotion back
                              into the dry text medium of e-mail.
                              (The eyes came later.)




Thursday, September 9, 2010
USENET established. USENET was a global, decentralized,
        distributed Internet discussion system that provided mail
        services and file transfers. Precursor of GoogleGroups and
        other discussion boards.
                               http://tinyurl.com/2mdk3z


Thursday, September 9, 2010
ARPANET
                                http://echo.gmu.edu/usenet/images/usenet.gif

                              http://www.sri.com/about/timeline/images/map.gi




                                            Trebor Scholz |

Thursday, September 9, 2010
1980s



Thursday, September 9, 2010
What else did it take to make this WWW work?




                                      http://tinyurl.com/2km2n9



                                                                      This was the first IBM PC introduced on Aug 12, 1981




                                                                   Douglas Engelbart


                                       http://tinyurl.com/3c7suu


Thursday, September 9, 2010
The Well members could start discussion boards:
                                  Mid-80s
       the most popular one was dedicated to
            computer manufacturers push proprietary protocols,
       The Grateful Dead.
                                which failed

         US Government pushed for ISO but TCP/IP was free, more viral




  In the 1980s the PCs entered homes and offices in the United States.

Thursday, September 9, 2010
The Well members could start discussion boards:
       the most popular one was dedicated to
       The Grateful Dead.




  1981 BITNET release
  Ira Fuchs (CUNY) and Greydon Freeman (Yale)
  Main features: email, LISTSERV

   BITNET set expectations for free access and openness: it charged by
   bandwidth. Once you paid for the line, how much you use it was up
   to you. Others tried to establish a pay by byte system.

                                                             http://tinyurl.com/2vxZbj
                                                            http://tinyurl.com/2cl3go

Thursday, September 9, 2010
1985
       Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant
       one of the first community bulletin board systems
       The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well)

       Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in
       order to experience commune living without actually moving into one.




                                                                               http://tinyurl.com/374e2g


Thursday, September 9, 2010
1985
       Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant
       one of the first community bulletin board systems
       The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well)

       Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in
       order to experience commune living without actually moving into one.




                                                                               http://tinyurl.com/374e2g


Thursday, September 9, 2010
1985
       Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant
       one of the first community bulletin board systems
       The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well)

       Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in
       order to experience commune living without actually moving into one.




                                                                               http://tinyurl.com/374e2g


Thursday, September 9, 2010
1985
       Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant
       one of the first community bulletin board systems
       The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well)

       Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in
       order to experience commune living without actually moving into one.




                                                                               http://tinyurl.com/374e2g


Thursday, September 9, 2010
Thursday, September 9, 2010
Thursday, September 9, 2010
1984



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Francois Lyotard  and  Thierry Chaput’s exhibition   "Les Immateriaux”  at the  Centre Georges Pompidou in  Paris.  30 artists collaboratively respond to 50  terms related  the topic of  the  "immaterial." 
        Lyotard and Chaput pointed out that they were mainly interested in the way, in which this collaborative writing changed the experience of the act of writing itself. 


                                                                                             http://tinyurl.com/ynkmby




                                                                                                Trebor Scholz |

Thursday, September 9, 2010
Trebor Scholz
         The New School University

         scholzt@newschool.edu

         Twitter: trebors 




          This presentation is made public using the creative commons attribution, non‐
          commercial, share alike license. 

          This presentation is based on my previous courses on the topic including:
          http://www.slideshare.net/trebor/how‐the‐social‐web‐came‐to‐be‐part1
           




Thursday, September 9, 2010
Thursday, September 9, 2010

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From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”

  • 2. The Victorian Internet by Tom Standage (1989) 1746  200 monks  Jean‐Antoine Nollet linked to electrical battery  1797 optical telegraphy telephone, radio, ... Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 5. "knowledge on call" hyperlinked pages and the “memex” http://tinyurl.com/39mf8l http://tinyurl.com/3b7h9v Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 7. In 1949 in his novel Heliopolis, the German Ernst Junger dreams up the  communication medium "Phonophor," which connects everybody to  everybody else, enabling a permanent , technically facilitated forum that  also replaces the passport, watch, newspaper, library, and encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_J%C3%BCnger http://tinyurl.com/2s2zn5 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 9. [A]ctivation; authorship; community ‐‐ are the most frequently cited motivations for almost all artistic  attempts to encourage participation in art since the 1960s." according to art historian Claire Bishop. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 10. Blog: http://blog.sfmoma.org/tag/art‐of‐participation/ Flickr set: http://www.Zlickr.com/photos/ari/sets/72157610572023159/ Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 12. Excerpts from chapter 2, and 5  “Sputnik: DeclassiZied” (2007)  http://www.netZlix.com/Movie/Sputnik_DeclassiZied/70086393 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 13. http://www.Zlickr.com/photos/nezitic/311892760/sizes/o/ Red Flag Over Reichstag 9th May 1945 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 14. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 17. Leonard Kleinrock, MIT "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets"  (May 31, 1961) First paper on packet‐switching http://tinyurl.com/23nbat Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 19. Packet Switching, Paul Baran 1962 at RAND, US Airforce All the nodes in the network would be equal in status to all other nodes, each node with its own authority to originate, pass, and receive messages. The messages themselves would be divided into packets, each packet separately addressed. Each packet would begin at some specified source node, and end at some other specified destination node. http://tinyurl.com/2ry3lo Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 20. “On Distributed Communication Networks,” March 1964 c) a network without central authority or single Paul Baran outage point http://tinyurl.com/ywq8nk Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 22. Ted Nelson coins the term "Hypertext" in "A File Structure for the  Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate". 20th National  Conference, New York, Association for Computing Machinery Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 23. 1965 Already in 1965, Fernando Corbato and his colleagues at MIT developed a program to allow individual users to swap messages on one single computer. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 25. Excerpts from: American Experience | Summer of Love | PBS www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/love/ Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 26. People’s Park ‐‐ Excerpt from “Berkeley in the Sixties” http://akas.imdb.de/media/rm1389337600/tt0099121 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 27. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQbEjPzfDmc&feature=PlayList&p=C97DC8509C17275A&index=2 Macy conferences 1946‐53, NYC video: 10 mins Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 28. Excerpts from: The Commune (2005) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0439511/ Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 30. "In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face...We believe that we are entering into a technological age, in which we will be able to interact with the richness of living information -- not merely in the passive way that we have become accustomed to using books and libraries, but as active participants in an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with it, and not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it. (53)" http://tinyurl.com/2c9uaf Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 31. Louis Pouzin designed and directed the development of the Cyclades network in France, which then stopped in 1974. http://tinyurl.com/22ykun Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 33. In 1968, ARPA sent out a Request for Quotation to build a network of four Interface Message Processors. BBN made it. Dave Walden, Bernie Cosell, Severo Ornstein, Will Crowther, Bob Kahn 1969: Advanced Research Projects Agency commissions ARPANET to conduct research on networking. First ARPANET nodes connected UCLA, Stanford, UC Santa Barbara, and University of Utah http://tinyurl.com/yuw6ho http://tinyurl.com/2pxazn http://tinyurl.com/2ujdes Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 34. Norm Abramson wanted to surf - so he moved to Hawaii in 1969. He wanted to network with the other islands and so he built the ALOHAnet in 1970. From the University of Hawaii, Abramson connected computers over a network of radio transmitters using a protocol telling the computers how to share the airwaves. http://tinyurl.com/yvvmdc Trebor Scholz | Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 35. The Internet in 1969 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y0pPfyYtiBc&e Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 39. TCP/IP With TCP/IP, the "global network" was becoming a reality. Universities and government offices were using the network for communicating with colleagues and exchanging data. 1974: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection", which specified in detail the design of a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). http://tinyurl.com/3c64vm http://tinyurl.com/yvvmdc Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 41. Whose Standards? Proprietary or Open Standards? Also the fax machine is only useful if many other people have it. Later: If the Internet would have just connected supercomputers, it would have not been as significant. Trebor Scholz | http://tinyurl.com/yu7g2m Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 42. http://tinyurl.com/29vvar PowWow Throughout the 1970s Instant Messaging began to appear Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 43. •There was no single inventor of the Internet. •ARPANET, Usenet, BITNET, and BBS  •DARPA was not solely a response to the fear of a nuclear  armageddon. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 45. http://tinyurl.com/34gyk2 1971: Ray Tomlinson of BBN creates email program to send messages across a distributed network. 1972: Tomlinson expands program to ARPANET users, using the "@" sign as part of the address. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 46. Michael Hart 1971. Project Gutenberg is the first and largest single collection of free electronic books, or eBooks. Project Gutenberg is the "oldest digital library built on volunteer efforts to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works." http://tinyurl.com/26zq8z Trebor Scholz | Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 48. http://tinyurl.com/35drka http://tinyurl.com/2n5gvy 1977 Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw created the first MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) leading later to MMORPG Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 50. CBBS (first BBS) January of 1978, Chicago was hit by Ward Christensen the Great Blizzard of 1978 Many people did not have the Internet. They dialed in to CBSS directly via modem. Users had to take turns accessing the system, each hanging up when done to let someone else have access. Nevertheless, the system was seen as very useful, and ran for many years and inspired the creation of many other bulletin board systems. http://tinyurl.com/38zf8q http://tinyurl.com/3a8wru Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 51. ASCii art on BBS http://tinyurl.com/yukqdk Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 53. Emoticons 1979 Kevin MacKenzie e-mailed his fellow subscribers at MsgGroup, an early Internet bulletin board, with a suggestion to put some emotion back into the dry text medium of e-mail. (The eyes came later.) Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 54. USENET established. USENET was a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that provided mail services and file transfers. Precursor of GoogleGroups and other discussion boards. http://tinyurl.com/2mdk3z Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 55. ARPANET http://echo.gmu.edu/usenet/images/usenet.gif http://www.sri.com/about/timeline/images/map.gi Trebor Scholz | Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 57. What else did it take to make this WWW work? http://tinyurl.com/2km2n9 This was the first IBM PC introduced on Aug 12, 1981 Douglas Engelbart http://tinyurl.com/3c7suu Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 58. The Well members could start discussion boards: Mid-80s the most popular one was dedicated to computer manufacturers push proprietary protocols, The Grateful Dead. which failed US Government pushed for ISO but TCP/IP was free, more viral In the 1980s the PCs entered homes and offices in the United States. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 59. The Well members could start discussion boards: the most popular one was dedicated to The Grateful Dead. 1981 BITNET release Ira Fuchs (CUNY) and Greydon Freeman (Yale) Main features: email, LISTSERV BITNET set expectations for free access and openness: it charged by bandwidth. Once you paid for the line, how much you use it was up to you. Others tried to establish a pay by byte system. http://tinyurl.com/2vxZbj http://tinyurl.com/2cl3go Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 60. 1985 Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant one of the first community bulletin board systems The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well) Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in order to experience commune living without actually moving into one. http://tinyurl.com/374e2g Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 61. 1985 Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant one of the first community bulletin board systems The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well) Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in order to experience commune living without actually moving into one. http://tinyurl.com/374e2g Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 62. 1985 Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant one of the first community bulletin board systems The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well) Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in order to experience commune living without actually moving into one. http://tinyurl.com/374e2g Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 63. 1985 Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant one of the first community bulletin board systems The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well) Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in order to experience commune living without actually moving into one. http://tinyurl.com/374e2g Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 67. Francois Lyotard  and  Thierry Chaput’s exhibition   "Les Immateriaux”  at the  Centre Georges Pompidou in  Paris.  30 artists collaboratively respond to 50  terms related  the topic of  the  "immaterial."  Lyotard and Chaput pointed out that they were mainly interested in the way, in which this collaborative writing changed the experience of the act of writing itself.  http://tinyurl.com/ynkmby Trebor Scholz | Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 68. Trebor Scholz The New School University scholzt@newschool.edu Twitter: trebors  This presentation is made public using the creative commons attribution, non‐ commercial, share alike license.  This presentation is based on my previous courses on the topic including: http://www.slideshare.net/trebor/how‐the‐social‐web‐came‐to‐be‐part1   Thursday, September 9, 2010