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ENGINEERING UTILITIES 2
GROUP 1
BULLION, JAN CEASAR, P.
MENDOZA, NEIL FRED, S
DENGA-EY, ELMA, A.
AGUINAS, ORWELL, B.
KINID, JEZREEL MEL, K.
Basic Principles of
Sanitary/Plumbing Design-
Potable Water, Components of
Plumbing Supply System of
Water Heaters
Plumbing is the art and technique of installing pipes, fixtures
and other apparatus to convey and supply water in buildings
and to dispose and discharge waste water and other liquids,
gases and other substances out of the building in a safe orderly,
healthy and sanitary way to ensure the health and sanitation
of life and property.
-
Plumbing system of a building includes the water supply distributing
pipes; the fixture and fixture traps; the soil, waste and vent pipes; the
building drain and building sewer; the storm water drainage, with
their devices, appurtenances and connections within the building
and outside the building within the property line.
Purpose of the sanitary drainage system is to remove effluent
discharged from plumbing fixtures and other equipment to an
approved point of disposal. A sanitary drainage system generally
consists of horizontal branches, vertical stacks, a building drain inside
the building, and a building sewer from the building wall to the point
of disposal.
What are the major components of the Plumbing
System?
The system constitute the following:
1. Water Supply & Distribution System carries water from the water
source, street main or a pump to the building & to various points of
use.
2. Plumbing Fixtures-The receptacles that receive the supplied
water & allow the building occupants to avail & use the water.
3. Drainage, Waste & Vent The piping network within the building
which conveys from the plumbing fixtures all wastes and rainwater
to a treatment facility & point of disposal.
TYPICAL PLUMBING
SYSTEM OF A TOILET AND
BATH
Who is the Plumber?
 The Plumber is the one who works or engages in the
business of installing in buildings the pipes, fixtures and
other apparatus for bringing in the water supply and
removing liquid and waterborne wastes.
What are the different categories of Plumbers?
There are 3 categories of plumbers:
1. Apprentice Plumber-a beginner at the trade who
usually serves for 3 to 5 years as a helper to a
journeyman.
2. Journeyman Plumber
has served his apprenticeship and is competent to perform the tasks
of installing and repairing the plumbing system.
3. Master Plumber-a person technically and legally qualified and
licensed to practice the profession of master plumbing without
limitations in accordance with R.A. 1378, having passed the
examinations conducted by the Professional Regulation Commission,
has received a Certificate of Registration from the Board of Master
Plumbing and possesses the current
License to Practice. (Sec. 214.5 NPC 1999)
What are the basic principles that govern
the National Plumbing Code of the
Philippines?
 There are 22 basic principles of the 1999 National
Plumbing Code of the Philippines which are updates of
the tenets in the “Plumbing Law of the Philippines”
approved on 18 June 1955 as amended on 28 November
1959 and revised on 21 December 1999.
The basic principles are as follows:
1.CLEAN WATER: All premises intended
for human habitation, occupancy or
use shall be provided with a supply
of pure and wholesome water,
neither connected with unsafe
supplies nor subject to hazards of
backflow or back siphonage.
2. Plumbing fixtures: devices
and appurtenances shall be
supplied with water in sufficient
volume & at a pressure adequate
to enable them to function
satisfactorily & without undue
noise under normal conditions of
use.
 Inadequate Water Pressure – whenever the water pressure in
the main or other source of supply will not provide a water
pressure of at least 103 kPa (15 psi) after allowing friction and
other pressure losses, a hydro pneumatic pressure tank or an
elevated tank and booster pump will provide 103 kPa pressure.
 Excessive Water Pressure – when the local water pressure is in
excess of 551 kPa (80 psi), an approved-type pressure regulator
preceded by an adequate sized strainer shall be installed to
reduce pressure on the building side of the regulator to the
required supply pressure.
Principle 2 Keyword:
PRESSURE

3.EFFIECIENCY: Plumbing shall
be designed and adjusted to
use the minimum quantity of
water consistent with proper
performance and cleaning.
Plumbing shall be designed
and adjusted to use the
minimum quantity of water
consistent with proper
performance and cleaning.
4.EXPLOSION: Devices for heating
and storing water shall be so
designed and installed as to
prevent dangers from explosion
through overheating.
5.SEWER: Every building having plumbing
fixtures installed & intended for human
habitation, occupancy or use on premises
abutting on a street, alley or easement
where there is a public sewer, shall be
connected to the public sewer system.
6.PLUMBING UNIT: Each family dwelling unit on premises
abutting on a sewer or with a private sewage-disposal
system shall have at least one water closet and one
kitchen type sink. Further, a lavatory and bathtub or
shower shall be installed to meet the basic requirements
of sanitation and personal hygiene.
7.VENTILATION: Plumbing fixtures
shall be made of smooth
non· absorbent material, free from
concealed fouling surfaces and
shall be located in ventilated
enclosures.
8.CLEANOUTS: The drainage
system shall be designed,
constructed and maintained to
safeguard against fouling,
deposit of solids, clogging and
with adequate clean outs so
arranged that the pipes may be
readily cleaned.
9.NAMPAP: All piping of
plumbing systems shall be of
durable NAMPAP (National
Master Plumbers Association
of the Philippines) APPROVED
materials, free from defective
workmanship , designed and
constructed by Registered
Master Plumbers to ensure
satisfactory service.
10.TRAP: Each fixture
directly connected to the
drainage system shall be
equipped with a water-
sealed trap.
11.AIR CIRCULATION: The
drainage piping system shall be
designed to provide adequate
circulation of air free from
siphonage, aspiration or forcing
of trap seals under ordinary use.
12.VENT TERMINALS: Vent
terminals shall extend to the
outer air and installed to
preempt clogging and the return
of foul air to the building.
13.TEST: Plumbing
systems shall be
subjected to such
tests to effectively
disclose all leaks and
defects in the
workmanship
Testing Media – the piping of the plumbing, drainage and venting
system shall be tested with water or air.
Water Test – the water test shall be applied to the drainage and vent
system either in its entirety or in sections. The water shall be kept for
at least 15 minutes before inspection starts.
14.SEWAGE HARM: No
substance which will clog the
pipes, produce explosive mixture,
destroy the pipes or their joints
or interfere unduly with the
sewage-disposal process shall be
allowed to enter the building
drainage system.
15.CONTAMINATION: Proper
protection shall be provided to
prevent contamination of food,
water, sterile goods and similar
materials by backflow of sewage.
When necessary, the fixture, device
or appliance shall be connected
indirectly with the building
drainage system.
16. LIGHT: No water closet
shall be located in a room or
compartment which is not
properly lighted and
ventilated.
17.SEPTIC TANK: If water closets or
other plumbing fixtures are
installed in buildings where there is
no sewer within a reasonable
distance, suitable provision shall be
made for disposing of the building
sewage by some accepted method
of sewage treatment and disposal,
such as a septic tank.
18.SEWAGE BACKFLOW: Where a plumbing
drainage system may be subject to backflow
of sewage, suitable provision shall be made
to prevent its overflow in the building.
19.RMP: Plumbing systems shall
be maintained in serviceable
condition by Registered Master
Plumbers.
20.ACCESSIBLE: All
plumbing fixtures shall be
installed properly spaced, to
be accessible for their
intended use.
21.STRUCTURAL STABILITY:
Plumbing shall be installed by
Registered Master Plumbers with
due regard to the preservation of
the strength of structural members
and the prevention of damage to
walls and other surfaces through
fixture usage.
22.SEWAGE TREATMENT:
Sewage or other waste from
a plumbing system which
may be deleterious to
surface or sub-surface waters
shall not be discharged into
the ground or into any
waterway, unless first
rendered innocuous through
subjection to some
acceptable form of
treatment.
POTABLE
WATER
Water
 The most basic and fundamental component of life on
earth.
 A substance composed of the chemical elements hydrogen
and oxygen and existing in gaseous, liquid and solid states.
It is one of the most plentiful and essential of compounds.
A tasteless and odorless liquid at room temperature, it has
the important ability to dissolve many other substances.
SOURCES OF WATER
1.Ground water
It is a source of water that is under land surface
It is accessible by wells, tube wells and hand pumps.
2. Surface-water
Found on the surface of the earth like ponds, and rivers.
3. Rainwater
It is the major source of water from rain
Potable water is the water that flows out of your taps, including
your kitchen and bathroom sinks, showers and bathtubs. This is
the water you use for cooking, bathing and cleaning. This water is
clean and safe because it has been treated at your local municipal
water treatment plant.
Potable water components are designed to safely carry and
regulate the flow of clean drinkable water. Standard fittings and
valves pose a risk of contamination by leaching chemicals and
toxins into water that comes in contact with these components.
Therefore, only products specifically designed and certified for use
with potable water should be used for drinking water applications.
Potable water plumbing system brings water into a structure for
drinking, cleaning, and other purposes. It includes the main
plumbing valve where you can turn off the water supply and the
water meter that tracks water usage. Other components include
long or short straight pipes, T-sections that direct water at right
angles, elbows that provide directional adjustments, and brass
and gate valves that help regulate water flow.
 Problems with undesirable taste and odor are overcome by use of
filtration equipment or by aeration of the water.
 Bacteria are destroyed by the addition of a few parts per million of
chlorine. The taste of chlorine is then removed with sodium sulfite.
 Suspended organic matter that supports bacterial life and suspended
mineral matter are removed by the addition of a flocculating and
precipitating agent, such as alum, before settling or filtration.
 Excessive hardness, which renders the water unsuitable for many
industrial purposes, is reduced by the addition of slaked, or hydrated, lime
or by an ion exchange process.
Several methods used to improve water quality and taste:
 Water quality and taste vary
considerably from place to place,
depending on the water source of the
area, the chemical and bacteria
contents of the water, and the
amount and type of treatment given
the water before it is put into the
system.
 Potable water can have an
objectionable odor and taste and
even be cloudy and slightly muddied
or colored in appearance.
Water treatment
WATER
HEATERS
Systems that are intended to heat water to regulated
temperatures for a variety of purpose.
Familiar domestic uses of water heaters include the heating of
water to assist in washing clothes or dishes and taking showers
or baths.
Another is to heat the water in the swimming pools and spas.
Components of Plumbing System of Typical Water Heaters
 The plumbing system of a water heater typically consist of
several key components that work together to ensure the
proper functioning of the water heater and the safe delivery of
hot water.
 The specific components can vary depending on the type of
water heater like tankless, traditional tank-style, heat pump
and etc..
Here are the general components you might find in a typical plumbing system
for a water heater:
1. Water supply line: this is the pipe that brings cold water from the main
water supply into the water heater. It is usually connected to a shut-off valve
to control the flow of water to the heater.
2. Heat Source: for tradition tank-style
water heaters, this is a burner or heating
element that heats the water inside the
tank. For tankless water heaters, the
heat source is typically powerful heating
element or a gas burner that heats
water as it passes through the unit
3. Temperature and pressure relief
valve: this safety device is designed to
release pressure from the water heater
if it become too high or to release hot
water if the temperature exceeds safe
levels. It is connected to a discharge pipe
that directs water to a safe location,
such as floor drain
4. Hot water outlet: this is the pipe that
carries hot water from water heater to
the fixtures and appliances throughout
the building.
5. Drain valve: this valve is located near
the bottom of the water heater and is
used to drain the tank for maintenance
or in the event of problem.
6. Expansion tank (optional): in
some plumbing systems, an
expansion tank may be installed to
accommodate the expansion of
water as it heats up, thus helping to
reduce pressure fluctuations in the
system.
7. Vent pipe (for gas water heaters):
gas-powered water heaters require
a vent pipe to safety exhaust
combustion gases to outdoors.
These components work together to ensure that cold
water is properly delivered to the water heater, heated,
and then distributed as hot water to the buildings fixtures
and appliances. Proper installation and maintenance of
these components are essential for the safe and efficient
operation of the water heater.
1.Solar water heater
 Domestic use
 Commercial use
 Industrial use
Types and uses of water heaters
2. Electric water heaters
 Use electrical energy
to generate heat by
electrical resistance
that is used to rinse the
temperature of the
water.
3. Traditional water heaters
 Also called storage tank
water heaters
 This tank is fitted with a
pipe, which delivers hot
water to your kitchen,
bathroom, and any other
taps in your home.
4. Tankless water heaters
 Also called on-demand
water heaters, rely on
high-power burners to
rapidly heat water as it
flows through a heat
exchanger and delivers
hot water directly to your
shower or taps without
storing it in a tank first.
5. Condensing water
heaters
 Use to heat exchangers
to supply endless hot
water when you turn
on the faucets . They
use less energy
because they don’t
need to reheat the
water over and over.
WATER SUPPLY DESIGN CONCERNS
Water Velocity
Cavitation
Cross-Connections
Backflow
Water Hammer
Air Chambers
Water Hammer Arrestors
Thermal Expansion
Viscosity
Volume Change with
Temperature Change
Freezing
Expanding Water
Aging
Pipe Insulation Testing
Testing
Leaks
Heated Water
Volume Change with
Temperature Change
 Water is the only
substance that can exist
as a solid, liquid, and gas
at ordinary temperatures.
Like most substances,
water expands when it is
heated. Unlike most
substances, the volume of
water increases when it
freezes.
Freezing
A phase change from
liquid (water) to solid
(ice) results in about a
10% increase in volume.
Expanding
Water
 Liquid water expands
above 39°F (4°C).
Expansion is about
4.37% from 40°F (4.4°C)
to 212°F (100°C). This
volumetric change from
expansion (ΔV) equates
to about 0.0254% per °F
(0.0457% per °C).
Aging
As pipes in a plumbing
system are used, their
inner walls become
increasingly rough. The
effects of aging in a
plumbing system are
related to piping
material, quality of
water (e.g., hard versus
soft), and water
temperature.
Pipe Insulation
Pipe insulation is applied
to the outer walls of
piping to reduce heat
loss from the pipe or
prevent condensation on
the outside pipe walls.
Foam and covered
fiberglass insulation are
common pipe insulation
materials.
Testing
The water supply
system should be tested
for leaks before it is
covered with finish
materials to determine
if it is watertight. Tests
commonly run on water
systems require that it
be watertight under a
hydrostatic water
pressure of 125 psi for a
minimum of 1 hr.
Leaks
 A leak of just one drop per
second will waste about 2700
gal (10 200 L) of water a year.
Leaks not only waste money
and water, they can cause
damage to walls, flooring,
ceilings, furniture, and
electrical systems. Leaking
pipes also create an
environment for mold and
mildew to thrive.
Heated Water
 By definition, hot water is potable water
that is heated to at least 120°F.
-Heated water below 120°F (49°C) is typically
called tempered water.
-Hot water used for household functions such
as bathing, dishwashing, and clothes washing
is referred to as domestic hot water (DHW).
-In commercial installations, hot water used in
nondomestic applications is referred to as
building service hot water (BSHW).
Water Velocity
 Noise, erosion of inner
pipe walls and valves,
and economy of
installation, operation,
and maintenance
dictate the minimum
and maximum water
velocity in a plumbing
system; as a result,
these have a bearing
on pipe diameter.
Cavitation
 Cavitation is a physical
phenomenon that
occurs in a liquid when
it experiences a drastic
drop in pressure that
causes the liquid to
vaporize into small
vapor bubbles.
Cross-Connections
 A cross-connection is
an unsatisfactory
connection or
arrangement of piping
that can cause non-
potable water to enter
the potable water
system. A cross-
connection can cause
used or contaminated
water to mix with the
water supply.
Backflow
 Backflow is a type of cross-
connection that occurs when
contaminated water or some
other liquid or substance
unintentionally flows
backwards into distribution
pipes containing potable
water. Simply, it is water
flowing in the opposite
direction from normal flow.
Backflow can allow
contaminants to enter the
potable drinking water
system through cross-
connections.
Water Hammer
 A large pressure
develops when fluid
moving through a
pipe is suddenly
stopped. In a
plumbing supply
system, the sudden
closing of a valve
will cause fast-
flowing water to
stop quickly,
resulting in a large
increase in pressure
that is known as
water hammer.
Air Chambers
 Air chambers are 15 in to 5
ft long pipes or pipe-like
devices. They are installed
vertically above the fixture
water connection and are
concealed in the wall. Air
is trapped within the air
chamber. The trapped air
is compressible, which
cushions the pressure
surge as the valve is closed
and absorbs the hydraulic
shock.
Water Hammer
Arrestors
 Water hammer
arrestors are
patented devices
that absorb
hydraulic shock.
Such devices, when
installed, must be
accessible for
maintenance. One
type should be
placed at the end of
the branch line
between the last
two fixtures served.
Thermal Expansion
 No matter what type of
piping material is used in
the water system, some
expansion in the pipe will
occur. This expansion must
be considered in the design
of the system. The amount
of expansion will depend
on the type of piping
material and the range of
temperatures that the pipe
will be subjected.
Viscosity
 As water flows through a
pipe, its viscosity
(thickness) decreases with
temperature decrease.
Water at 40°F (4°C) is
twice as viscous as water
at 90°F (32°C) and four
times as much at 170°F
(77°C). As a result,
pumping energy and cost
are higher when water
temperatures are lower.
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UTILITIES-2-GROUP-1- Plumbing topics.pptx

  • 1. ENGINEERING UTILITIES 2 GROUP 1 BULLION, JAN CEASAR, P. MENDOZA, NEIL FRED, S DENGA-EY, ELMA, A. AGUINAS, ORWELL, B. KINID, JEZREEL MEL, K.
  • 2. Basic Principles of Sanitary/Plumbing Design- Potable Water, Components of Plumbing Supply System of Water Heaters
  • 3. Plumbing is the art and technique of installing pipes, fixtures and other apparatus to convey and supply water in buildings and to dispose and discharge waste water and other liquids, gases and other substances out of the building in a safe orderly, healthy and sanitary way to ensure the health and sanitation of life and property. -
  • 4. Plumbing system of a building includes the water supply distributing pipes; the fixture and fixture traps; the soil, waste and vent pipes; the building drain and building sewer; the storm water drainage, with their devices, appurtenances and connections within the building and outside the building within the property line. Purpose of the sanitary drainage system is to remove effluent discharged from plumbing fixtures and other equipment to an approved point of disposal. A sanitary drainage system generally consists of horizontal branches, vertical stacks, a building drain inside the building, and a building sewer from the building wall to the point of disposal.
  • 5. What are the major components of the Plumbing System? The system constitute the following: 1. Water Supply & Distribution System carries water from the water source, street main or a pump to the building & to various points of use. 2. Plumbing Fixtures-The receptacles that receive the supplied water & allow the building occupants to avail & use the water. 3. Drainage, Waste & Vent The piping network within the building which conveys from the plumbing fixtures all wastes and rainwater to a treatment facility & point of disposal.
  • 6. TYPICAL PLUMBING SYSTEM OF A TOILET AND BATH
  • 7. Who is the Plumber?  The Plumber is the one who works or engages in the business of installing in buildings the pipes, fixtures and other apparatus for bringing in the water supply and removing liquid and waterborne wastes. What are the different categories of Plumbers? There are 3 categories of plumbers: 1. Apprentice Plumber-a beginner at the trade who usually serves for 3 to 5 years as a helper to a journeyman.
  • 8. 2. Journeyman Plumber has served his apprenticeship and is competent to perform the tasks of installing and repairing the plumbing system. 3. Master Plumber-a person technically and legally qualified and licensed to practice the profession of master plumbing without limitations in accordance with R.A. 1378, having passed the examinations conducted by the Professional Regulation Commission, has received a Certificate of Registration from the Board of Master Plumbing and possesses the current License to Practice. (Sec. 214.5 NPC 1999)
  • 9. What are the basic principles that govern the National Plumbing Code of the Philippines?  There are 22 basic principles of the 1999 National Plumbing Code of the Philippines which are updates of the tenets in the “Plumbing Law of the Philippines” approved on 18 June 1955 as amended on 28 November 1959 and revised on 21 December 1999.
  • 10. The basic principles are as follows: 1.CLEAN WATER: All premises intended for human habitation, occupancy or use shall be provided with a supply of pure and wholesome water, neither connected with unsafe supplies nor subject to hazards of backflow or back siphonage.
  • 11. 2. Plumbing fixtures: devices and appurtenances shall be supplied with water in sufficient volume & at a pressure adequate to enable them to function satisfactorily & without undue noise under normal conditions of use.
  • 12.  Inadequate Water Pressure – whenever the water pressure in the main or other source of supply will not provide a water pressure of at least 103 kPa (15 psi) after allowing friction and other pressure losses, a hydro pneumatic pressure tank or an elevated tank and booster pump will provide 103 kPa pressure.  Excessive Water Pressure – when the local water pressure is in excess of 551 kPa (80 psi), an approved-type pressure regulator preceded by an adequate sized strainer shall be installed to reduce pressure on the building side of the regulator to the required supply pressure. Principle 2 Keyword: PRESSURE
  • 13.  3.EFFIECIENCY: Plumbing shall be designed and adjusted to use the minimum quantity of water consistent with proper performance and cleaning. Plumbing shall be designed and adjusted to use the minimum quantity of water consistent with proper performance and cleaning.
  • 14. 4.EXPLOSION: Devices for heating and storing water shall be so designed and installed as to prevent dangers from explosion through overheating.
  • 15. 5.SEWER: Every building having plumbing fixtures installed & intended for human habitation, occupancy or use on premises abutting on a street, alley or easement where there is a public sewer, shall be connected to the public sewer system.
  • 16. 6.PLUMBING UNIT: Each family dwelling unit on premises abutting on a sewer or with a private sewage-disposal system shall have at least one water closet and one kitchen type sink. Further, a lavatory and bathtub or shower shall be installed to meet the basic requirements of sanitation and personal hygiene.
  • 17. 7.VENTILATION: Plumbing fixtures shall be made of smooth non· absorbent material, free from concealed fouling surfaces and shall be located in ventilated enclosures.
  • 18. 8.CLEANOUTS: The drainage system shall be designed, constructed and maintained to safeguard against fouling, deposit of solids, clogging and with adequate clean outs so arranged that the pipes may be readily cleaned.
  • 19. 9.NAMPAP: All piping of plumbing systems shall be of durable NAMPAP (National Master Plumbers Association of the Philippines) APPROVED materials, free from defective workmanship , designed and constructed by Registered Master Plumbers to ensure satisfactory service.
  • 20. 10.TRAP: Each fixture directly connected to the drainage system shall be equipped with a water- sealed trap.
  • 21. 11.AIR CIRCULATION: The drainage piping system shall be designed to provide adequate circulation of air free from siphonage, aspiration or forcing of trap seals under ordinary use.
  • 22. 12.VENT TERMINALS: Vent terminals shall extend to the outer air and installed to preempt clogging and the return of foul air to the building.
  • 23. 13.TEST: Plumbing systems shall be subjected to such tests to effectively disclose all leaks and defects in the workmanship Testing Media – the piping of the plumbing, drainage and venting system shall be tested with water or air. Water Test – the water test shall be applied to the drainage and vent system either in its entirety or in sections. The water shall be kept for at least 15 minutes before inspection starts.
  • 24. 14.SEWAGE HARM: No substance which will clog the pipes, produce explosive mixture, destroy the pipes or their joints or interfere unduly with the sewage-disposal process shall be allowed to enter the building drainage system.
  • 25. 15.CONTAMINATION: Proper protection shall be provided to prevent contamination of food, water, sterile goods and similar materials by backflow of sewage. When necessary, the fixture, device or appliance shall be connected indirectly with the building drainage system.
  • 26. 16. LIGHT: No water closet shall be located in a room or compartment which is not properly lighted and ventilated.
  • 27. 17.SEPTIC TANK: If water closets or other plumbing fixtures are installed in buildings where there is no sewer within a reasonable distance, suitable provision shall be made for disposing of the building sewage by some accepted method of sewage treatment and disposal, such as a septic tank.
  • 28. 18.SEWAGE BACKFLOW: Where a plumbing drainage system may be subject to backflow of sewage, suitable provision shall be made to prevent its overflow in the building.
  • 29. 19.RMP: Plumbing systems shall be maintained in serviceable condition by Registered Master Plumbers.
  • 30. 20.ACCESSIBLE: All plumbing fixtures shall be installed properly spaced, to be accessible for their intended use.
  • 31. 21.STRUCTURAL STABILITY: Plumbing shall be installed by Registered Master Plumbers with due regard to the preservation of the strength of structural members and the prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces through fixture usage.
  • 32. 22.SEWAGE TREATMENT: Sewage or other waste from a plumbing system which may be deleterious to surface or sub-surface waters shall not be discharged into the ground or into any waterway, unless first rendered innocuous through subjection to some acceptable form of treatment.
  • 34. Water  The most basic and fundamental component of life on earth.  A substance composed of the chemical elements hydrogen and oxygen and existing in gaseous, liquid and solid states. It is one of the most plentiful and essential of compounds. A tasteless and odorless liquid at room temperature, it has the important ability to dissolve many other substances.
  • 35. SOURCES OF WATER 1.Ground water It is a source of water that is under land surface It is accessible by wells, tube wells and hand pumps. 2. Surface-water Found on the surface of the earth like ponds, and rivers. 3. Rainwater It is the major source of water from rain
  • 36. Potable water is the water that flows out of your taps, including your kitchen and bathroom sinks, showers and bathtubs. This is the water you use for cooking, bathing and cleaning. This water is clean and safe because it has been treated at your local municipal water treatment plant. Potable water components are designed to safely carry and regulate the flow of clean drinkable water. Standard fittings and valves pose a risk of contamination by leaching chemicals and toxins into water that comes in contact with these components. Therefore, only products specifically designed and certified for use with potable water should be used for drinking water applications.
  • 37. Potable water plumbing system brings water into a structure for drinking, cleaning, and other purposes. It includes the main plumbing valve where you can turn off the water supply and the water meter that tracks water usage. Other components include long or short straight pipes, T-sections that direct water at right angles, elbows that provide directional adjustments, and brass and gate valves that help regulate water flow.
  • 38.  Problems with undesirable taste and odor are overcome by use of filtration equipment or by aeration of the water.  Bacteria are destroyed by the addition of a few parts per million of chlorine. The taste of chlorine is then removed with sodium sulfite.  Suspended organic matter that supports bacterial life and suspended mineral matter are removed by the addition of a flocculating and precipitating agent, such as alum, before settling or filtration.  Excessive hardness, which renders the water unsuitable for many industrial purposes, is reduced by the addition of slaked, or hydrated, lime or by an ion exchange process. Several methods used to improve water quality and taste:
  • 39.  Water quality and taste vary considerably from place to place, depending on the water source of the area, the chemical and bacteria contents of the water, and the amount and type of treatment given the water before it is put into the system.  Potable water can have an objectionable odor and taste and even be cloudy and slightly muddied or colored in appearance. Water treatment
  • 41. Systems that are intended to heat water to regulated temperatures for a variety of purpose. Familiar domestic uses of water heaters include the heating of water to assist in washing clothes or dishes and taking showers or baths. Another is to heat the water in the swimming pools and spas.
  • 42. Components of Plumbing System of Typical Water Heaters  The plumbing system of a water heater typically consist of several key components that work together to ensure the proper functioning of the water heater and the safe delivery of hot water.  The specific components can vary depending on the type of water heater like tankless, traditional tank-style, heat pump and etc..
  • 43. Here are the general components you might find in a typical plumbing system for a water heater: 1. Water supply line: this is the pipe that brings cold water from the main water supply into the water heater. It is usually connected to a shut-off valve to control the flow of water to the heater.
  • 44. 2. Heat Source: for tradition tank-style water heaters, this is a burner or heating element that heats the water inside the tank. For tankless water heaters, the heat source is typically powerful heating element or a gas burner that heats water as it passes through the unit
  • 45. 3. Temperature and pressure relief valve: this safety device is designed to release pressure from the water heater if it become too high or to release hot water if the temperature exceeds safe levels. It is connected to a discharge pipe that directs water to a safe location, such as floor drain
  • 46. 4. Hot water outlet: this is the pipe that carries hot water from water heater to the fixtures and appliances throughout the building.
  • 47. 5. Drain valve: this valve is located near the bottom of the water heater and is used to drain the tank for maintenance or in the event of problem.
  • 48. 6. Expansion tank (optional): in some plumbing systems, an expansion tank may be installed to accommodate the expansion of water as it heats up, thus helping to reduce pressure fluctuations in the system.
  • 49. 7. Vent pipe (for gas water heaters): gas-powered water heaters require a vent pipe to safety exhaust combustion gases to outdoors.
  • 50. These components work together to ensure that cold water is properly delivered to the water heater, heated, and then distributed as hot water to the buildings fixtures and appliances. Proper installation and maintenance of these components are essential for the safe and efficient operation of the water heater.
  • 51. 1.Solar water heater  Domestic use  Commercial use  Industrial use Types and uses of water heaters
  • 52. 2. Electric water heaters  Use electrical energy to generate heat by electrical resistance that is used to rinse the temperature of the water.
  • 53. 3. Traditional water heaters  Also called storage tank water heaters  This tank is fitted with a pipe, which delivers hot water to your kitchen, bathroom, and any other taps in your home.
  • 54. 4. Tankless water heaters  Also called on-demand water heaters, rely on high-power burners to rapidly heat water as it flows through a heat exchanger and delivers hot water directly to your shower or taps without storing it in a tank first.
  • 55. 5. Condensing water heaters  Use to heat exchangers to supply endless hot water when you turn on the faucets . They use less energy because they don’t need to reheat the water over and over.
  • 56. WATER SUPPLY DESIGN CONCERNS Water Velocity Cavitation Cross-Connections Backflow Water Hammer Air Chambers Water Hammer Arrestors Thermal Expansion Viscosity Volume Change with Temperature Change Freezing Expanding Water Aging Pipe Insulation Testing Testing Leaks Heated Water
  • 57. Volume Change with Temperature Change  Water is the only substance that can exist as a solid, liquid, and gas at ordinary temperatures. Like most substances, water expands when it is heated. Unlike most substances, the volume of water increases when it freezes. Freezing A phase change from liquid (water) to solid (ice) results in about a 10% increase in volume. Expanding Water  Liquid water expands above 39°F (4°C). Expansion is about 4.37% from 40°F (4.4°C) to 212°F (100°C). This volumetric change from expansion (ΔV) equates to about 0.0254% per °F (0.0457% per °C).
  • 58. Aging As pipes in a plumbing system are used, their inner walls become increasingly rough. The effects of aging in a plumbing system are related to piping material, quality of water (e.g., hard versus soft), and water temperature. Pipe Insulation Pipe insulation is applied to the outer walls of piping to reduce heat loss from the pipe or prevent condensation on the outside pipe walls. Foam and covered fiberglass insulation are common pipe insulation materials. Testing The water supply system should be tested for leaks before it is covered with finish materials to determine if it is watertight. Tests commonly run on water systems require that it be watertight under a hydrostatic water pressure of 125 psi for a minimum of 1 hr.
  • 59. Leaks  A leak of just one drop per second will waste about 2700 gal (10 200 L) of water a year. Leaks not only waste money and water, they can cause damage to walls, flooring, ceilings, furniture, and electrical systems. Leaking pipes also create an environment for mold and mildew to thrive. Heated Water  By definition, hot water is potable water that is heated to at least 120°F. -Heated water below 120°F (49°C) is typically called tempered water. -Hot water used for household functions such as bathing, dishwashing, and clothes washing is referred to as domestic hot water (DHW). -In commercial installations, hot water used in nondomestic applications is referred to as building service hot water (BSHW).
  • 60. Water Velocity  Noise, erosion of inner pipe walls and valves, and economy of installation, operation, and maintenance dictate the minimum and maximum water velocity in a plumbing system; as a result, these have a bearing on pipe diameter. Cavitation  Cavitation is a physical phenomenon that occurs in a liquid when it experiences a drastic drop in pressure that causes the liquid to vaporize into small vapor bubbles. Cross-Connections  A cross-connection is an unsatisfactory connection or arrangement of piping that can cause non- potable water to enter the potable water system. A cross- connection can cause used or contaminated water to mix with the water supply.
  • 61. Backflow  Backflow is a type of cross- connection that occurs when contaminated water or some other liquid or substance unintentionally flows backwards into distribution pipes containing potable water. Simply, it is water flowing in the opposite direction from normal flow. Backflow can allow contaminants to enter the potable drinking water system through cross- connections. Water Hammer  A large pressure develops when fluid moving through a pipe is suddenly stopped. In a plumbing supply system, the sudden closing of a valve will cause fast- flowing water to stop quickly, resulting in a large increase in pressure that is known as water hammer. Air Chambers  Air chambers are 15 in to 5 ft long pipes or pipe-like devices. They are installed vertically above the fixture water connection and are concealed in the wall. Air is trapped within the air chamber. The trapped air is compressible, which cushions the pressure surge as the valve is closed and absorbs the hydraulic shock.
  • 62. Water Hammer Arrestors  Water hammer arrestors are patented devices that absorb hydraulic shock. Such devices, when installed, must be accessible for maintenance. One type should be placed at the end of the branch line between the last two fixtures served. Thermal Expansion  No matter what type of piping material is used in the water system, some expansion in the pipe will occur. This expansion must be considered in the design of the system. The amount of expansion will depend on the type of piping material and the range of temperatures that the pipe will be subjected. Viscosity  As water flows through a pipe, its viscosity (thickness) decreases with temperature decrease. Water at 40°F (4°C) is twice as viscous as water at 90°F (32°C) and four times as much at 170°F (77°C). As a result, pumping energy and cost are higher when water temperatures are lower.