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Understanding CleanAir Technology to
Improve Wlan Spectrum Management

BRKEWN-2013
Agenda

 Why does interference matter?
 CSMA-CA and Duty Cycle?
 AP modes of Operation
 Technical Details
      Interference Detection
      Interference Mitigation
      CleanAir Monitoring
      Spectrum Expert Mode

 Configuration Essentials


 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   2
RF terms and Wi-Fi behavior basics




BRKEWN-2013
Presentation_ID   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   3
The Impact of a Crowded Spectrum
    Performance At Risk in Unprotected Networks
                                                                                                               Throughput
                                                                                                                Reduction
                                                                                                              Near       Far
                                                                                     Interference Type        (25 ft)   (75 ft)
   End User Impact
                                                                                       2.4 or 5 GHz
                                                                                          Cordless            100%      100%
 Reduced network capacity                                                                  Phones
  and coverage
                                                                                   Video Camera               100%      57%
 Poor quality voice and video
                                                                                                  Wi-Fi
 Potential complete link failure                                                  (busy neighbor)
                                                                                                              90%       75%

                                                                                         Microwave
                                                                                              Oven
                                                                                                              63%       53%
   IT Manager Impact
                                                                                              Bluetooth
 Potential security breaches                                                                  Headset
                                                                                                              20%       17%

 Support calls
                                                                                     DECT Phone               18%       10%
 Increased cost of operation
      BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.         Source: FarPoint Group
                                                                               Cisco Public                                       4
How does Interference impact Wi-Fi?
Separating the FUD from the Fact‘s

 802.11a/b/g/n - CSMA/CA or LBT (listen Before Talk)
 Collision Avoidance – 802.11 very very polite – by
  design
        CCA
        Collisions
        SNR
 CCA – Clear Channel Assessment
        ED – quick – low power - prone to false positives
        Preamble – takes time – power – less prone to false
 CCA threshold for 802.11b/g is -65 dBm
 CCA for 802.11a is different -65 dBm ED, if true then 20
  dB lower for Preamble interrogation needs to be
  processed -85 dBm


BRKEWN-2013     © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   5
CCA Blocked or High




                           802.11n traffic


                                                                                         Video Camera Duty Cycle
                                                                                                90-100%

Video Signal




 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                             6
How does Interference impact Wi-Fi?
Separating the FUD from the Fact‘s

 Collisions - Non Wi-Fi devices do not participate in our CA
  mechanism – they have their own
 No respect for Wi-Fi – results in:
        Corrupted packets
        Increased retransmissions
        Increased Duty Cycle
        Less available bandwidth
 SNR – Signal to Noise ratio
      High SNR                                             Low SNR




BRKEWN-2013    © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   7
802.11 and Duty Cycle – Channel
Utilization

 Retransmit a packet
 Duty Cycle of interference is directly proportionate
  to channel time available
 Busy network – less interference tolerance
 Less busy – might not even notice low levels of
  interference
 Bandwidth is like Money – the more you get the
  more you spend




BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   8
Understand Protocol Selection 802.11 b/g/a/n and
        Duty Cycle—Important? Why?
     DSSS
                                                                Beacon Size (Bytes)
                  100                                       200                       250     300    350
         1        896                                     1696                       2096     2496   2896
         2        496                                      896                       1096     1296   1496
       5.5        241                                      387                        460     532    605
        11        169                                      241                        278     314    351


    OFDM
         6        153                                      287                        353     420    487
        12        87                                       153                        187     220    253
        24        53                                        87                        103     120    137
        54        35                                        50                         57      64     72
      130         26                                        32                         35      38     42
      300         23                                        25                         27      28     29

                                                                             Time µS

                           Spectrum is a Shared Finite Resource
    BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.     Cisco Public                 9
Cisco Access Points – Modes of
Operation




BRKEWN-2013
Presentation_ID   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   10
Any Cisco Access point already sees and
reports noise and interference per channel




 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   11
Wi-Fi and Spectrum Knowledge – Why
is silicon important?

 A Wi-Fi chip is a communications processor – a
  MODEM
 It only knows
        Energy that can be demodulated = Wi-Fi
        Energy that can not be demodulated = Noise

 Noise is complicated –
        Collisions, fragments, corruption
        Wi-Fi that is below sensitivity threshold of the receiver

 Peaks in Wi-Fi activity can cause all of the above to
  occure


BRKEWN-2013    © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   12
High Resolution Spectral Advantage
The Industry’s ONLY in-line high-resolution spectrum analyzer

 Typical Wi-Fi chipset                                                              Cisco CleanAir Wi-Fi chipset
 Spectral Resolution at 5 MHz                                                       Spectral Resolution at 78 to 156 KHz




                 Microwave oven                                                              Microwave oven


                                                                    Power




                                                                                                                      Power
                         ?
                     BlueTooth

                                                                                                      BlueTooth



 ‗Chip View Visualization‘ of Microwave oven and BlueTooth Interference


   BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                             13
The Value of ASIC Based Intelligence
Troubleshooting Workflow              Response A:                                                 Response B:
                                      CleanAir Technology                                         Software-only Solution
Event: SpyCam and
Microwave causing strong
interference
Detect presence of                    Two unique sources detected by all                          Energy detected by all APs
interference                          APs
Classify source of                    Spycam and microwave uniquely                               Inability to differentiate between
interference                          identified                                                  multiple sources of interference
Correlate interference events         Interference correlated across all                          None – seen as unique event by each
across APs                            APs as two events                                           AP
Assess impact to AP and               Severity and impact of each                                 Total Interference measured only
network                               interferer measured
Alert to IT                           Intelligent alert on sources and                            One alert per AP on “interference
                                      impact                                                      detect”
Physically locate SpyCam              Interferers precisely located on                            Unable to locate automatically,
and Microwave                         floor map                                                   manual search for both
Mitigate impact of                    Intelligent and automatic channel                           Manual changes based on limited
interference                          change                                                      data
Air Quality Report                    Network-wide view of Wi-Fi health                           None
                                      by AP
        BRKEWN-2013     © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                                        14
Enterprise Wireless Evolution
  From Best Effort to Mission Critical
2005                                                                                                            2010


                                                                                               Self Healing &
                                                                           Scalable
                                                                                                Optimizing –
                        System                                            Performance
       Hotspot                                                                                Spectrum Policy
                      Management




            Legacy RRM                                                  7.0 CleanAir
                                           5.0 RRM Dashboard
                                           Complete re-vamp of CH       7.0 MR1 Static Grouping
                                           802.11n
                   4.1.185 – DCA Enhancements                6.0 NG-DCA
                   Coverage hole fixes                       6.0 Client Link
                   Spectrum Intelligence (SE Based)          6.0 BandSelect
                                                             6.0 MR-1 TPC changes
                                                             6.0 MR-1 MC-UC

   BRKEWN-2013      © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                            15
Market Transitions

                                                                  Workplace
         Mobility                                                                                       Video
                                                                  Experience

1.3 Billion new Networked                              Blurring the Borders:                    50% of all Cisco Network
Mobile Devices in the                                  Consumer ↔ Workforce                     Traffic Today Is Video
Next Three Years                                       Employee ↔ Partner




                                                             Anyone, Anything,
                                                             Anywhere, Anytime
     Mobile Devices



 IT Resources



    BRKEWN-2013       © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                              16
“When the students returned this year, if you asked me
 what percentage of students are using the Wi-Fi network
 – I would have told you 40%. I was shocked to see 85%
 of them using the Wi-Fi network”

Scott Ksander – September 2009 – Cisco Education TAB
Purdue University




Presentation_ID   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   17
Influx of Mobile Devices Creates IT Challenge
  IT Consumerization: Now a Reality


Smartphone adoption is growing
at 50%+ annually

A Smartphone can use as much
bandwidth as 200 legacy phones




     ENTERPRISE




                                                                                           TIME


   BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public          18
CleanAir Technical Details




BRKEWN-2013
Presentation_ID   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   19
USER - HTML
MSE                 WCS Plus                     WCS                                TCP 443
                                                                                                      WCS Base
  Merging
  History            IDR                                  Web Server
                                                                                                                      Spectrum Expert
                                                                                                                     Cisco
  Location            DB                               CleanAir Manager                                    AQ         Connect
                                                                                                                     Spectrum Expert
  CleanAir Manager                                      SOAP     SNMP                                      DB
  NMSP       SOAP                                                                                UDP 161/162
                                               TCP 443
             TCP 16113

      NMSP                               WLC                                          SNMP

                IDR      Merging
                                               CAPWAP                                                 AQ

                                                                                                       USER –
                                              CleanAir AP                                             HTML/CLI
Base CleanAir System
                                                  CAPWAP
WLC + CleanAir AP
                                                  SensorD
                                                                                                        TCP 37540/37550
                                                   SAgE

      BRKEWN-2013        © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.      Cisco Public                                 20
CleanAir Specific Acronyms

 AQI – Air Quality Index – also seen as AQ
 IDR – Interference Device Report
 PMAC – Pseudo MAC
 Merge – Correlation of IDR’s based on PMAC
 ZOI – Zone of Impact
 LMAP – Local Mode AP – AP serving clients
 MMAP – Monitor Mode AP – AP scanning all bands




BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   21
Key Components Interaction

 Information is driven in two ways
       AQI – Air Quality index reporting
       IDR – Interference device report

 Air Quality – Is derived by the AP’s, Stored on WLC,
  and polled by WCS
 Interference Device Reports – are reported to WLC
       WLC will merge multiple IDR’s
       Keep a limited Database (single reporting period)
       Forward NMSP notification message with IDR payload to MSE




 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   22
Non Wi-Fi Interference Detection




BRKEWN-2013
Presentation_ID   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   23
The CleanAir AP

 Built into the silicon of the Wi-Fi chip is an additional
  500K logic gates that house the SAgE logic.
 SAgE is the spectrum analyzer that was used on the
  Spectrum Expert Cards (Spectrum Analysis Engine)
 Controlling the SAgE hardware is a software known as
  SensorD – where all measurements are gathered and
  reported to and from the AP
 SensorD does all classification of devices and
  calculations required to populate upstream information
  stores and handles interfacing to CAPWAP

Information passed from the AP to controllers is minimal.
No off platform calculations are performed: it all happens
on the AP
BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   24
Air Quality Index - AQI

 Air Quality is a measurement
  of non-wifi and adjacent
  channel interference
 All Individual devices when
  Classified are assigned a                                                              Good
  Severity Value
 Air Quality is a measure of all
  Devices/Severities within a
  Radio, Floor, Building, or
                                                                                          Bad
  Campus




 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public          25
Air Quality and Severity
                                                                                              20


 For each Classified Device – a Severity Value
  is calculated                                                                               35



 Severity of 0 is not Severe – a Severity of 100
  is very severe.                                                                             63



 Severity is a local opinion of the reporting AP
  and takes into account the type of device,                                                  90

  Duty Cycle (persistence) and Power as
  measured by the AP.
                                                                                              97


 For the same device – severity will differ on
  each reporting AP because of the AP’s RF
  relationship to that device.
                                                                                              100




      BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public         26
Supported Interferers
    Cisco Unified Wireless Network 7.0 Release

   2.4 GHz only                                                                      2.4 or 5 GHz
         Bluetooth Link                                                                       Jammer
         Bluetooth Discovery                                                                  WiFi Inverted
         802.11FH                                                                             WiFi Invalid Channel
         Microwave Oven                                                                       Continuous Transmitter
         Industrial wireless/802.15.4                                                         Video Camera
         Xbox                                                                                 SuperAG
   5 GHz only                                                                                Canopy
         Radar                                                                                Other (i.e. unclassified devices)
         WiMAX Mobile                                                                         TDD Transmitter
         WiMAX Fixed                                                                          DECT-like Phone



                                                                                                      Definite Security Threat Devices
1. Classifiers are expandable over time with software upgrade.
                                                                                                      Potential Security Threat Devices
2. All third party trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
    BRKEWN-2013           © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public
                                                                                                      Performance Impacting Devices
                                                                                                                                    27
Air Quality and Severity




 Severity is used to understand the potential impact to a Wi-Fi
  network
 The RSSI at the AP for this interferer (-78) is well below CCA
  threshold (Clear Channel Assessment)
 Even with duty cycle of 100% - the severity here is 17 – if it was
  closer to us, the severity would be much higher
 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   28
Air Quality and Severity

 Severity is calculated for a single device
 All devices affecting a radio/channel are added
  together and subtracted from Air Quality for that for
  that radio/ served channel
 Separate AQ metrics exist per band
 Air Quality is observable at the Radio/channel level,
  or averaged together for a Floor, Building, Campus
  in a hierarchical fashion.




BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   29
AQ Detail

 AP manages AQI data –
  averaging period is decided                                                                    SensorD
  by WCS/WLC, and                                                             CleanAir
  configured on AP by WLC                                                                    CleanAir AP   15 sec.
                                                                                AQI
 Default AQ Averaging                                                                             IOS
  periods are
       15 min. default (up to 1 hour)                                          Normal -15 min.
                                                                               Rapid – 30 sec.
       Rapid Update Mode – 30
       seconds                                                                                    WLC
 AP-SensorD reports AQ                                                        Normal -15 min.
  information every 15 seconds                                                 Rapid – 30 sec.
  to IOS                                                                                          WCS



 BRKEWN-2013    © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                              30
AQI In-Depth
 Each AQ report contains the average, and the
  minimum observed AQ during the period
 Each CleanAir Radio sends AQ reports
  independently to the WLC for the channel it is
  serving (15 Minutes by default) or all channels if in
  Monitor Mode (MMAP)
 WLC Maintains last normal AQ report for each radio
  until update is received
 WCS polls each WLC at predetermined (normal or
  rapid) intervals (Normal 15 minutes, Rapid 30
  second)
Design Decision Moment: Rapid Update mode for a given radio
interface, pollutes overall average as normal averaging is suspended
while active
BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   31
AQI Summary

 AQ reports drive the AQI
 AQ is good at 100 and bad at 0
 ED-RRM feature is driven by AQ directly from the
  AP – independent of the controller or RRM
 Air Quality is a measure of NON Wi-Fi interference
  and Adjacent Channel Wi-Fi only
 All on channel Wi-Fi is monitored by the Wi-Fi chip,
  CleanAir is locked out.




BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   32
Interference Device Report
         IDR and The AP

 IDR’s are reports of                                                                TYPE SEV WLC
  devices classified by                                                               SEC   1
                                                                                       INT 20
                                                                                                *
                                                                                                *      SensorD
  SensorD                                                                              INT
                                                                                       INT
                                                                                            9
                                                                                            2
                                                                                                *
                                                                                                *
                                                                                       INT  2   *
                                                                                                     CleanAir AP
 Top 10, by severity are                                                              INT
                                                                                       INT
                                                                                            1
                                                                                            1
                                                                                                *
                                                                                                *         IOS
  reported to WLC                                                                      INT  1   *
                                                                                       INT  1   *
                                                                                       INT  1   *
 A Security IDR will always                                                           INT  1
                                                                                       INT  1
  be reported regardless of                                                            INT  1

  severity                                                                                               WLC
 IDR up/down reporting is
  near real time
 AP tracks all IDR’s not
  reported to WLC

      BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                        33
Multiple AP‘s = Multiple Sensors




We see multiple AP tags showing the detection of DECT
and the corresponding RSSI. But which ones are really the
same device?




BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   34
IDR In-Depth – The AP - PMAC

 Pseudo – MAC applied to analog device signatures
 PMAC will never calculate exactly the same on all AP’s
  detecting the same device – but rather similar
 PMAC will change overtime for a given device
       Battery operated devices – voltage drop – temp variations
       Measurement accuracy – or inaccuracy

 The AP will combine devices that can not reliably be
  merged with devices seen by another AP




 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   35
WLC Merging – and PMAC ―The
    Cluster‖



 IDR-DECT – ap1                                                                             AP-1


 IDR-DECT – ap2
 IDR-DECT – ap3                                                                                               2.4 GHz
                                                                                                               Cordless
 Merged IDR = DECT –                                                                                   AP-2


  AP1 (cluster center), AP2,
  AP3                                                                                 RF Channel ―1‖
                                                                                      RF Channel ―6‖
                                                                                      RF Channel ―11‖




    BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                                 36
PMAC Merge




•Once the PMAC Signatures are merged – we can identify which AP’s are
hearing the same device
•Notice the Cluster Center – this is the closest AP to the device



   BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   37
WLC and PMAC Merging

 WLC performs comparison function on received
  IDR’s PMAC
 WLC can merge devices for AP’s physically
  connected to it
 WLC merge results are only viewable in IDR traps
  sent to trap receiver (WCS)
 No Location is performed on WLC merged
  interferers
 The result of a WLC merge is forwarded to the MSE
  (If present) along with all of the supporting IDR’s


BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   38
The MSE

 All IDR’s received by a WLC are sent to MSE via
  NMSP notify with IDR payload
 NMSP message includes the merged IDR and the
  individual IDR’s used for that conclusion
 IDR’s are re-merged at the MSE, this
  accommodates multiple WLC systems
 A tracked Interferer is equal to a client for CAS
  license purpose – each active merged interferer will
  consume 1 seat



BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   39
MSE Merging – LMAP X-WLC
                                                                     MSE Merge

                                            IDR-DECT – ap4                            IDR-DECT – ap1

                                            IDR-DECT – ap5                            IDR-DECT – ap2
                                            IDR-DECT – ap6
                                                                                       IDR-DECT – ap3
                                            Merged IDR = DECT –
                                             AP4 (cluster center),                     Merged IDR = DECT – AP3
                                                                                        (cluster center), AP2, AP3
                                             AP5, AP6


                                                                                                                     AP-1
                                AP-1




              AP-2
                                                                                                                            AP-2




                                                                            2.4 GHz
                                                                            Cordless
                                                                                                    RF Channel ―1‖
                                                                                                    RF Channel ―6‖
                                                                                                    RF Channel ―11‖

BRKEWN-2013      © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.       Cisco Public                                       40
MSE – WLC Merging and Location

 MSE and the WLC rely 1st on RF Neighbor lists to
  establish spatial probability in a merge
 LMAP AP’s are active and send neighbor messages
  as part of normal RRM operation
 Changing Neighbor message defaults will affect
  merging
 MMAP AP’s are passive devices and do not send
  neighbor messages




BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   41
CleanAir Mitigation Modes




BRKEWN-2013
Presentation_ID   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   42
Interference Mitigation Features

 Persistent Device Avoidance – PDA
       Operates on Classification – IDR on a per AP basis
       Once set – biases DCA against the PDA channel for the
       detecting AP only
       Remembers interference and avoids placing the AP back on the
       same channel

 Energy Detect – RRM or ED-RRM
       Fast acting (=< 30 seconds)
       Works on AQI on a per AP basis
       Designed to prevent catastrophic interference from disrupting
       channel/clients

NOTE: Only Available with full CleanAir enabled installation – not overlay

 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   43
PDA - configuration




                                                                  Enabled Per Band
                                                                  Same on WCS or WLC
                                                                  EDRRM has threshold variable


 WLC GUI - Wireless=>802.11a/b=>RRM=>DCA

WCS – Configure=>controllers=>802.11a/b=>RRM=>DCA

                                                                                          ED-RRM AQI thresholds:
                                                                                             Low – 35
                                                                                             Medium (default) – 50
                                                                                             High - 60
  BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                              44
PDA – Use case                                                                          Microwave Oven detected
                                                                                              Channel 11 – highest
 PDA logs the device for this AP.                                                            Impact.

 A CM bias is added to this AP’s
  channel 11 only
 The bias works in normal DCA
  operations to steer the AP away
  from channel 11 – it does not
  prevent the AP from re-selecting
  this channel
 AP remembers this bias for 7
  days, which is re-set if the
  device is seen again within that
  period
 If DCA determines that the
  affected AP is best on channel
  11 it will be assigned

      BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                       45
PDA Operation
  If channel change is caused by PDA event – it will be logged
   in WCS – Monitor=>RRM
  PDA event is viewable on WLC=>wireless=>Access
   Points=>Radios=>802.11a/b=>CleanAir RRM
  Only available with full LMAP deployment
  Microwave Oven, Video Camera, Canopy, Fixed Wi-Fi are
   all persistent devices




  BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   46
ED-RRM Operation

 ED-RRM operates based on Air Quality (AQ)
 Each AP measures AQ over a 15 second period and reports
  it to the controller in as little as 30 second increments (rapid
  update mode)
 ED-RRM is designed to instantly sense a catastrophic
  interference source defined as a high duty cycle interferer –
  and if the AQI drops perilously – immediately change the
  AP’s channel independent of RRM.
 ED-RRM prevents the AP from returning to the original
  channel for 3 hours after the event.
 Channel Change reason is logged in Monitor RRM as
  catastrophic AQI event

 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   47
ED-RRM Use Case

Video camera produces 100% DC
If seen at an AP above CCA threshold
the AP will stop beaconing, clients
will not attempt to associate



    The AP reacts almost instantly (within 30 seconds)
    Clients that have decent roaming capabilities will
     reconnect
    ED-RRM AQI thresholds are:
          Low – 35
          Medium (default) – 50
          High - 60

    BRKEWN-2013       © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   48
Spectrum Monitoring




BRKEWN-2013
Presentation_ID   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   49
WCS - Home




 WCS version 7.0.x includes the CleanAir information
  Tab
 The Alarm Summary Panel will display both AQ alerts
  under Performance and Security Alerts under Security
 Advanced Search function includes Interference – rich
  interface for searches

 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   50
WCS – CleanAir TAB
                                                                                        Requires MSE to display
                                                                                        Worst 802.11a/b interferers


                            802.11a
                            average AQ
                                                                                                 Total 802.11a
                                                                                                 Interferers
                            802.11b
                            average AQ
                                                                                                 Total 802.11b
                                                                                                 Interferers
                            802.11a
                            Minimum AQ


                            802.11b                                                Recent Security IDR’s
                            Minimum AQ



BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                                 51
WCS – Alarm Summary




 Performance alarms report AQ threshold violations
 Security Alarms Report security IDR instances
 CleanAir Alarms and Traps configured from
  Configure=>Controllers=>802.11a/b=>CleanAir


   BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   52
CleanAir
    SNMP Trap Settings/controls


 Select trap configurations
  per band
 Select which interference
 Enable/Disable AQ
  threshold alert
 Select Interference types for
  Security alert trap




    Granular control over trap messages for performance thresholds as well as
                                security concerns
    BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   53
WCS CleanAir reports
 CleanAir reports allow
  configuration by floor-
  controller-AP and radio
 Air Quality and Security
  Risk Reports are all
  functional without MSE
 Worst Interference report
  requires MSE




  BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   54
WCS CleanAir Maps




CleanAir Air Quality reports per radio and is averaged up:
By AP, By Floor, By Building, and by Campus

Select Edit View to add CleanAir Average and Minimum readings to the Maps View



      BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   55
WCS CleanAir Maps
Selecting a map for a given floor provides detail relevant to the selected floor. You can change the AP tags
to display CleanAir information such as CleanAir Status (shows which AP’s are capable), Min or average AQ
values, or Average and Minimum values. The values are relevant to the band selected.




         Interferers displayed in this way do not require MSE – However they are
         Raw and not coordinated to eliminate duplicates
        BRKEWN-2013       © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public              56
WCS CleanAir Maps
You can also view interference information being seen on any radio interface
by drilling down on the AP Icon and selecting the radio




  BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   57
WCS CleanAir Maps
Air Quality heatmaps can be selected to represent average or minimum AQ and
Provide a visualization of the Air Quality over a mapped area.

                                                                                         AQ Heatmaps only display
                                                                                         for active AP’s – the white area
                                                                                         is an AP in monitor mode




 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                                58
WCS – RRM Dashboard

 RRM Dashboard has been
  modified to capture
  CleanAir metrics
 Persistent device (PDA)
 Major Air Quality (ED-
  RRM)
 Noise




    BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   59
WCS CleanAir enabled Security
 Dashboard
CleanAir designated Security devices are integrated with the Security dashboard




 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   60
WCS CleanAir Security
 There are three devices enabled by Default for security – And not
  a single WIDs/WIPs solution on the market can see them
 The customer can also add any other device that they deem
  appropriate
       Jammer
       Wi-Fi Inverted
       Wi-Fi Invalid channel
 Jammers – are self explanatory – and readily available online
 Wi-Fi inverted is simply inverting the I and the Q of the RF signal –
  very effective
 Off Channel is a fairly easy hack with DD-WRT – simply moving
  the center frequency by a few KHz will render it invisible.



 BRKEWN-2013     © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   61
WCS CleanAir Client Troubleshooting
 integration

 CleanAir information is
  also coordinated into the
  client troubleshooting
  dashboard
 Selecting a client – and
  launching the client TS
  dashboard now adds a
  CleanAir tab
 The TAB displays any
  interference source that is
  currently being detected
  by the AP the client is
  attached to



 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   62
WCS CleanAir Client TS integration




BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   63
Spectrum Expert Connect




BRKEWN-2013
Presentation_ID   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   64
SE Connect-Cisco Spectrum Expert
               using a CleanAir AP as the sensor

 The CleanAir AP can be used as a remote sensor for an
  installed Spectrum Expert console on a separate host
 This is done by placing the CleanAir AP into SOMM mode –
  this will force the AP to become a dedicated Spectrum Expert
  Sensor
 Once the AP reboots and rejoins the controller – there will be
  an NSI (Network Sensor Interface) Key generated and
  displayed
 You will need the IP address of the AP, and the NSI key to
  attach to the AP in SOMM


You will also need version 4.0 or greater of Spectrum Expert to use this feature
   This version is still pending release as of this Webinar (June 16th 2010)
 BRKEWN-2013    © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   65
Setting SE Connect on the CleanAir AP


                                                                                          The AP listens on
                                                                                          ports:
                                                                                          37540 for 2.4 GHz
                                                                                          37550 for 5 GHz




                                                                                        When enabling SOMM Mode
                                                                                        The AP will reboot and rejoin
                                                                                        The controller – NOTE – This AP
                                                                                        Will NOT serve clients




BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                               66
Setting SE Connect on the CleanAir AP




BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   67
Setting SE Connect on the CleanAir AP




Once the AP re-joins the WLC
It will have generated the
NSI key, you will need this to
Connect Spectrum Expert on the
Next step.




        BRKEWN-2013        © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   68
Spectrum Expert version 4.x Configuration

    With version 4.0 of SE the opening
     splash screen adds the remote sensor
     option
    You will need the IP address of the AP
     you just configured
    You will need the NSI Key
    You will need to select the radio you
     wish to view

You can get the IP Address for the AP from
Either the WLC or WCS at:

Monitor=>AP’s=>802.11b/a



    BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   69
Launching SE Connect from WCS
 Use Advanced Search to locate
  AP’s in SE mode
 From the host where you have
  SE connect installed – select and
  launch the SE connect Icon
 Downloads a .CCF file and
  launches SE Application




 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   70
Spectrum Expert version 4.x Configuration




                                                                                         IP Address
                                                                                         Of AP




 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public          71
CleanAir Configuration




BRKEWN-2013
Presentation_ID   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   72
CleanAir WLC enable
(WCS identical under Configure=>Controllers)



                                                              Wireless=>802.11a/b=>CleanAir



                                                                                               CleanAir is enabled
                                                                                               by Default on the AP
                                                                                               Interface
                                                                                               it is disabled Globally
                                                                                               by default on the
                                                                                               controller.




               WLC CLI
               (Cisco Controller) >config 802.11a/b cleanair enable
 BRKEWN-2013         © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                             73
Per AP radio CleanAir Feature Enable

 Enabled by default – but the first place to check -




  BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   74
WCS CleanAir Status




 Monitor=>Access Points
 Edit View – add CleanAir Status and CleanAir Capable
 CleanAir sensor status –

 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   75
MSE – Context Aware
WCS=>Services=>MSE=>Context Aware Service=>Administration=>tracking parameters




                                                                                          Disabled by
                                                                                          Default




  BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                 76
MSE – Context Aware - History

WCS=>Services=>MSE=>Context Aware Service=>Administration=>History Parameters




                                                                                            Disabled by
                                                                                            Default



    BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                 77
BRKEWN-2013                                                                             Recommended Reading




BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                         78
BRKEWN-2012                                                                             Online Resources


 Cisco CleanAir design Guide
      http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps10315/products_tech_note0918
       6a0080b4bdc1.shtml
 Cisco CleanAir – White Papers
      http://www.cisco.com/en/US/netsol/ns1070/networking_solutions_white_
       papers_list.html
 CleanAir TechWise TV Broadcast
      http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/ns340/ns339/ns638/ns914/html_T
       WTV/twtv_episode_67.html
 Cisco AP3500 – CleanAir
      http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps10981/index.html


 BRKEWN-2013   © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public                      79
Please complete your Session Survey
    We value your feedback - don't forget to complete your online
     session evaluations after each session. Complete 4 session
     evaluations & the Overall Conference Evaluation (available from
     Thursday) to receive your Cisco Networkers 20th Anniversary t-shirt.
    All surveys can be found on our onsite portal and mobile website:
     www.ciscoliveeurope.com/connect/mobi/login.ww

    You can also access our mobile site and
     complete your evaluation from your mobile
     phone:
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           (See http://tinyurl.com/qrmelist for software,
           alternatively type in the access URL)
     2. Login
     3. Complete and Submit the evaluation



    BRKEWN-2013        © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.   Cisco Public   80
Understanding CleanAir Technology to improve enterprise WLAN spectrum management

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Understanding CleanAir Technology to improve enterprise WLAN spectrum management

  • 1. Understanding CleanAir Technology to Improve Wlan Spectrum Management BRKEWN-2013
  • 2. Agenda  Why does interference matter?  CSMA-CA and Duty Cycle?  AP modes of Operation  Technical Details  Interference Detection  Interference Mitigation  CleanAir Monitoring  Spectrum Expert Mode  Configuration Essentials BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
  • 3. RF terms and Wi-Fi behavior basics BRKEWN-2013 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
  • 4. The Impact of a Crowded Spectrum Performance At Risk in Unprotected Networks Throughput Reduction Near Far Interference Type (25 ft) (75 ft) End User Impact 2.4 or 5 GHz Cordless 100% 100%  Reduced network capacity Phones and coverage Video Camera 100% 57%  Poor quality voice and video Wi-Fi  Potential complete link failure (busy neighbor) 90% 75% Microwave Oven 63% 53% IT Manager Impact Bluetooth  Potential security breaches Headset 20% 17%  Support calls DECT Phone 18% 10%  Increased cost of operation BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Source: FarPoint Group Cisco Public 4
  • 5. How does Interference impact Wi-Fi? Separating the FUD from the Fact‘s  802.11a/b/g/n - CSMA/CA or LBT (listen Before Talk)  Collision Avoidance – 802.11 very very polite – by design CCA Collisions SNR  CCA – Clear Channel Assessment ED – quick – low power - prone to false positives Preamble – takes time – power – less prone to false  CCA threshold for 802.11b/g is -65 dBm  CCA for 802.11a is different -65 dBm ED, if true then 20 dB lower for Preamble interrogation needs to be processed -85 dBm BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
  • 6. CCA Blocked or High 802.11n traffic Video Camera Duty Cycle 90-100% Video Signal BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
  • 7. How does Interference impact Wi-Fi? Separating the FUD from the Fact‘s  Collisions - Non Wi-Fi devices do not participate in our CA mechanism – they have their own  No respect for Wi-Fi – results in: Corrupted packets Increased retransmissions Increased Duty Cycle Less available bandwidth  SNR – Signal to Noise ratio High SNR Low SNR BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
  • 8. 802.11 and Duty Cycle – Channel Utilization  Retransmit a packet  Duty Cycle of interference is directly proportionate to channel time available  Busy network – less interference tolerance  Less busy – might not even notice low levels of interference  Bandwidth is like Money – the more you get the more you spend BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8
  • 9. Understand Protocol Selection 802.11 b/g/a/n and Duty Cycle—Important? Why? DSSS Beacon Size (Bytes) 100 200 250 300 350 1 896 1696 2096 2496 2896 2 496 896 1096 1296 1496 5.5 241 387 460 532 605 11 169 241 278 314 351 OFDM 6 153 287 353 420 487 12 87 153 187 220 253 24 53 87 103 120 137 54 35 50 57 64 72 130 26 32 35 38 42 300 23 25 27 28 29 Time µS Spectrum is a Shared Finite Resource BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 9
  • 10. Cisco Access Points – Modes of Operation BRKEWN-2013 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10
  • 11. Any Cisco Access point already sees and reports noise and interference per channel BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11
  • 12. Wi-Fi and Spectrum Knowledge – Why is silicon important?  A Wi-Fi chip is a communications processor – a MODEM  It only knows Energy that can be demodulated = Wi-Fi Energy that can not be demodulated = Noise  Noise is complicated – Collisions, fragments, corruption Wi-Fi that is below sensitivity threshold of the receiver  Peaks in Wi-Fi activity can cause all of the above to occure BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
  • 13. High Resolution Spectral Advantage The Industry’s ONLY in-line high-resolution spectrum analyzer Typical Wi-Fi chipset Cisco CleanAir Wi-Fi chipset Spectral Resolution at 5 MHz Spectral Resolution at 78 to 156 KHz Microwave oven Microwave oven Power Power ? BlueTooth BlueTooth ‗Chip View Visualization‘ of Microwave oven and BlueTooth Interference BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13
  • 14. The Value of ASIC Based Intelligence Troubleshooting Workflow Response A: Response B: CleanAir Technology Software-only Solution Event: SpyCam and Microwave causing strong interference Detect presence of Two unique sources detected by all Energy detected by all APs interference APs Classify source of Spycam and microwave uniquely Inability to differentiate between interference identified multiple sources of interference Correlate interference events Interference correlated across all None – seen as unique event by each across APs APs as two events AP Assess impact to AP and Severity and impact of each Total Interference measured only network interferer measured Alert to IT Intelligent alert on sources and One alert per AP on “interference impact detect” Physically locate SpyCam Interferers precisely located on Unable to locate automatically, and Microwave floor map manual search for both Mitigate impact of Intelligent and automatic channel Manual changes based on limited interference change data Air Quality Report Network-wide view of Wi-Fi health None by AP BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14
  • 15. Enterprise Wireless Evolution From Best Effort to Mission Critical 2005 2010 Self Healing & Scalable Optimizing – System Performance Hotspot Spectrum Policy Management Legacy RRM 7.0 CleanAir 5.0 RRM Dashboard Complete re-vamp of CH 7.0 MR1 Static Grouping 802.11n 4.1.185 – DCA Enhancements 6.0 NG-DCA Coverage hole fixes 6.0 Client Link Spectrum Intelligence (SE Based) 6.0 BandSelect 6.0 MR-1 TPC changes 6.0 MR-1 MC-UC BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15
  • 16. Market Transitions Workplace Mobility Video Experience 1.3 Billion new Networked Blurring the Borders: 50% of all Cisco Network Mobile Devices in the Consumer ↔ Workforce Traffic Today Is Video Next Three Years Employee ↔ Partner Anyone, Anything, Anywhere, Anytime Mobile Devices IT Resources BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16
  • 17. “When the students returned this year, if you asked me what percentage of students are using the Wi-Fi network – I would have told you 40%. I was shocked to see 85% of them using the Wi-Fi network” Scott Ksander – September 2009 – Cisco Education TAB Purdue University Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17
  • 18. Influx of Mobile Devices Creates IT Challenge IT Consumerization: Now a Reality Smartphone adoption is growing at 50%+ annually A Smartphone can use as much bandwidth as 200 legacy phones ENTERPRISE TIME BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18
  • 19. CleanAir Technical Details BRKEWN-2013 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 19
  • 20. USER - HTML MSE WCS Plus WCS TCP 443 WCS Base Merging History IDR Web Server Spectrum Expert Cisco Location DB CleanAir Manager AQ Connect Spectrum Expert CleanAir Manager SOAP SNMP DB NMSP SOAP UDP 161/162 TCP 443 TCP 16113 NMSP WLC SNMP IDR Merging CAPWAP AQ USER – CleanAir AP HTML/CLI Base CleanAir System CAPWAP WLC + CleanAir AP SensorD TCP 37540/37550 SAgE BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 20
  • 21. CleanAir Specific Acronyms  AQI – Air Quality Index – also seen as AQ  IDR – Interference Device Report  PMAC – Pseudo MAC  Merge – Correlation of IDR’s based on PMAC  ZOI – Zone of Impact  LMAP – Local Mode AP – AP serving clients  MMAP – Monitor Mode AP – AP scanning all bands BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21
  • 22. Key Components Interaction  Information is driven in two ways AQI – Air Quality index reporting IDR – Interference device report  Air Quality – Is derived by the AP’s, Stored on WLC, and polled by WCS  Interference Device Reports – are reported to WLC WLC will merge multiple IDR’s Keep a limited Database (single reporting period) Forward NMSP notification message with IDR payload to MSE BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22
  • 23. Non Wi-Fi Interference Detection BRKEWN-2013 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23
  • 24. The CleanAir AP  Built into the silicon of the Wi-Fi chip is an additional 500K logic gates that house the SAgE logic.  SAgE is the spectrum analyzer that was used on the Spectrum Expert Cards (Spectrum Analysis Engine)  Controlling the SAgE hardware is a software known as SensorD – where all measurements are gathered and reported to and from the AP  SensorD does all classification of devices and calculations required to populate upstream information stores and handles interfacing to CAPWAP Information passed from the AP to controllers is minimal. No off platform calculations are performed: it all happens on the AP BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24
  • 25. Air Quality Index - AQI  Air Quality is a measurement of non-wifi and adjacent channel interference  All Individual devices when Classified are assigned a Good Severity Value  Air Quality is a measure of all Devices/Severities within a Radio, Floor, Building, or Bad Campus BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25
  • 26. Air Quality and Severity 20  For each Classified Device – a Severity Value is calculated 35  Severity of 0 is not Severe – a Severity of 100 is very severe. 63  Severity is a local opinion of the reporting AP and takes into account the type of device, 90 Duty Cycle (persistence) and Power as measured by the AP. 97  For the same device – severity will differ on each reporting AP because of the AP’s RF relationship to that device. 100 BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26
  • 27. Supported Interferers Cisco Unified Wireless Network 7.0 Release  2.4 GHz only  2.4 or 5 GHz Bluetooth Link Jammer Bluetooth Discovery WiFi Inverted 802.11FH WiFi Invalid Channel Microwave Oven Continuous Transmitter Industrial wireless/802.15.4 Video Camera Xbox SuperAG  5 GHz only Canopy Radar Other (i.e. unclassified devices) WiMAX Mobile TDD Transmitter WiMAX Fixed DECT-like Phone Definite Security Threat Devices 1. Classifiers are expandable over time with software upgrade. Potential Security Threat Devices 2. All third party trademarks are the property of their respective owners. BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public Performance Impacting Devices 27
  • 28. Air Quality and Severity  Severity is used to understand the potential impact to a Wi-Fi network  The RSSI at the AP for this interferer (-78) is well below CCA threshold (Clear Channel Assessment)  Even with duty cycle of 100% - the severity here is 17 – if it was closer to us, the severity would be much higher BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28
  • 29. Air Quality and Severity  Severity is calculated for a single device  All devices affecting a radio/channel are added together and subtracted from Air Quality for that for that radio/ served channel  Separate AQ metrics exist per band  Air Quality is observable at the Radio/channel level, or averaged together for a Floor, Building, Campus in a hierarchical fashion. BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29
  • 30. AQ Detail  AP manages AQI data – averaging period is decided SensorD by WCS/WLC, and CleanAir configured on AP by WLC CleanAir AP 15 sec. AQI  Default AQ Averaging IOS periods are 15 min. default (up to 1 hour) Normal -15 min. Rapid – 30 sec. Rapid Update Mode – 30 seconds WLC  AP-SensorD reports AQ Normal -15 min. information every 15 seconds Rapid – 30 sec. to IOS WCS BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 30
  • 31. AQI In-Depth  Each AQ report contains the average, and the minimum observed AQ during the period  Each CleanAir Radio sends AQ reports independently to the WLC for the channel it is serving (15 Minutes by default) or all channels if in Monitor Mode (MMAP)  WLC Maintains last normal AQ report for each radio until update is received  WCS polls each WLC at predetermined (normal or rapid) intervals (Normal 15 minutes, Rapid 30 second) Design Decision Moment: Rapid Update mode for a given radio interface, pollutes overall average as normal averaging is suspended while active BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31
  • 32. AQI Summary  AQ reports drive the AQI  AQ is good at 100 and bad at 0  ED-RRM feature is driven by AQ directly from the AP – independent of the controller or RRM  Air Quality is a measure of NON Wi-Fi interference and Adjacent Channel Wi-Fi only  All on channel Wi-Fi is monitored by the Wi-Fi chip, CleanAir is locked out. BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32
  • 33. Interference Device Report IDR and The AP  IDR’s are reports of TYPE SEV WLC devices classified by SEC 1 INT 20 * * SensorD SensorD INT INT 9 2 * * INT 2 * CleanAir AP  Top 10, by severity are INT INT 1 1 * * IOS reported to WLC INT 1 * INT 1 * INT 1 *  A Security IDR will always INT 1 INT 1 be reported regardless of INT 1 severity WLC  IDR up/down reporting is near real time  AP tracks all IDR’s not reported to WLC BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 33
  • 34. Multiple AP‘s = Multiple Sensors We see multiple AP tags showing the detection of DECT and the corresponding RSSI. But which ones are really the same device? BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 34
  • 35. IDR In-Depth – The AP - PMAC  Pseudo – MAC applied to analog device signatures  PMAC will never calculate exactly the same on all AP’s detecting the same device – but rather similar  PMAC will change overtime for a given device Battery operated devices – voltage drop – temp variations Measurement accuracy – or inaccuracy  The AP will combine devices that can not reliably be merged with devices seen by another AP BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 35
  • 36. WLC Merging – and PMAC ―The Cluster‖  IDR-DECT – ap1 AP-1  IDR-DECT – ap2  IDR-DECT – ap3 2.4 GHz Cordless  Merged IDR = DECT – AP-2 AP1 (cluster center), AP2, AP3 RF Channel ―1‖ RF Channel ―6‖ RF Channel ―11‖ BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 36
  • 37. PMAC Merge •Once the PMAC Signatures are merged – we can identify which AP’s are hearing the same device •Notice the Cluster Center – this is the closest AP to the device BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37
  • 38. WLC and PMAC Merging  WLC performs comparison function on received IDR’s PMAC  WLC can merge devices for AP’s physically connected to it  WLC merge results are only viewable in IDR traps sent to trap receiver (WCS)  No Location is performed on WLC merged interferers  The result of a WLC merge is forwarded to the MSE (If present) along with all of the supporting IDR’s BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 38
  • 39. The MSE  All IDR’s received by a WLC are sent to MSE via NMSP notify with IDR payload  NMSP message includes the merged IDR and the individual IDR’s used for that conclusion  IDR’s are re-merged at the MSE, this accommodates multiple WLC systems  A tracked Interferer is equal to a client for CAS license purpose – each active merged interferer will consume 1 seat BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39
  • 40. MSE Merging – LMAP X-WLC MSE Merge  IDR-DECT – ap4  IDR-DECT – ap1  IDR-DECT – ap5  IDR-DECT – ap2  IDR-DECT – ap6  IDR-DECT – ap3  Merged IDR = DECT – AP4 (cluster center),  Merged IDR = DECT – AP3 (cluster center), AP2, AP3 AP5, AP6 AP-1 AP-1 AP-2 AP-2 2.4 GHz Cordless RF Channel ―1‖ RF Channel ―6‖ RF Channel ―11‖ BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 40
  • 41. MSE – WLC Merging and Location  MSE and the WLC rely 1st on RF Neighbor lists to establish spatial probability in a merge  LMAP AP’s are active and send neighbor messages as part of normal RRM operation  Changing Neighbor message defaults will affect merging  MMAP AP’s are passive devices and do not send neighbor messages BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 41
  • 42. CleanAir Mitigation Modes BRKEWN-2013 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 42
  • 43. Interference Mitigation Features  Persistent Device Avoidance – PDA Operates on Classification – IDR on a per AP basis Once set – biases DCA against the PDA channel for the detecting AP only Remembers interference and avoids placing the AP back on the same channel  Energy Detect – RRM or ED-RRM Fast acting (=< 30 seconds) Works on AQI on a per AP basis Designed to prevent catastrophic interference from disrupting channel/clients NOTE: Only Available with full CleanAir enabled installation – not overlay BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 43
  • 44. PDA - configuration Enabled Per Band Same on WCS or WLC EDRRM has threshold variable WLC GUI - Wireless=>802.11a/b=>RRM=>DCA WCS – Configure=>controllers=>802.11a/b=>RRM=>DCA ED-RRM AQI thresholds: Low – 35 Medium (default) – 50 High - 60 BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 44
  • 45. PDA – Use case Microwave Oven detected Channel 11 – highest  PDA logs the device for this AP. Impact.  A CM bias is added to this AP’s channel 11 only  The bias works in normal DCA operations to steer the AP away from channel 11 – it does not prevent the AP from re-selecting this channel  AP remembers this bias for 7 days, which is re-set if the device is seen again within that period  If DCA determines that the affected AP is best on channel 11 it will be assigned BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 45
  • 46. PDA Operation  If channel change is caused by PDA event – it will be logged in WCS – Monitor=>RRM  PDA event is viewable on WLC=>wireless=>Access Points=>Radios=>802.11a/b=>CleanAir RRM  Only available with full LMAP deployment  Microwave Oven, Video Camera, Canopy, Fixed Wi-Fi are all persistent devices BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 46
  • 47. ED-RRM Operation  ED-RRM operates based on Air Quality (AQ)  Each AP measures AQ over a 15 second period and reports it to the controller in as little as 30 second increments (rapid update mode)  ED-RRM is designed to instantly sense a catastrophic interference source defined as a high duty cycle interferer – and if the AQI drops perilously – immediately change the AP’s channel independent of RRM.  ED-RRM prevents the AP from returning to the original channel for 3 hours after the event.  Channel Change reason is logged in Monitor RRM as catastrophic AQI event BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 47
  • 48. ED-RRM Use Case Video camera produces 100% DC If seen at an AP above CCA threshold the AP will stop beaconing, clients will not attempt to associate  The AP reacts almost instantly (within 30 seconds)  Clients that have decent roaming capabilities will reconnect  ED-RRM AQI thresholds are: Low – 35 Medium (default) – 50 High - 60 BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 48
  • 49. Spectrum Monitoring BRKEWN-2013 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 49
  • 50. WCS - Home  WCS version 7.0.x includes the CleanAir information Tab  The Alarm Summary Panel will display both AQ alerts under Performance and Security Alerts under Security  Advanced Search function includes Interference – rich interface for searches BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 50
  • 51. WCS – CleanAir TAB Requires MSE to display Worst 802.11a/b interferers 802.11a average AQ Total 802.11a Interferers 802.11b average AQ Total 802.11b Interferers 802.11a Minimum AQ 802.11b Recent Security IDR’s Minimum AQ BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 51
  • 52. WCS – Alarm Summary  Performance alarms report AQ threshold violations  Security Alarms Report security IDR instances  CleanAir Alarms and Traps configured from Configure=>Controllers=>802.11a/b=>CleanAir BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 52
  • 53. CleanAir SNMP Trap Settings/controls  Select trap configurations per band  Select which interference  Enable/Disable AQ threshold alert  Select Interference types for Security alert trap Granular control over trap messages for performance thresholds as well as security concerns BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 53
  • 54. WCS CleanAir reports  CleanAir reports allow configuration by floor- controller-AP and radio  Air Quality and Security Risk Reports are all functional without MSE  Worst Interference report requires MSE BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 54
  • 55. WCS CleanAir Maps CleanAir Air Quality reports per radio and is averaged up: By AP, By Floor, By Building, and by Campus Select Edit View to add CleanAir Average and Minimum readings to the Maps View BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 55
  • 56. WCS CleanAir Maps Selecting a map for a given floor provides detail relevant to the selected floor. You can change the AP tags to display CleanAir information such as CleanAir Status (shows which AP’s are capable), Min or average AQ values, or Average and Minimum values. The values are relevant to the band selected. Interferers displayed in this way do not require MSE – However they are Raw and not coordinated to eliminate duplicates BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 56
  • 57. WCS CleanAir Maps You can also view interference information being seen on any radio interface by drilling down on the AP Icon and selecting the radio BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 57
  • 58. WCS CleanAir Maps Air Quality heatmaps can be selected to represent average or minimum AQ and Provide a visualization of the Air Quality over a mapped area. AQ Heatmaps only display for active AP’s – the white area is an AP in monitor mode BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 58
  • 59. WCS – RRM Dashboard  RRM Dashboard has been modified to capture CleanAir metrics  Persistent device (PDA)  Major Air Quality (ED- RRM)  Noise BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 59
  • 60. WCS CleanAir enabled Security Dashboard CleanAir designated Security devices are integrated with the Security dashboard BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 60
  • 61. WCS CleanAir Security  There are three devices enabled by Default for security – And not a single WIDs/WIPs solution on the market can see them  The customer can also add any other device that they deem appropriate Jammer Wi-Fi Inverted Wi-Fi Invalid channel  Jammers – are self explanatory – and readily available online  Wi-Fi inverted is simply inverting the I and the Q of the RF signal – very effective  Off Channel is a fairly easy hack with DD-WRT – simply moving the center frequency by a few KHz will render it invisible. BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 61
  • 62. WCS CleanAir Client Troubleshooting integration  CleanAir information is also coordinated into the client troubleshooting dashboard  Selecting a client – and launching the client TS dashboard now adds a CleanAir tab  The TAB displays any interference source that is currently being detected by the AP the client is attached to BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 62
  • 63. WCS CleanAir Client TS integration BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 63
  • 64. Spectrum Expert Connect BRKEWN-2013 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 64
  • 65. SE Connect-Cisco Spectrum Expert using a CleanAir AP as the sensor  The CleanAir AP can be used as a remote sensor for an installed Spectrum Expert console on a separate host  This is done by placing the CleanAir AP into SOMM mode – this will force the AP to become a dedicated Spectrum Expert Sensor  Once the AP reboots and rejoins the controller – there will be an NSI (Network Sensor Interface) Key generated and displayed  You will need the IP address of the AP, and the NSI key to attach to the AP in SOMM You will also need version 4.0 or greater of Spectrum Expert to use this feature This version is still pending release as of this Webinar (June 16th 2010) BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 65
  • 66. Setting SE Connect on the CleanAir AP The AP listens on ports: 37540 for 2.4 GHz 37550 for 5 GHz When enabling SOMM Mode The AP will reboot and rejoin The controller – NOTE – This AP Will NOT serve clients BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 66
  • 67. Setting SE Connect on the CleanAir AP BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 67
  • 68. Setting SE Connect on the CleanAir AP Once the AP re-joins the WLC It will have generated the NSI key, you will need this to Connect Spectrum Expert on the Next step. BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 68
  • 69. Spectrum Expert version 4.x Configuration  With version 4.0 of SE the opening splash screen adds the remote sensor option  You will need the IP address of the AP you just configured  You will need the NSI Key  You will need to select the radio you wish to view You can get the IP Address for the AP from Either the WLC or WCS at: Monitor=>AP’s=>802.11b/a BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 69
  • 70. Launching SE Connect from WCS  Use Advanced Search to locate AP’s in SE mode  From the host where you have SE connect installed – select and launch the SE connect Icon  Downloads a .CCF file and launches SE Application BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 70
  • 71. Spectrum Expert version 4.x Configuration IP Address Of AP BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 71
  • 72. CleanAir Configuration BRKEWN-2013 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 72
  • 73. CleanAir WLC enable (WCS identical under Configure=>Controllers) Wireless=>802.11a/b=>CleanAir CleanAir is enabled by Default on the AP Interface it is disabled Globally by default on the controller. WLC CLI (Cisco Controller) >config 802.11a/b cleanair enable BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 73
  • 74. Per AP radio CleanAir Feature Enable  Enabled by default – but the first place to check - BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 74
  • 75. WCS CleanAir Status  Monitor=>Access Points  Edit View – add CleanAir Status and CleanAir Capable  CleanAir sensor status – BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 75
  • 76. MSE – Context Aware WCS=>Services=>MSE=>Context Aware Service=>Administration=>tracking parameters Disabled by Default BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 76
  • 77. MSE – Context Aware - History WCS=>Services=>MSE=>Context Aware Service=>Administration=>History Parameters Disabled by Default BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 77
  • 78. BRKEWN-2013 Recommended Reading BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 78
  • 79. BRKEWN-2012 Online Resources  Cisco CleanAir design Guide  http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps10315/products_tech_note0918 6a0080b4bdc1.shtml  Cisco CleanAir – White Papers  http://www.cisco.com/en/US/netsol/ns1070/networking_solutions_white_ papers_list.html  CleanAir TechWise TV Broadcast  http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/ns340/ns339/ns638/ns914/html_T WTV/twtv_episode_67.html  Cisco AP3500 – CleanAir  http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps10981/index.html BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 79
  • 80. Please complete your Session Survey  We value your feedback - don't forget to complete your online session evaluations after each session. Complete 4 session evaluations & the Overall Conference Evaluation (available from Thursday) to receive your Cisco Networkers 20th Anniversary t-shirt.  All surveys can be found on our onsite portal and mobile website: www.ciscoliveeurope.com/connect/mobi/login.ww  You can also access our mobile site and complete your evaluation from your mobile phone: 1. Scan the Access Code (See http://tinyurl.com/qrmelist for software, alternatively type in the access URL) 2. Login 3. Complete and Submit the evaluation BRKEWN-2013 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 80