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Iptables101
coscup-2018
COSCUP2018
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openSUSE.Asia GNOME.Asia
I am Hung-Wei Chiu
Co-organizer of SDNDS-TW
Co-organizer of CNTUUG
I love
Linux Network/Kubernetes/SDN
You can find me at:
blog.hwchiu.com
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How Many People Known Iptables?
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Network
Interface Card
PREROUUTING
Network
Interface Card
POSTROUUTING
INPUT OUTPUT
INPUT OUTPUT
FORWARDRouting Routing
LOCAL PROCESS
DNAT
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We Don’t Focus On Those Table/Chain
Today
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User Space
Kernel Space
iptables ebtables application
netlink/system call
Kernel
netfilter system
Network
Interface Card
Network
Interface Card
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iptables, a command-line tool
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iptables
Home:
○ https://www.netfilter.org/downloads.ht
ml
Git
○ git://git.netfilter.org/iptables.git
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We Focus On What Will Happen For
Each Command
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Do You Have Meet The Following
Message?
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Another app is currently holding
the xtables lock. Perhaps you
want to use the -w option?
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Whathappen
iptables command needs a
communication between user and
kernel space.
It need a lock to make sure the
consistence
iptables will exit if it can’t acquire the
lock by default.
Use the –w option to wait the lock.
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Let Read The Source Code
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v
v
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So, We Know The Iptables Use The File
Lock
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Do You Meet The Duplicated Rules ?
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How Could We Solve This?
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solution
Custom chain
○ Use the ‘-F’ to flush all rules.
Check before inserting rule
○ Use the ‘-C’ to check.
Modify the iptables to avoid
duplicated rules.
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How Could We Solve This?
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Now, Let We Learn How To Flush The
Rules.
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c
c
c
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First, we need to know how iptables
works with kernel?
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libiptc
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libiptc
Library which manipulates firewall
rules
Use the system call to interact with
kernel
○ GetSocketOpt
○ SetSocketOpt
Maintain a cache for each iptables
command.
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workflows
Initial the libiptc to fetch all current
rules.
Store those rules into a local cache
Operates rules in that cache
Commit the change to the kernel.
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workflows
Initial the libiptc to fetch all current
rules.
In the iptables, we use a handle
(xtc_handle) to represent the cache.
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initlibiptc
Initial the libiptc to fetch all current
rules.
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c
c
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Now, we have the cache of the current
rules.
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Let We Flush Rules
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c
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Now, We Have Remove Rules From
Cache
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We Commit The Change After Any
Commands
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c
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c
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c
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Now, We Have Flush The Rules.
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Now, Let’s See What’s The Extension
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Custom Match Field
–m tcp –dport 1234
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Custom Target Field
–j AUDIT –type accept
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User Space
Kernel Space
iptables
extensions
netlink/system call
Kernel
netfilter system
Network
Interface Card
Network
Interface Card
extensions
extensions
extensions
Kernel module
Kernel module
Kernel module
Kernel module
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Architecture
For each extension, you need to
prepare two things.
User-space library to parse the
command.
Kernel-space module to implement
that function.
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For User-Space, iptables command
should know how to parse arguments.
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Howtoread
Function
○ DNAT (upper) -> target
○ tcp (lower) -> match
File naming
Old style
○ libipt_ -> ipv4
○ libip6t -> ipv6
New Style
○ libxt -> ipv4/ipv6
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Now, We Take The Custom Match TCP
as Example
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Architecture
iptables/extensions/libxt_tcp.c
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Architecture
iptables/extensions/libxt_tcp.c
c
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For Kernel-Space, There’re Some
Kernel Modules In The System.
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c
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v
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Demo Time
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summary
The iptables system includes the
user-space tool and kernel-space
system.
We focus on how user-space tools
works today.
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iptables
iptables need a file lock to protect the
rules.
iptables use the library (libiptc) to
control the rules via system call.
You can extend the iptables by
implement the extension
match/target function.
COSCUP2018
x
openSUSE.Asia GNOME.Asia
User Space
Kernel Space
iptables
extensions
netlink/system call
Kernel
netfilter system
Network
Interface Card
Network
Interface Card
extensions
extensions
extensions
Kernel module
Kernel module
Kernel module
Kernel module
COSCUP2018
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openSUSE.Asia GNOME.Asia
Extenstion
For each iptables extension module,
you should both user-space and
kernel-space.
Please make sure the kernel version
consistent
Use—Space
○ Implement the arguments and store the
data into pre-defined structure.
Kernel-Space
○ Implement the match function
COSCUP2018
x
openSUSE.Asia GNOME.Asia
Thanks!

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