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Two Unlikely Characters: 
Can Education Abroad 
and Tourism Mix? 
Kristin Thomas, Ph.D Candidate, Penn State University 
Janelle Papay, International Programs Advisor, Elon University 
Dr. Deborah Kerstetter, Penn State University
Collective Knowledge 
Student Development/Affairs & Higher Ed. 
Administration 
Education Abroad & 
Embedded Programs 
International Student Integration 
Experiential Learning & 
Recreation 
Travel & Tourism Research
The Plan 
Gaps in the literature 
Commonalities between tourism and education abroad 
A collaborative framework 
Phase 1: The pilot 
Results: Next Steps
What we hear students saying… 
Go to 
another 
country 
Have fun 
I just want to have fun in 
another country 
Meet new 
people 
Don’t care 
about the 
classes 
I love to travel!
Gaps in the Literature – Travel/Tourism & EA 
Analysis of EA using conceptual frameworks from travel/tourism 
• Cardon, 2011 
• Anderson, 2007 
• Josephine, 2013 
Studies mixing 
tourism and EA 
• Nyaupane, 2011 
• Van Time, 2011 Tourism on EA
Gaps in the Literature – Motivations in EA 
Analysis of motivations in Education Abroad 
• Naffziger, Bott, Mueller, 2004 
• Sanchez, 2006 
• Relyea, 2008 
Outside 
Education 
Abroad 
• Li & Olsen, 2013 
•Willis Allen, 2010 
Inside 
Education 
Abroad
Little 
consideration 
for the role 
travel may play 
in a meaningful 
education 
abroad 
experience 
Education 
Abroad 
Traveler/ 
Tourist
Why care about the student as 
traveler/tourist? 
Activity!!
The views of some from Education Abroad 
“…absent data regarding learning outcomes, some critics have contended that short-term study 
abroad programs are at best tourism with a class course number attached.. (Sutton et al, 
2007).” 
There are many problems associated with the objective of “non-traditional-ism” and one of particular 
concern is that it defines study aboard too readily in the language of tourism. 
(Woolf, 2006) 
"Finding support for both hypothesis, we suggest universities need to do a better job to 
ensure that students understand that study abroad programs are more than just a 
chance to travel and have a good time.“ (Relyea, 2008)
What do Travel/Tourism scholars know? 
Studies and research on: 
Constraints 
Liminality 
King or Queen for a day 
Behaviors and repeat travel behaviors 
Novelty
Tourism Scholars on Travel & Tourism 
Definitions 
“Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and 
staying in places outside their usual environment for not more 
than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other 
purposes.” 
“Tourists any person on a trip between two or more countries or 
two more localities within his/her country or usual residence. 
Typically described as visitors. 
So what’s the problem?
Tourist or Traveler?
Developments in Tourism 
• Hopeful Tourism 
• Sustainable Tourism 
• Social Justice Tourism 
• Pro-Poor Tourism 
Frameworks 
• Alternative Tourism 
• Eco Tourism 
• Green Tourism 
• Community Tourism 
Applied
Are Tourism & Education Abroad Incompatible? 
Shared Goals 
• Culturally and 
Environmentally 
Sensitive 
• Community 
Involvement 
Shared 
Aspirations 
• Tool for Peace 
Making 
• Social & 
Environmental 
Justice 
Shared 
Frustrations 
• Informed & 
Respectful 
Tourist/Traveler
Connecting Theoretical & Conceptual Frameworks 
• Cohen (1985) 
• Lee & Crompton 
(1992) 
• Dewey (1916) 
• Kolb (1984) or 
Dunn (2000) 
• Ritchie, 2003 
• Weiler, 1992 
• Vande Berg, 
Paige, Lou 
(2010) 
• Zull (2010) 
Interventions 
Educative 
Travel 
Travel As Play 
and Novelty 
Play & 
Education 
Experiential
Shaken Not Stirred: The Pilot Study
Conceptual Framework 
Astin’s Input-Environment-Output (IEO) Model 
Output 
Environment 
Input
CONCEPTUAL MODEL 
Phase 1 
Bean and Eaton’s Psychological Model of college Student Retention (2000)
Inputs: Motivation 
Motivated by… 
Novelty Seeking in Travel Academics 
(Deci & Ryan, 2008)(Ryan & Deci, 2000)(Vallerand et al., 1992)
Correspondence Inference Theory 
Target-based 
Expectancies 
Category-based 
Expectancies 
Cultural Feeling 
Rules 
Inputs: Expectations 
Jones and McGillis (1976) and Hochschild (1979), in Wilson, Lisle, Kraft, & Wetzel, 1989
Pilot Study Purpose 
To pilot an instrument that determines students’ 
motivations for and expectations of their education abroad 
experience.
Research Questions 
RQ1: What are students’ expectations for their education 
abroad experience? 
RQ1a:Do students expect travel and tourism to be 
part of their education abroad experience? 
RQ2: What are students’ motivations for their education abroad 
experience? 
RQ2a: Are students motivated by the 
opportunity to travel during their 
education abroad experience?
Population 
• 633 students participating in an education abroad 
program in spring 2014 
Research design 
• PSU Education Abroad advisers sent intro email 
• I followed up with an email and link to the survey 
• Internet-based questionnaire: Survey Gizmo 
• Motivation and expectation items based on a review of 
the travel and education abroad literature 
• Background information collected on college, major, 
gender, age, and past experience with study abroad. 
Method
Results 
Response 
• Response: 231 
• Completed: 169 
• 27% response rate 
Data 
Analysis 
• Principle Factor 
Analysis (PCA) 
• Varimax rotation 
• 27 expectation 
items 
• 33 motivation 
items
Results: Expectations 
RQ1: What are students’ expectations for their 
educational experience abroad? 
6 Factors 
• Being a tourist 
• Pleasurable weekends 
• Experience buying local 
• Enhanced learning 
• Testing and assignments 
• Experience the local community
Results: Expectations 
RQ1a: Do students expect travel and tourism to be 
part of their education abroad experience? 
• Reliabilities ranged from .58 to .75 
• Cumulative variance = 60% 
• “Being a tourist” 
Mean = 4.82/5.00 
• “Enhanced Learning” 
Mean = 3.29/5.00
Results: Motivations 
RQ2: What are students’ motivations for their 
educational experience abroad? 
8 Factors 
1. Fun and adventure 
2. Travel & New Experiences 
3. Enhanced learning 
4. Learning a language 
5. Proof of achievement 
6. To Escape 
7. Self Development and satisfaction 
8. Earn academic credit
Results: Motivations 
RQ2a: Are students motivated by the opportunity to 
travel during their educational experience abroad? 
• Reliabilities ranged from .74 to .92 
• Cumulative variance = 69% 
• “Fun and Adventure” 
Mean = 4.44/5.00 
• “Enhanced Learning” 
Mean = 3.70/5.00 
• ‘To Escape” 
Mean = 3.19/5.00
Results: Lingering Questions 
Phase 1 
Lingering Questions 
• Unexpected results 
• 60% variance 
• Factor groups did not corroborate with literature 
• New dimensions 
• Language, meanings, ideas? 
Next Steps 
• Continue Literature Review 
• Focus Groups
What do the Results Suggest? 
Students prefer novel travel experiences 
opposed to strict academic experiences.
What do the Results Suggest? 
Research in Travel and Tourism (novelty, play, 
liminality) suggest there are useful theories, 
paradigms, and conceptual frameworks that could 
be useful in education abroad.
What do the Results Suggest? 
A Dewey, Zull , and Falk all approach to developing 
education abroad programs would be beneficial to the 
development of education abroad programs: 
• Play is (can be) an educative process 
• Is there anything we can learn from “vacation” 
• Learn more about what students bring into the program 
(Inputs)
Next Steps 
Phase 1 
1. Revise the questionnaire based on focus 
feedback 
2. Add learning styles 
3. Consider other inputs: emotional development? 
4. Administer a second pilot for the instrument 
5. Identify relationships between the variables and 
type of program selected
Thank You 
Contact Info 
Kristin Thomas 
KLT16@psu.edu 
Penn State 
University 
Janelle Papay 
jpapay@elon.edu 
Elon University 
For references of citations please contact Kristin Thomas
References 
Allen, H. W. (2009). What Shapes Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences? A Comparative Case Study of 
Students' Motives and Goals. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(5), 452-470. doi: 
10.1177/1028315309334739 
Anderson, B. D. (2007). Students in a global village: The nexus of choice, expectation, and experience in study 
abroad: ProQuest. 
Assaker, G., Vinzi, V. E., & O’Connor, P. (2011). Examining the effect of novelty seeking, satisfaction, and 
destination image on tourists’ return pattern: A two factor, non-linear latent growth model. Tourism 
Management, 32(4), 890-901. 
Cardon, P. W., Marshall, B., & Poddar, A. (2011). Using typologies to interpret study abroad preferences of 
American business students: Applying a tourism framework to international education. Journal of 
Education for Business, 86(2), 111-118. 
Cohen, E. (1985). Tourism as Play. Religion, 15(3), 291-304. 
Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408-424. 
Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: Simon & Brown. 
Dewey, J. (2007). Experience and education: Simon and Schuster. 
Dunn, R., & Griggs, S. (2000). Practical appraoches to using learning styles in higher education: The How-to 
Steps. In R. Dunn, Griggs,Shirley (Ed.), Practical Appraoches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education 
(pp. 20-32). CT: Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group.
References 
Dunn, R., & Griggs, S. (2000). Practical appraoches to using learning styles in higher education: The How-to 
Steps. In R. Dunn, Griggs,Shirley (Ed.), Practical Appraoches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education 
(pp. 20-32). CT: Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group. 
Falk, J. H., Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Benckendorff, P. (2012). Travel and learning: A neglected tourism 
research area. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 908-927. 
Falk, J. H., Martin, W. W., & Balling, J. D. (1978). The novel field‐trip phenomenon: Adjustment to novel 
settings interferes with task learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 15(2), 127-134. 
Godbey, G., Crawford, D. W., & Shen, X. S. (2010). Assessing hierarchical leisure constraints theory after two 
decades. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(1), 111-134. 
Gottlieb, A. (1982). Americans' vacations. Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2), 165-187. 
Hall, C., Michael, & Weiler, B. (1992). What's special about special interest tourism? In C. Hall, Michael, 
Weiler, Betty (Ed.), Special interest tourism (pp. 1-15). Londno: Belhaven Press. 
Lee, T.-H., & Crompton, J. (1992). Measuring novelty seeking in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 19, 732- 
751. 
Naffziger, D., W., Bott, J., P., & Mueller, C., B. (2008). Factors influencing study abroad: Decisions among 
college of business students. Innternational Business: Research Teaching and Practice, 2(1), 39-51. 
Nyaupane, G., Paris, C. M., & Teye, V. (2011). Study abroad motivations, destination selection and pre-trip 
attitude formation. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13, 205-217. doi: 10.1002/jtr.811
References 
Nyaupane, G., Paris, C. M., & Teye, V. (2011). Study abroad motivations, destination selection and pre-trip 
attitude formation. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13, 205-217. doi: 10.1002/jtr.811 
Pritchard, A., Morgan, N., & Ateljevic, I. (2011). Hopeful tourism: A new transformative perspective. Annals of 
Tourism Research, 38(3), 941-963. 
Relyea, C., Cocchiara, F. K., & Studdard, N. L. (2008). The Effect of Perceived Value in the Decision to 
Participate in Study Abroad Programs. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 19(4), 346-361. doi: 
10.1080/08975930802427551 
Ritchie, B. (2003). Managing educational tourism. In C. Cooper, C. Hall, Michael, Dr. & D. Timothy, Dr. (Series 
Eds.), Aspects of Tourism, 
Sanchez, C., Fornerino, M., & Zhang, M. (2006). Motivations and the intent to study abroad among U.S., 
French, and Chinese students. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 18(1), 27. doi: 
10.1300/J066v18n01_03 
Sutton, R., C., Miller, A., N., & Rubin, D., L. (2007). Research design in assessing learning outcomes of 
education abroad programs. In M. Bollen, C. (Ed.), A guide to outcomes assessment (pp. 23-59). 
Lancaster, PA: Forum on Education Abroad. 
Van Tine, R. E. (2011). Liminality and the short term study abroad experience. University of Illinois at Urbana- 
Champaign.
References 
Vande Berg, M., Paige, M., & Lou, K. H. (2012). Student learning abroad: What our students are learning, 
what they are not, and what we can do about it: Stylus Publishing. 
Woolf, M. (2006). Come and see the poor people: the pursuit of exotica. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary 
Journal on StudyAbroad, XII, 135-146. 
Zull, J. (2012). The brain, learning, and study abroad. In M. Vande Berg, M. Paige & K. H. Lou (Eds.), Student 
Learning Abroad: what our students are learning, what they're not, and what we can do about it. 
Virgina: Stylus Publishing.

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Two Unlikely Characters: Can Education Abroad and Tourism Mix?

  • 1. Two Unlikely Characters: Can Education Abroad and Tourism Mix? Kristin Thomas, Ph.D Candidate, Penn State University Janelle Papay, International Programs Advisor, Elon University Dr. Deborah Kerstetter, Penn State University
  • 2. Collective Knowledge Student Development/Affairs & Higher Ed. Administration Education Abroad & Embedded Programs International Student Integration Experiential Learning & Recreation Travel & Tourism Research
  • 3. The Plan Gaps in the literature Commonalities between tourism and education abroad A collaborative framework Phase 1: The pilot Results: Next Steps
  • 4. What we hear students saying… Go to another country Have fun I just want to have fun in another country Meet new people Don’t care about the classes I love to travel!
  • 5. Gaps in the Literature – Travel/Tourism & EA Analysis of EA using conceptual frameworks from travel/tourism • Cardon, 2011 • Anderson, 2007 • Josephine, 2013 Studies mixing tourism and EA • Nyaupane, 2011 • Van Time, 2011 Tourism on EA
  • 6. Gaps in the Literature – Motivations in EA Analysis of motivations in Education Abroad • Naffziger, Bott, Mueller, 2004 • Sanchez, 2006 • Relyea, 2008 Outside Education Abroad • Li & Olsen, 2013 •Willis Allen, 2010 Inside Education Abroad
  • 7. Little consideration for the role travel may play in a meaningful education abroad experience Education Abroad Traveler/ Tourist
  • 8. Why care about the student as traveler/tourist? Activity!!
  • 9. The views of some from Education Abroad “…absent data regarding learning outcomes, some critics have contended that short-term study abroad programs are at best tourism with a class course number attached.. (Sutton et al, 2007).” There are many problems associated with the objective of “non-traditional-ism” and one of particular concern is that it defines study aboard too readily in the language of tourism. (Woolf, 2006) "Finding support for both hypothesis, we suggest universities need to do a better job to ensure that students understand that study abroad programs are more than just a chance to travel and have a good time.“ (Relyea, 2008)
  • 10. What do Travel/Tourism scholars know? Studies and research on: Constraints Liminality King or Queen for a day Behaviors and repeat travel behaviors Novelty
  • 11. Tourism Scholars on Travel & Tourism Definitions “Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes.” “Tourists any person on a trip between two or more countries or two more localities within his/her country or usual residence. Typically described as visitors. So what’s the problem?
  • 12.
  • 14. Developments in Tourism • Hopeful Tourism • Sustainable Tourism • Social Justice Tourism • Pro-Poor Tourism Frameworks • Alternative Tourism • Eco Tourism • Green Tourism • Community Tourism Applied
  • 15. Are Tourism & Education Abroad Incompatible? Shared Goals • Culturally and Environmentally Sensitive • Community Involvement Shared Aspirations • Tool for Peace Making • Social & Environmental Justice Shared Frustrations • Informed & Respectful Tourist/Traveler
  • 16. Connecting Theoretical & Conceptual Frameworks • Cohen (1985) • Lee & Crompton (1992) • Dewey (1916) • Kolb (1984) or Dunn (2000) • Ritchie, 2003 • Weiler, 1992 • Vande Berg, Paige, Lou (2010) • Zull (2010) Interventions Educative Travel Travel As Play and Novelty Play & Education Experiential
  • 17. Shaken Not Stirred: The Pilot Study
  • 18. Conceptual Framework Astin’s Input-Environment-Output (IEO) Model Output Environment Input
  • 19. CONCEPTUAL MODEL Phase 1 Bean and Eaton’s Psychological Model of college Student Retention (2000)
  • 20. Inputs: Motivation Motivated by… Novelty Seeking in Travel Academics (Deci & Ryan, 2008)(Ryan & Deci, 2000)(Vallerand et al., 1992)
  • 21. Correspondence Inference Theory Target-based Expectancies Category-based Expectancies Cultural Feeling Rules Inputs: Expectations Jones and McGillis (1976) and Hochschild (1979), in Wilson, Lisle, Kraft, & Wetzel, 1989
  • 22. Pilot Study Purpose To pilot an instrument that determines students’ motivations for and expectations of their education abroad experience.
  • 23. Research Questions RQ1: What are students’ expectations for their education abroad experience? RQ1a:Do students expect travel and tourism to be part of their education abroad experience? RQ2: What are students’ motivations for their education abroad experience? RQ2a: Are students motivated by the opportunity to travel during their education abroad experience?
  • 24. Population • 633 students participating in an education abroad program in spring 2014 Research design • PSU Education Abroad advisers sent intro email • I followed up with an email and link to the survey • Internet-based questionnaire: Survey Gizmo • Motivation and expectation items based on a review of the travel and education abroad literature • Background information collected on college, major, gender, age, and past experience with study abroad. Method
  • 25. Results Response • Response: 231 • Completed: 169 • 27% response rate Data Analysis • Principle Factor Analysis (PCA) • Varimax rotation • 27 expectation items • 33 motivation items
  • 26. Results: Expectations RQ1: What are students’ expectations for their educational experience abroad? 6 Factors • Being a tourist • Pleasurable weekends • Experience buying local • Enhanced learning • Testing and assignments • Experience the local community
  • 27. Results: Expectations RQ1a: Do students expect travel and tourism to be part of their education abroad experience? • Reliabilities ranged from .58 to .75 • Cumulative variance = 60% • “Being a tourist” Mean = 4.82/5.00 • “Enhanced Learning” Mean = 3.29/5.00
  • 28. Results: Motivations RQ2: What are students’ motivations for their educational experience abroad? 8 Factors 1. Fun and adventure 2. Travel & New Experiences 3. Enhanced learning 4. Learning a language 5. Proof of achievement 6. To Escape 7. Self Development and satisfaction 8. Earn academic credit
  • 29. Results: Motivations RQ2a: Are students motivated by the opportunity to travel during their educational experience abroad? • Reliabilities ranged from .74 to .92 • Cumulative variance = 69% • “Fun and Adventure” Mean = 4.44/5.00 • “Enhanced Learning” Mean = 3.70/5.00 • ‘To Escape” Mean = 3.19/5.00
  • 30. Results: Lingering Questions Phase 1 Lingering Questions • Unexpected results • 60% variance • Factor groups did not corroborate with literature • New dimensions • Language, meanings, ideas? Next Steps • Continue Literature Review • Focus Groups
  • 31. What do the Results Suggest? Students prefer novel travel experiences opposed to strict academic experiences.
  • 32. What do the Results Suggest? Research in Travel and Tourism (novelty, play, liminality) suggest there are useful theories, paradigms, and conceptual frameworks that could be useful in education abroad.
  • 33. What do the Results Suggest? A Dewey, Zull , and Falk all approach to developing education abroad programs would be beneficial to the development of education abroad programs: • Play is (can be) an educative process • Is there anything we can learn from “vacation” • Learn more about what students bring into the program (Inputs)
  • 34. Next Steps Phase 1 1. Revise the questionnaire based on focus feedback 2. Add learning styles 3. Consider other inputs: emotional development? 4. Administer a second pilot for the instrument 5. Identify relationships between the variables and type of program selected
  • 35. Thank You Contact Info Kristin Thomas KLT16@psu.edu Penn State University Janelle Papay jpapay@elon.edu Elon University For references of citations please contact Kristin Thomas
  • 36. References Allen, H. W. (2009). What Shapes Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences? A Comparative Case Study of Students' Motives and Goals. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(5), 452-470. doi: 10.1177/1028315309334739 Anderson, B. D. (2007). Students in a global village: The nexus of choice, expectation, and experience in study abroad: ProQuest. Assaker, G., Vinzi, V. E., & O’Connor, P. (2011). Examining the effect of novelty seeking, satisfaction, and destination image on tourists’ return pattern: A two factor, non-linear latent growth model. Tourism Management, 32(4), 890-901. Cardon, P. W., Marshall, B., & Poddar, A. (2011). Using typologies to interpret study abroad preferences of American business students: Applying a tourism framework to international education. Journal of Education for Business, 86(2), 111-118. Cohen, E. (1985). Tourism as Play. Religion, 15(3), 291-304. Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408-424. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: Simon & Brown. Dewey, J. (2007). Experience and education: Simon and Schuster. Dunn, R., & Griggs, S. (2000). Practical appraoches to using learning styles in higher education: The How-to Steps. In R. Dunn, Griggs,Shirley (Ed.), Practical Appraoches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education (pp. 20-32). CT: Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • 37. References Dunn, R., & Griggs, S. (2000). Practical appraoches to using learning styles in higher education: The How-to Steps. In R. Dunn, Griggs,Shirley (Ed.), Practical Appraoches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education (pp. 20-32). CT: Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group. Falk, J. H., Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Benckendorff, P. (2012). Travel and learning: A neglected tourism research area. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 908-927. Falk, J. H., Martin, W. W., & Balling, J. D. (1978). The novel field‐trip phenomenon: Adjustment to novel settings interferes with task learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 15(2), 127-134. Godbey, G., Crawford, D. W., & Shen, X. S. (2010). Assessing hierarchical leisure constraints theory after two decades. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(1), 111-134. Gottlieb, A. (1982). Americans' vacations. Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2), 165-187. Hall, C., Michael, & Weiler, B. (1992). What's special about special interest tourism? In C. Hall, Michael, Weiler, Betty (Ed.), Special interest tourism (pp. 1-15). Londno: Belhaven Press. Lee, T.-H., & Crompton, J. (1992). Measuring novelty seeking in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 19, 732- 751. Naffziger, D., W., Bott, J., P., & Mueller, C., B. (2008). Factors influencing study abroad: Decisions among college of business students. Innternational Business: Research Teaching and Practice, 2(1), 39-51. Nyaupane, G., Paris, C. M., & Teye, V. (2011). Study abroad motivations, destination selection and pre-trip attitude formation. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13, 205-217. doi: 10.1002/jtr.811
  • 38. References Nyaupane, G., Paris, C. M., & Teye, V. (2011). Study abroad motivations, destination selection and pre-trip attitude formation. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13, 205-217. doi: 10.1002/jtr.811 Pritchard, A., Morgan, N., & Ateljevic, I. (2011). Hopeful tourism: A new transformative perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(3), 941-963. Relyea, C., Cocchiara, F. K., & Studdard, N. L. (2008). The Effect of Perceived Value in the Decision to Participate in Study Abroad Programs. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 19(4), 346-361. doi: 10.1080/08975930802427551 Ritchie, B. (2003). Managing educational tourism. In C. Cooper, C. Hall, Michael, Dr. & D. Timothy, Dr. (Series Eds.), Aspects of Tourism, Sanchez, C., Fornerino, M., & Zhang, M. (2006). Motivations and the intent to study abroad among U.S., French, and Chinese students. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 18(1), 27. doi: 10.1300/J066v18n01_03 Sutton, R., C., Miller, A., N., & Rubin, D., L. (2007). Research design in assessing learning outcomes of education abroad programs. In M. Bollen, C. (Ed.), A guide to outcomes assessment (pp. 23-59). Lancaster, PA: Forum on Education Abroad. Van Tine, R. E. (2011). Liminality and the short term study abroad experience. University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign.
  • 39. References Vande Berg, M., Paige, M., & Lou, K. H. (2012). Student learning abroad: What our students are learning, what they are not, and what we can do about it: Stylus Publishing. Woolf, M. (2006). Come and see the poor people: the pursuit of exotica. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal on StudyAbroad, XII, 135-146. Zull, J. (2012). The brain, learning, and study abroad. In M. Vande Berg, M. Paige & K. H. Lou (Eds.), Student Learning Abroad: what our students are learning, what they're not, and what we can do about it. Virgina: Stylus Publishing.

Editor's Notes

  1. Name and role Masters in Ed leadership in student affairs in higher ed Global Engagement Coordinator: promotion and outreach for education abroad, program development for US and international student integration; I created the Global Engagement and Leadership Experience at Penn State I’ve worked with a faculty member on developing co-leading short-term embedded program for the last four years on developing curriculum for an embedded program for first year students to Jamaica Explain who Deb is.
  2. Jp/kt Anecdotally, we’ve heard students say: Which supports the research of Sanchez and Nauaypane. That students are interested in the non-academic piece. Now keep in mind, we are not saying throw the academic piece out the window. At this point, we are sharing an observation. So given this information and our ah-ha moment. What is beneath this? What are travel and tourism scholars researching that can help shed light on what has the attention of our students when they get on an airplane?
  3. Jp (Should I go into great detail, or just kind of fly by?) Studies mixing tourism and EA—discipline specific, seems to be in areas where faculty are becoming more creative in their approach to EA. Cardon (Business EA) Anderson dissertation Josephine (Hospitality on EA) Tourism talking about EA—If it seems obvious that tourism would talk about EA, why not the other way around? Nyaupane Van Time Honorable mentions Sanchez Zull The leading journal in education abroad, the Frontiers do not include in articles mentioning any travel and tourism frameworks (check JEL and others) Analysis of EA using travel and tourism concepts have been outside the EA conversation and equally few, but fairly recent.
  4. Jp (I wasn’t quite sure how to divide this information Motivations in Education Abroad Naffig… (Biz lit) Li & Olsen Willis Allen Sanchez Relyea (expectancy & risk, part of novelty, a motivation) The leading journal in education abroad, the Frontiers do not include in articles mentioning any travel and tourism frameworks (check JEL and others) Analysis of EA using travel and tourism concepts have been outside the EA conversation and equally few, but fairly recent.
  5. jp Despite what we’ve all known to be true Despite what U.S. students are saying about their education abroad experience Researchers, faculty, and staff have not considered or accounted for the role travel may play in a meaningful education abroad experience
  6. activity
  7. Kt It is not that we do not understand what they mean. This sort of view or division sets up silos. It states that clearly tourism or some sort of travel for is something dichotomous to education abroad. I think this underlying mindset has kept us away from some important research that could be potentially very insightful and useful to anyone involved in education abroad.
  8. KT In general, there is much there is much we can learn from travel and tourism scholars. Some research topics have been: Constraints, which we term as barriers…have we explored this, could constraints theory help us increase education abroad #s Liminality –behavior and thinking in a temporary “in between reality” King/Queen for a day - Novelty Behaviors Repeat travel behaviors All of these themes could shed light on education abroad participant behaviors and mentality
  9. So what is tourism? Defining tourism is tedious and difficult. According to Goeldner and Ritchie, the problem is not trivial, and attempts have been made over the decades by scholars and organizations like the United Nations. The United Nations World Tourism Organization defines tourism and tourist as: But these definitions are not the problem. It is clear that education abroad fit into the parameter of these definitions So what is the problem?
  10. To be specific, I do not mean mass tourism itself, although it could be a problem. More specifically, I mean the views, perspectives, and connotations associated with mass tourism. Identify some characteristics of mass tourism:
  11. A new identity emerged, a traveler as opposed to a tourist, both in academia and popular understanding. A traveler is (QUOTE NEW ARTICLE, Week (2012). Naturally, because education abroad involves travel for students, the conflict embedded in this dichotomy exist within the education abroad context, although not spoken in the same disciplinary parlance. The debates are intensified by the need to assess academic learned outcomes. Administrators and governing bodies’ attention on formal educational travel increases the pressure for education abroad (EA) practitioners and faculty members to prove that EA is more than a hedonic tourist venture under the guise of an educational experience. “Tourist themselves have experienced a growing discomfort with mass tourism, catalyzed by the proliferation of stereotypes that depict tourists as demanding, ostentatious, and culturally insensitive. (Bowen and Clark in Weeks, 2012)
  12. (Ask the question to the audience?) Perhaps it’s like my sister and me when we were young, we share a lot of things, but I wouldn’t have necessarily called us compatible. Tourism and Education abroad share some of the same goals, aspirations and frustrations: Shared Goals: immersion and community involvement, cultural and environmental sensitivity Share Aspirations: Medium through which to build and improve cross-cultural relationships as well as empower individuals towards social and environmental justice Shared Frustrations: How many times have I reminded students to “make smart decisions?” There is surely a shared frustration with lack of respect and consideration amongst participants. Shared Outcomes: Standards of Good Practice: FORUM 4 learning outcomes Intercultural Understanding Language and intercultural communication skills Academic growth Student development (e.g. leadership skills, service orientation, maturity, tolerance for ambiguity) NAFSA concept of “Global Learning” Questions of social justice, interconnections, power, and privilege. Attention to such issues makes global learning closely related to diversity work as well as civic engagement work.
  13. This is what we looked that gave us the conceptual and theoretical frameworks to move forward with considering the partnership between Travel & Tourism and Education Abroad. Educative Travel – What can formal (credit-bearing) and informal educational travel learn from one another? Interventions on Education Abroad Vande Berg – we need to consider a paradigm shift in Ed abroad (he didn’t suggest tourism, I’m suggesting travel and tourism as a lens), interventions Zull – suggestion looking at what travel experiences student bring to the EA program, and asking is there something we can learn from travel or vacation travel Which overlaps with Dewey Play & Education and Experiential Education – who discusses considering what a student brings into the educational environment and overlaps with scholars like Kolb and Dunn in experiential learning, and the need for active, engaged, participatory learning Dewey also emphasizes the importance for play in education, for adults, this may be work, but work/education should not be dichotomous Lastly Travel as Play and Novelty Seeking Travel
  14. At this point, what have we done or talked about Gaps in the Literature Commonalities between Tourism and Ed Abroad? We are not saying that we should become travel agents and cater to every whim of the students, what I am saying is what can we learn fromT & T that will help optimize the SA experience. What are the travel scholars said happens during that liminal space when the student is traveling?
  15. jp Why I chose these three I
  16. In phase I Focus on an instrument to identify expectations and motivations for travel and academics Which will be the focus of this discussion After selecting or writing the items that are valid and reliable, will add learning styles. Also considering “emotional development” as a input variable, based on Zull’s connection between cognitive, emotion and learning. Lastly, we will review results to determine if certain types of students are attracted to certain types of programs. For now however, the focus is on expectations and motivation
  17. Novelty of Travel and academics are the two main dimensions of motivation at which I was looking Novelty is touted by Berlyne as being the curator of creativity, innovation, and imagination Zull stated that during novel experience is when the brain is most engaged and primed for learning The travel experience is novel in and of itself…and are we taking advantage of this. Novel according to Lee & Crompton include Thrill seeking Alleaviate boredom Change or routine/escape Surprise Then Academics. Academics is not considered on the travel side and these two need to be considered together to address the overlap in the Vinn diagram
  18. Quotes from Wilson, Lisle, Kraft & Wetzel (1989) Target-based Expectancy - which are expectations based on one's own previous reactions to stimulus. Thus, a person may expect like the new Woody Allen film because he or she has liked all the previous ones. Category-based Expectancy - category-based expectancies, which are based on people's knowledge of how others reacted to a stimulus. Thus, a person may never have seen a Woody Allen film but expect to like the new one because all of his or her friends said they enjoyed it Cultural Feeling Rules. These are cultural norms dictating how people expect to feel in different social situations (e.g. happy at weddings and sad at funerals)
  19. My goal is to bridge the gap within the literature. To open the door for EA researchers and practitioners to look to the Travel researchers and vice versa. Specifically, the purpose of this pilot study was to determine the importance of travel and education to the education abroad experience (NOTE TO DEB: I realize the proposal said “decision to study abroad” I did not catch that. One of the specifications I had early on was not to look at students decision “to” study abroad, that has been researched a lot, but to look at their travel behaviors (which we decided is influenced by expectations and motivations). The wording on the instrument is below. Instrument: Please indicate to what extent you feel that each item represents an expectation you have for your study abroad experience using a scale from 1 (Not at All) to 5 (Definitely). We selected expectations and motivations as the two variables to begin our exploratory study because we support the concept that expectations and motivations influence behavior and decision making (FIND A SOURCE)
  20. To try to get at expectations and motivations (novelty and academic) I asked two main questions with 1 sub question each. RQ1 What are students’ expectations for their educational experience abroad? RQ1a Do students expect travel and tourism to be part of their study abroad experience? RQ2 What are students’ motivations for their educational experience abroad? RQ2a To what extent are students motivated by the opportunity to travel during their educational experience abroad?
  21. Bullet statements Pull from the proposal Exploratory at Penn State Questionnaire created after extensive review of travel and education literature 3 expectations, motivations, student background All items pulled from the Lit (talk through the process) Explain expectations and motivations (just a sentence nothing long) 633 confirmed / expected to study abroad sp 2014 Email sent, giving the access to the online questionnaire Email sent by adviser, then me to increase chances
  22. 169 students completed the survey 27% response rate State that they were representative the typical study abroad population (female, age..etc) (fits best on other slide) Principle Factor analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was used to determine relationships among the 27 expect items 33 motivation items
  23. Have a hand out with the expectation & motivation items on the back On the Slide (Reference pg 7) 6 factors emerged from the data being a tourist, pleasurable weekends, experiences buying local, enhanced learning testing, and assignments, and experience the local community. There were three striking outcomes the first was the strength of factor 1, being a tourist. It has the strongest reliability evidenced by a Chronbach’s alpha of .75. The M of the factor grouping is 4.82 on a 5-point Likert scale meaning students were in high agreement that tourist activities is an important component or expectation while on education abroad. Second, the significant drop in eigenvalue and percentage of variance explained with the remaining factors, however, mean values continued to run high or in the mid-range per factor. There will be more discussion on this later. Lastly, the cumulative variance was 60.147 which means that the instrument captured or explained only 60% of the phenomenon in question <END NOTES WITH DEB 3/27/2014>
  24. Question for Deb 4/1/2014 Triple checking my understanding: In terms of saying “least important” we’re saying the one that had the lowest eigenvalue, meaning it did not group very well? It explained only 4.57% There were three striking outcomes the first was the strength of factor 1, being a tourist. It has the strongest reliability evidenced by a Chronbach’s alpha of .75. The M of the factor grouping is 4.82 on a 5-point Likert scale meaning students were in high agreement that tourist activities is an important component or expectation while on education abroad. Second, the significant drop in eigenvalue and percentage of variance explained with the remaining factors, however, mean values continued to run high or in the mid-range per factor. There will be more discussion on this later. Lastly, the cumulative variance was 60.147 which means that the instrument captured or explained only 60% of the phenomenon in question
  25. Question for Deb 4/1/2014 I was not sure if we should include the last factor. I believe we thought it had no face value. We did not believe the two items grouped well. “to better learn about human civilization” “to help be able to work in another country in the future” Duplicate expectations slides with motivation info The nine factor groupings emerged from the data for motivations: fun and adventure, pleasurable weekends, experience and buy local, enhanced learning, testing and assignments, and experience the local community, self-development, earn academic credit and _____ (Table 2) <END NOTES WITH DEB 3/27/2014>
  26. Deb: based on what we choose (face value of 9th factor) data will change on this slide to: Range .63 to .92 Least important factor “Unnamed” with a mean of 3.82/5.00 Do what you for previous slide A particularly notable outcome is the low eigenvalues for self-development, academic credit and _____. Second, similar to expectations, there is a significant drop in the eigenvalue and percentage variance between factor one, fun and adventure, and the remaining factors.
  27. So what Although previously tested items were used in this study with similar groupings, the factor analysis did not result in the same factors produced by previous researchers. Factor groupings did not corroborate, factor groupings that we did not understand Because they were not studying study abroad, we knew it would not be perfect, but we did expect that it would be more closely related We had to modify so maybe that is why responses did not turn out the way we expected (concerned with the wording)
  28. Research in Travel and tourism on novelty, travel as play, constraints, liminality that suggest there is useful theories, paradigms and conceptual frameworks that describe traveler/tourist behavior that are or could be useful for in education abroad. Results of the questionnaire strongly suggest that students are more interested in the travel and tourism components of education abroad as opposed to the pure academic component (depending on the program) Thomas and Papay suggest taking a Dewey and Zull approach Dewey- incorporating play as a means to education, content learning, knowledge building. Zull proposed the question "if we accept nature's message that cognition and emotion go together...we may need to ask questions such as 'Is anything learned on a vacation? or 'What might students learn at a party--academically?“ – not to say that education abroad is a vacation, but what can we learn from a fun experience? Berlyne espouses that novelty ___ innovation, curiousity, Taking Dewey, Zull and the work in Travel and Tourism on travel & tourist behavior, into consideration
  29. Research in Travel and tourism on novelty, travel as play, constraints, liminality that suggest there is useful theories, paradigms and conceptual frameworks that describe traveler/tourist behavior that are or could be useful for in education abroad. Results of the questionnaire strongly suggest that students are more interested in the travel and tourism components of education abroad as opposed to the pure academic component (depending on the program) Thomas and Papay suggest taking a Dewey and Zull approach Dewey- incorporating play as a means to education, content learning, knowledge building. Zull proposed the question "if we accept nature's message that cognition and emotion go together...we may need to ask questions such as 'Is anything learned on a vacation? or 'What might students learn at a party--academically?“ – not to say that education abroad is a vacation, but what can we learn from a fun experience? Berlyne espouses that novelty ___ innovation, curiousity, Taking Dewey, Zull and the work in Travel and Tourism on travel & tourist behavior, into consideration
  30. Research in Travel and tourism on novelty, travel as play, constraints, liminality that suggest there is useful theories, paradigms and conceptual frameworks that describe traveler/tourist behavior that are or could be useful for in education abroad. Results of the questionnaire strongly suggest that students are more interested in the travel and tourism components of education abroad as opposed to the pure academic component (depending on the program) Thomas and Papay suggest taking a Dewey and Zull approach Dewey- incorporating play as a means to education, content learning, knowledge building. Zull proposed the question "if we accept nature's message that cognition and emotion go together...we may need to ask questions such as 'Is anything learned on a vacation? or 'What might students learn at a party--academically?“ – not to say that education abroad is a vacation, but what can we learn from a fun experience? Berlyne espouses that novelty ___ innovation, curiousity, Taking Dewey, Zull and the work in Travel and Tourism on travel & tourist behavior, into consideration
  31. Kate questions Shows what we know and building a framework At what point do we say that you want to travel, the real priority is your academic experience Not clear from the beginning that I was leading up to the pilot study** want to know earlier on about the pilot