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KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE: USING PRE-EXISTING NORMS TO
OVERCOME CURRICULAR AND CULTURAL BARRIERS TO
STUDY ABROAD FOR BUSINESS STU...
Introductions
2
 Presenters
 Bill Burress, Associate Director of Study Abroad, Elon University
 Dr. Karleigh Koster, As...
3
4
5
Rationale & Goals
6
 Why did we propose this session?
 We have certain perceptions of student behavior; do our perceptio...
7
Literature Review
8
Paper Takeaway
Sánchez, Fornerino, and Zhang (2006) US students more likely to study abroad for pleasu...
Research Project
9
 Comparative between two very different institutions
 Graduating seniors in Elon LSB and IU KSB
 Sur...
Survey Background
 Administered through Qualtrics
 Multi-institution
 Indiana University- Kelley School of Business (la...
Questions
11
 Demographics:
- Origin, ethnicity, gender identity
- Institution, GPA(truncated), major(s) business or non-...
RESULTS
Summary Statistics
13
Sample Size
Number of STA Experiences
Gender
Ethnicity
Residency
GPA
Major
Program Type
14
Table Q10: Number of Study Abroad Experiences
# of STA All Elon IU
0 32.7% 14.8% 41.2%
1 46.2% 53.6% 42.7%
2 16.2% 23.5...
15
Table Q10: Duration
Duration All Elon IU
Short Term 45.3% 46.5% 44.4%
Long Term 54.7% 53.5% 55.6%
N 349 142 207
16
Table Q21: Residency
Residency All Elon IU
Out of State 78.8% 91.8% 72.3%
In-State 21.2% 8.2% 27.7%
N 569 183 386
17
Table Q16: Gender Identity
Gender All Elon IU
Male 50.4% 49.7% 50.8%
Female 49.0% 48.6% 49.2%
Prefer No Reponse 0.5% 1....
18
Table Q8: Ethnicity
Ethnicity All Elon IU
African American 1.4% 2.2% 1.0%
Asian 8.3% 1.6% 11.4%
Hispanic/Latino 1.1% 0....
19
Table Q20: GPA
GPA All Elon IU
3.5 or better 50.3% 47.0% 51.8%
3.0-3.49 43.2% 43.7% 43.0%
2.5-2.99 5.6% 7.1% 4.9%
2.0-2...
20
Table Q22: Primary Major
Primary Major ALL Elon IU
ACC 16.2% 13.2% 17.6%
FIN 31.0% 34.1% 29.5%
ECO 6.0% 6.0% 6.0%
MKT 2...
WHY NOT STUDY ABROAD?
22
Table Q28 Factors For Not STA- All
Factors 1 2 3 4 5 1+2 4+5
Factor 1 4.68% 17.54% 9.94% 24.56% 43.27% 22.22% 67.84%
Fa...
Factors for Not Studying Abroad
23
 Important Factors
 I didn’t think my family could afford it (High)
 Enjoyed my home...
24
Table Q28 Difference in Factors For Not STA- Elon - IU
Factors 1 2 3 4 5 1+2 4+5
Factor 1 -0.2% 5.9% 4.2% -12.5% 2.5% 5...
Different Factors by Institution
25
 Important Factors
 Enjoyed my home campus and didn’t want to leave (IU)
 Didn’t pl...
WHY STUDY ABROAD?
27
Table Q31A Overall Factors for Study Abroad Program
Factor For STA 1 2 3 4 5 1 + 2 4+5
Factor 1 50.8% 29.8% 17.1% 0.8% ...
Factors for Studying Abroad
28
 Important Factors
 Courses allow degree progress
 Desire to visit this location
 Progr...
29
Table Q31F Difference Factors for Study Abroad Program between Elon- IU
Factor For STA 1 2 3 4 5 1 + 2 4+5
Factor 1 -10...
Difference in Factors by Institution
30
 Important Factors (IU)
 Courses allow degree progress
 Desire to study busines...
31
Table Q31G Difference Factors for Study Abroad Program between Short - Long Term
Factor For STA* 1 2 3 4 5 1 + 2 4+5
Fa...
Different Factors by Duration
32
 Important Factors (long-term except noted)
 Courses allow degree progress
 Desire to ...
STUDENT PROFILES
Student Profiles
34
Short-term Long-term
Tourers Location-driven; influenced by
word of mouth
Look for courses, location, ...
Student Profiles
35
 Interesting notes:
 Foreign language proficiency is not consistently seen by any student profile as...
Population & Limitations
36
 Survey skewed to those who did study abroad (68% of respondents)
 Survey is based on retros...
37
COLLABORATION
39
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Know Your Audience: Using Pre-existing Norms to Overcome Curricular and Cultural Barriers to Study Abroad for Business Students

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Understanding the target market of a study abroad program can help educators overcome cultural and curricular barriers to studying abroad. Partnerships between study abroad offices and faculty members can be instrumental in breaking down these barriers for business students. During this session, we'll combine the panelists’ experiences with original research to attempt to illuminate themes, including the disconnect between emerging markets and student study abroad choices, apathy toward language acquisition, perceptions of study abroad, and developing a culture of studying abroad. Participants are encouraged to bring their own success and challenges in order to create generalizable program design and outreach philosophies.

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Know Your Audience: Using Pre-existing Norms to Overcome Curricular and Cultural Barriers to Study Abroad for Business Students

  1. 1. KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE: USING PRE-EXISTING NORMS TO OVERCOME CURRICULAR AND CULTURAL BARRIERS TO STUDY ABROAD FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS Bill Burress, Karleigh Koster, Mark Kurt
  2. 2. Introductions 2  Presenters  Bill Burress, Associate Director of Study Abroad, Elon University  Dr. Karleigh Koster, Assistant Director for International Programs, Indiana University Kelley School of Business  Dr. Mark Kurt, Associate Professor of Economics, Elon University
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Rationale & Goals 6  Why did we propose this session?  We have certain perceptions of student behavior; do our perceptions match student behavior?  How can we use existing behavioral patterns to encourage better outcomes?  Session Goals  Exchange perspectives on distinct needs and challenges of business students  Examine related behavioral patterns to see how needs and challenges translate to participation  Collaborate to propose paths forward
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. Literature Review 8 Paper Takeaway Sánchez, Fornerino, and Zhang (2006) US students more likely to study abroad for pleasure than any other reason; students w/ less supportive families more likely to study abroad to learn a skill Toncar, Reid, and Anderson (2006) Business students more likely to insist on receiving credit, believe SA will enhance career prospects, & view working abroad as more valuable than classes Hackney, Boggs, and Borozan (2012) Examined factors that influence willingness to study abroad – prior experience is diff. b/w short & long Li, Olson, and Frieze (2013) Desire to study abroad is positively correlated w/ high neophilia, helping motivation (women) & achievement motivation (men) Pope, Sánchez, Lehnert (2014) Students in professional degree programs may study abroad for reasons that eliminate gender differences
  9. 9. Research Project 9  Comparative between two very different institutions  Graduating seniors in Elon LSB and IU KSB  Survey designed to illuminate:  Program selection habits of students who studied abroad  Barriers faced by students who didn’t study abroad  Demographic variables  Goal: create broad-based profiles of the types of students that pursue various opportunities in order to help ensure that program offerings and student needs are aligned
  10. 10. Survey Background  Administered through Qualtrics  Multi-institution  Indiana University- Kelley School of Business (large public)  Elon University- LSB (medium private)  Population: graduating senior business students  Question Types:  Demographics  Factors for Study Abroad  Factors Against Study Abroad
  11. 11. Questions 11  Demographics: - Origin, ethnicity, gender identity - Institution, GPA(truncated), major(s) business or non-business - Times studies abroad, program characteristics  Factors:  For and against studying abroad (See Handout)  5-point Likert Scale  Important for me- Indifferent - Important for me to avoid
  12. 12. RESULTS
  13. 13. Summary Statistics 13 Sample Size Number of STA Experiences Gender Ethnicity Residency GPA Major Program Type
  14. 14. 14 Table Q10: Number of Study Abroad Experiences # of STA All Elon IU 0 32.7% 14.8% 41.2% 1 46.2% 53.6% 42.7% 2 16.2% 23.5% 12.7% 3 3.5% 7.1% 1.8% 4 1.4% 1.1% 1.6% N 569 183 386
  15. 15. 15 Table Q10: Duration Duration All Elon IU Short Term 45.3% 46.5% 44.4% Long Term 54.7% 53.5% 55.6% N 349 142 207
  16. 16. 16 Table Q21: Residency Residency All Elon IU Out of State 78.8% 91.8% 72.3% In-State 21.2% 8.2% 27.7% N 569 183 386
  17. 17. 17 Table Q16: Gender Identity Gender All Elon IU Male 50.4% 49.7% 50.8% Female 49.0% 48.6% 49.2% Prefer No Reponse 0.5% 1.6% 0.0% N 569 183 386
  18. 18. 18 Table Q8: Ethnicity Ethnicity All Elon IU African American 1.4% 2.2% 1.0% Asian 8.3% 1.6% 11.4% Hispanic/Latino 1.1% 0.6% 1.3% Caucasian 86.1% 90.2% 84.2% Two or more 0.5% 5.5% 1.0% Other 0.2% 0.0% 0.8% No Response 2.5% 0.0% 0.3% N 569 183 386
  19. 19. 19 Table Q20: GPA GPA All Elon IU 3.5 or better 50.3% 47.0% 51.8% 3.0-3.49 43.2% 43.7% 43.0% 2.5-2.99 5.6% 7.1% 4.9% 2.0-2.49 0.9% 2.2% 0.3% Total 569 183 386
  20. 20. 20 Table Q22: Primary Major Primary Major ALL Elon IU ACC 16.2% 13.2% 17.6% FIN 31.0% 34.1% 29.5% ECO 6.0% 6.0% 6.0% MKT 28.2% 22.5% 30.8% MGT 5.5% 10.4% 3.1% IB 3.9% 11.0% 0.5% ENT 2.8% 2.8% 2.9% Other 6.5% 0.0% 9.6% N 568 182 386
  21. 21. WHY NOT STUDY ABROAD?
  22. 22. 22 Table Q28 Factors For Not STA- All Factors 1 2 3 4 5 1+2 4+5 Factor 1 4.68% 17.54% 9.94% 24.56% 43.27% 22.22% 67.84% Factor 2 23.98% 30.99% 6.43% 18.13% 20.47% 54.97% 38.60% Factor 3 1.75% 3.51% 11.70% 30.41% 52.63% 5.26% 83.04% Factor 4 8.77% 14.04% 19.88% 16.96% 40.35% 22.81% 57.31% Factor 5 15.79% 33.33% 19.88% 19.30% 11.70% 49.12% 30.99% Factor 6 2.92% 10.53% 8.77% 23.98% 53.80% 13.45% 77.78% Factor 7 2.92% 11.70% 12.87% 27.49% 45.03% 14.62% 72.51% Factor 8 2.34% 10.53% 13.45% 32.16% 41.52% 12.87% 73.68% Factor 9 2.92% 20.47% 11.70% 19.88% 45.03% 23.39% 64.91% Factor 10 1.17% 4.68% 10.53% 32.16% 51.46% 5.85% 83.63% Factor 11 7.60% 18.13% 15.20% 30.41% 28.65% 25.73% 59.06% Factor 12 7.60% 19.30% 19.30% 26.90% 26.90% 26.90% 53.80% Factor 13 2.92% 18.71% 14.04% 30.99% 33.33% 21.64% 64.33% Factor 14 12.28% 22.22% 14.04% 18.13% 33.33% 34.50% 51.46% Factor 15 11.11% 19.30% 20.47% 22.81% 26.32% 30.41% 49.12% Factor 16 0.58% 5.26% 19.88% 35.09% 39.18% 5.85% 74.27% Factor 17 1.75% 5.85% 16.96% 28.07% 47.37% 7.60% 75.44% Factor 18 20.47% 31.58% 16.96% 15.79% 15.20% 52.05% 30.99% Factor 19 4.68% 8.77% 23.39% 33.33% 29.82% 13.45% 63.16% Factor 20 6.43% 12.28% 10.53% 16.37% 54.39% 18.71% 70.76% 30% Threshold 1+2 75% Threshold 4+5
  23. 23. Factors for Not Studying Abroad 23  Important Factors  I didn’t think my family could afford it (High)  Enjoyed my home campus and didn’t want to leave (High)  Thought a different type of experience would be more valuable (High)  Didn’t plan until too late  Couldn’t get classes that helped me graduate on time  Unimportant Factors  Wasn’t interested in the locations  Didn’t know anyone else studying abroad  Didn’t think it was safe  Couldn’t decide on a program
  24. 24. 24 Table Q28 Difference in Factors For Not STA- Elon - IU Factors 1 2 3 4 5 1+2 4+5 Factor 1 -0.2% 5.9% 4.2% -12.5% 2.5% 5.80% -10.04% Factor 2 -6.7% -4.3% -7.4% 10.5% 7.8% -10.92% 18.30% Factor 3 -2.0% 6.4% -8.2% 17.3% -13.5% 4.39% 3.81% Factor 4 -4.9% 10.0% -12.4% 1.4% 5.9% 5.13% 7.26% Factor 5 -2.5% -12.2% 18.9% 9.2% -13.4% -14.64% -4.27% Factor 6 -3.4% 3.6% 5.6% -6.7% 0.9% 0.21% -5.80% Factor 7 1.9% 2.2% 0.9% -10.7% 5.7% 4.09% -4.97% Factor 8 -2.7% 8.8% -5.0% -0.4% -0.7% 6.10% -1.10% Factor 9 -3.4% -2.6% 7.4% 8.5% -9.9% -5.98% -1.46% Factor 10 3.9% -5.4% 3.6% 15.3% -17.3% -1.49% -2.07% Factor 11 -3.5% -10.4% 8.6% 1.6% 3.6% -13.88% 5.25% Factor 12 1.7% -11.7% 19.6% -4.8% -4.8% -10.01% -9.58% Factor 13 -3.4% 4.6% -0.5% -4.3% 3.5% 1.25% -0.79% Factor 14 1.6% 21.4% -5.7% 0.1% -17.4% 23.00% -17.33% Factor 15 8.1% 3.9% 7.8% -0.1% -19.8% 12.05% -19.86% Factor 16 -0.7% -6.0% 8.5% 17.1% -18.9% -6.71% -1.77% Factor 17 -2.0% 8.9% 17.1% 4.3% -28.3% 6.92% -23.98% Factor 18 2.6% -4.9% 6.6% 8.0% -12.2% -2.35% -4.27% Factor 19 -0.2% 0.4% 4.5% 13.9% -18.6% 0.21% -4.67% Factor 20 3.1% -3.7% 8.8% -8.4% 0.2% -0.61% -8.18% 14.5% Threshold 1+2 14.5% Threshold 4+5 Note: Negative value means that IU participants found this more important
  25. 25. Different Factors by Institution 25  Important Factors  Enjoyed my home campus and didn’t want to leave (IU)  Didn’t plan until too late (Elon)  Unimportant Factors  I didn’t think my family could afford it (Elon)  Didn’t plan until too late (IU)  Couldn’t get classes that helped me graduate on time (IU)  Couldn’t decide on a program (IU)
  26. 26. WHY STUDY ABROAD?
  27. 27. 27 Table Q31A Overall Factors for Study Abroad Program Factor For STA 1 2 3 4 5 1 + 2 4+5 Factor 1 50.8% 29.8% 17.1% 0.8% 1.4% 80.7% 2.21% Factor 2 29.6% 32.6% 32.9% 1.9% 3.0% 62.2% 4.97% Factor 3 39.0% 36.5% 20.2% 3.3% 1.1% 75.4% 4.42% Factor 4 48.9% 33.7% 13.0% 2.8% 1.7% 82.6% 4.42% Factor 5 40.1% 31.2% 25.1% 2.5% 1.1% 71.3% 3.59% Factor 6 14.4% 16.3% 41.2% 17.1% 11.0% 30.7% 28.18% Factor 7 15.2% 29.0% 31.2% 15.2% 9.4% 44.2% 24.59% Factor 8 48.6% 32.6% 14.6% 2.2% 1.9% 81.2% 4.14% Factor 9 23.2% 35.1% 32.9% 6.6% 2.2% 58.3% 8.84% Factor 10 12.4% 19.6% 45.6% 17.7% 4.7% 32.0% 22.38% Factor 11 12.2% 32.6% 40.6% 9.4% 5.2% 44.8% 14.64% Factor 12 22.1% 43.1% 29.6% 4.4% 0.8% 65.2% 5.25% Factor 13 23.8% 34.8% 34.8% 4.4% 2.2% 58.6% 6.63% Factor 14 6.1% 14.9% 50.6% 14.6% 13.8% 21.0% 28.45% Factor 15 17.7% 13.8% 42.3% 16.6% 9.7% 31.5% 26.24% Factor 16 8.8% 22.1% 39.8% 17.1% 12.2% 30.9% 29.28% Factor 17 14.1% 32.9% 40.6% 6.9% 5.5% 47.0% 12.43% Factor 18 11.9% 28.2% 45.0% 7.7% 7.2% 40.1% 14.92% Factor 19 4.7% 19.1% 50.8% 16.3% 9.1% 23.8% 25.41% 70% Threshold 1+2 25% Threshold 4+5
  28. 28. Factors for Studying Abroad 28  Important Factors  Courses allow degree progress  Desire to visit this location  Program calendar worked well  Desire to study business  Desire to travel as much as possible  Avoidance Factors  Gain language proficiency  Travel with faculty member from home institution  Others from same social organization on same program  Do internship abroad
  29. 29. 29 Table Q31F Difference Factors for Study Abroad Program between Elon- IU Factor For STA 1 2 3 4 5 1 + 2 4+5 Factor 1 -10.52% -7.69% 17.43% 0.86% -0.08% -18.21% 0.78% Factor 2 -4.94% -6.71% 7.62% 3.53% 0.50% -11.65% 4.03% Factor 3 5.21% -6.48% 0.86% 0.03% 0.39% -1.28% 0.42% Factor 4 -14.05% 3.92% 8.57% -0.16% 1.72% -10.13% 1.56% Factor 5 -10.34% -20.29% 28.79% 2.58% -0.75% -30.63% 1.84% Factor 6 0.52% 0.63% 11.68% -6.48% -6.35% 1.14% -12.82% Factor 7 -7.73% -8.55% 15.00% -0.90% 2.18% -16.28% 1.28% Factor 8 -7.89% 3.53% 2.32% 0.78% 1.25% -4.35% 2.03% Factor 9 -8.89% -6.40% 16.72% -2.21% 0.78% -15.29% -1.43% Factor 10 -6.43% 0.66% 9.82% -6.28% 2.23% -5.77% -4.06% Factor 11 -2.54% -4.43% 3.52% -0.10% 3.56% -6.97% 3.46% Factor 12 -9.28% -12.11% 16.69% 3.84% 0.86% -21.39% 4.70% Factor 13 -6.42% -8.21% 12.28% 2.70% -0.36% -14.62% 2.34% Factor 14 1.01% 1.85% 4.75% -4.51% -3.09% 2.86% -7.60% Factor 15 0.55% -1.96% 12.07% -6.67% -3.99% -1.41% -10.66% Factor 16 1.98% -8.14% 14.04% -8.75% 0.87% -6.16% -7.88% Factor 17 2.13% -4.91% 6.93% -1.55% -2.60% -2.78% -4.15% Factor 18 -3.21% -5.99% 15.32% -5.24% -0.88% -9.20% -6.12% Factor 19 1.09% -2.95% 4.28% -0.51% -1.91% -1.86% -2.42% 14.5% Thershold 1+2 10% Threshold 4+5 Note: Negative value means that IU Participants found this factor more important
  30. 30. Difference in Factors by Institution 30  Important Factors (IU)  Courses allow degree progress  Desire to study business  English-speaking location  Program would look good on my resumé  Others from same social org on same program  Location relevant to career  Avoidance Factors (IU)  Gain language proficiency  Internship
  31. 31. 31 Table Q31G Difference Factors for Study Abroad Program between Short - Long Term Factor For STA* 1 2 3 4 5 1 + 2 4+5 Factor 1 -20.45% 5.80% 14.85% 0.74% -0.94% -14.65% -0.20% Factor 2 -10.39% 5.08% 5.08% -0.83% 1.07% -5.32% 0.24% Factor 3 -5.70% 9.73% -1.32% -2.92% 0.22% 4.03% -2.70% Factor 4 6.46% 4.03% -9.57% -0.09% -0.83% 10.49% -0.91% Factor 5 -10.96% -7.97% 19.43% 0.44% -0.94% -18.93% -0.50% Factor 6 -13.35% -5.67% 20.59% -4.92% 3.34% -19.01% -1.58% Factor 7 -6.82% -0.31% 22.62% -5.78% -9.71% -7.14% -15.48% Factor 8 -20.66% 6.01% 10.94% 5.06% -1.35% -14.65% 3.71% Factor 9 3.22% 4.47% -2.39% -4.58% -0.72% 7.68% -5.30% Factor 10 7.56% 6.14% -5.76% -7.65% -0.28% 13.70% -7.93% Factor 11 -1.70% -1.97% 2.61% 2.91% -1.85% -3.67% 1.05% Factor 12 0.80% 9.58% -10.61% 0.13% 0.11% 10.37% 0.24% Factor 13 3.33% -4.37% 0.36% 0.24% 0.44% -1.04% 0.68% Factor 14 10.45% 13.77% -0.68% -15.77% -7.78% 24.23% -23.55% Factor 15 -4.29% -5.47% 17.56% -6.08% -1.72% -9.76% -7.80% Factor 16 1.12% -5.51% 9.23% -5.45% 0.62% -4.39% -4.83% Factor 17 -8.42% -20.89% 25.11% 1.95% 2.25% -29.31% 4.20% Factor 18 -1.28% -19.97% 13.79% 5.52% 1.95% -21.26% 7.47% Factor 19 1.51% -10.79% 7.31% -3.77% 5.74% -9.28% 1.97% 14.5% Thershold 1+2 10% Thershold 4+5 Note: Negative value means that Long Term Participants found this factor more important
  32. 32. Different Factors by Duration 32  Important Factors (long-term except noted)  Courses allow degree progress  Desire to study business  Gain language proficiency  Desire to travel as much as possible  Travel with faculty member from home institution (short-term)  Friends/fellow org members abroad at same time on different programs  Avoidance Factors (long-term)  English-speaking location  Travel with faculty member from home institution
  33. 33. STUDENT PROFILES
  34. 34. Student Profiles 34 Short-term Long-term Tourers Location-driven; influenced by word of mouth Look for courses, location, travel opportunities; influenced by word of mouth, resumé & price Risk-averse Peers + faculty member participation very important; influenced by word of mouth Peers + faculty member participation, travel opps very important; influenced by word of mouth; less concerned w/ degree progress & resumé Pragmatists Interested in internship opportunities; price-sensitive Internship opportunities & price important; less concerned w/ friends, calendar, traveling
  35. 35. Student Profiles 35  Interesting notes:  Foreign language proficiency is not consistently seen by any student profile as important  Studying in emerging markets is positively correlated with resumé building and wanting to study abroad with a faculty member, but isn’t consistently seen by any student profile as important
  36. 36. Population & Limitations 36  Survey skewed to those who did study abroad (68% of respondents)  Survey is based on retrospective, self-reported data  How well can respondents capture the factors around a decision they made a year or more ago?  How well can respondents answer why they made a decision not to do something?
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. COLLABORATION
  39. 39. 39

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