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Intercultural Faculty Training for the Development of Innovative Global Initiatives

  1. INTERCULTURAL FACULTY TRAINING FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE GLOBAL INITIATIVES Francisco Frisuelos Krömer PhD, Resident Director CIEE Madrid Elsa Maxwell, PhD, Academic Director Intercultural Learning, CIEE Victor Betancourt Santiago, PhD Executive Director Marymount University Ann Lutterman-Aguilar PhD, Mexico Site Director, CGEE Augsburg College Leah Espinosa de la Vega PhD, Director of Global Initiatives, Augsburg College
  5. GLOBAL INITIATIVES 5 IT’S ALL ABOUT GOOD LEADERSHIP  Local to Global: - Pre-departure for Study Abroad/ Re-Entry seminar - Diversity on campus - Navigate cultural differences on campus - Preparation for the professional career - Effectiveness at work (i.e.: Study Abroad office, Global learning services) - Personal growth and competency - New content modules – courses on (inter)national culture understanding - Re-design of existing courses on related topics (i.e. Human rights) - Incorporate intercultural learning into pedagogy  Abroad - Teach abroad/Faculty led programs - Short term programs
  6. 6 CHALLENGES associated with the implementation of global initiatives • Lack of Funds • Use of available grants • Work load/Merits • Time constraint • Overlooked subject  Intercultural learning not strongly appreciated yet • Content design • Find collaborators • Some resources not used to the fullest - lack of qualified administrators, or effective strategies to help students with these type of results
  8. LITERATURE REVIEW 8  Goode (2007/08) explored role of study abroad faculty directors in facilitating students’ intercultural development. Faculty described four dimensions of their role (including also logistical and academic dimensions), but said very little beyond that about the intercultural dimension of their job. Average IDI worldview in Minimization – “not optimal”  Anderson, Lorenz and White (2016) study student intercultural learning on short-term faculty- led programs. Authors conclude that “Frequent and spontaneous facilitation emerged as the most important variable to guide students’ intercultural learning”.
  9. Faculty Intercultural Development and Student Learning 9 There is increasing evidence that students’ intercultural learning is directly tied to the intercultural development of their instructor/faculty leader/study abroad facilitator. “[an] instructor’s effectiveness in facilitating [intercultural] student learning […] is to a large degree a function of his or her own developmental worldview.” Vande Berg, Quinn and Menyhart (2012): 402. Faculty Intercultural Development Guided reflection/Debriefs Student Intercultural Development
  10. Intercultural Development Continuum 10
  11. “(…) People who function in an acceptance/adaptation worldview spend their energy conceptualizing, assessing, and facilitating their students’ intercultural development needs. They focus on coordinating a rigorous academic program, blending culture learning with other content areas, and guiding students along in their intercultural learning experience. Those operating in a minimization framework tend to see themselves as interpreters, devoting significant energy to explaining cultural differences, and helping people to prevent or overcome culturally-based misunderstandings. They tend to focus on culture-specific learning and adaptation. They spend less time teaching and helping students to develop a culture-general conceptual framework from which to approach questions of cultural difference that may occur in any setting.” (Ziegler, 2001, p. 151) 11
  14. Faculty Training Resources 14  CIEE International Faculty Development Seminars (IFDS)  Summer/Winter Institute of Intercultural Communication (SIIC/WIIC)  WISE Conference, Wake Forest University  IDI Qualifying Seminar  IDI coaching/guided development
  15. MARYMOUNT UNIVERSITY ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA Enrollment (Fall 2016) • Total enrollment: 3,369 • Total undergraduate students: 2,323 • Total graduate students: 1,046 • Total student population represents 43 states and 76 countries
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  17. MU Strategic Plan – Global Perspective Grants available to Faculty to Internationalize the Curriculum • Develop New Courses • Travel • Participate in International Faculty Development Seminars 2015 Psychology Professor and Education Abroad Administrator Participate in CIEE International Faculty Development Seminar “Learning while Leading: Supporting Intercultural Development through Study Away” Primate Field Experience & Intercultural Communication Barcelona and Girona Spain
  18. 18 Primate Field Experience & Intercultural Communication Barcelona and Girona Spain • Students in this three-week study abroad program will develop their intercultural competencies and learn about chimpanzee behavior and welfare through various experiential learning activities in Spain. • In collaboration with the Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE), students will analyze differences and similarities between their own and Spanish culture while exploring the cosmopolitan, seaside capital Barcelona. Through this portion of the course, students will develop skills, knowledge, and understanding that will help them communicate and engage more appropriately and effectively across cultures. The students will increase their intercultural skills by developing cultural awareness, cultural literacy and the capacity to bridge cultures. • While at Fundació Mona Sanctuary in Girona, students will conduct naturalistic observations of chimpanzees alongside scientists and students earning their Masters in Primate Psychology degree, and work with caregivers participating in the day-to-day operations of a sanctuary, including feeding and enrichment development. Upon returning to the U.S. students will apply the knowledge they have learned about chimpanzee welfare by engaging in a science advocacy project.
  19. • “CIEE taught us a great class in just a couple of days and then when we were at Mona they provided us many different classes to help us understand the ins and outs of running a sanctuary.” – • “Being in another culture has made me more open-minded and aware, especially after returning to the US where the culture is significantly different from Spain. I am available to notice the intricacies of our culture a lot more clearly, especially our familial relations and our emphasis on work and time”
  20. FUTURE PROGRAMS 21 • Criminology –Enhancing intercultural competence in police organization – Athens, Greece • Inter professional Education & Global Health – Ecuador • Intercultural Development workshops in cooperation with the Center for Teaching and Learning
  22. Intercultural Education helps Break down Barriers
  23. The Case of Augsburg: From Global to Local & Back The Past • International/Global Faculty & Staff (primarily involved in study abroad & working with international students) demonstrated historical commitment to intercultural development. • International/Global Faculty & Staff took IDI and other similar tools. • There was some commitment by administration, but no school-wide plan • We TRIED to involve faculty but found lack of interest due to perceived lack of need. • We provided scholarships for faculty to participate in trips to several different countries, but they didn’t always include strong focus on intercultural communication and how to bring that home. • Through Global Education, we sponsored Faculty Development trips to Mexico, Cuba, & other countries – VERY successful, but more faculty from other schools than Augsburg.
  24. The Case of Augsburg: From Global to Local & Back The Past • International/Global faculty & staff aware of NEED for intercultural learning & not just international travel. • As early as 1968, Ivan Illich warned U.S. volunteers going to Mexico that they “cannot help being ultimately vacationing salesmen for the middle-class ‘American’ way of life.” (1963, 316) • Examples: Ann’s research on Mexican community’s partners perceptions of faculty-led courses (from a variety of colleges & universities).
  25. WHY do faculty need intercultural education? Ann’s research on Mexican community’s partners perceptions of faculty-led courses Findings: • Community partners identified faculty as the MOST culturally INSENSITIVE members of groups – far more so than their students. • Nahua indigenous community leader Ignacio Torres Ramirez complained about one group that only scheduled a 2 hour visit to his village and then only gave him 45 minutes to cover it’s history, spirituality, culture, and land and political issues, as if a U.S. classroom. He felt de-valued, controlled, and disgraced.
  26. Culturally Insensitive Behavior Afro-Mexican Nadia Alvarado was very upset by a professor from the south of the U.S.A. who told her NOT to show the slides she had prepared of her “Afro-Indian” community & to CUT her talk in half so that the students could have free time. How do you think Nadia felt? What were the cultural clashes? Request community’s lists of intercultural “do’s & don’ts” if interested.
  27. Culturally Insensitive Behavior Educators comments and behavior perceived as microagressions by Students of Color on U.S. campuses. Examples?
  28. Back to the Case of Augsburg: From Global to Local & Back Things Changed: What? 1. The Student Body • Augsburg started recruiting a more diverse student body. • In 2008, Augsburg reached 25 % students of color for first time. • In 2015, we reached 40% students of color in the student body. • In 2016, 45 % of the students admitted are students of color. 2. Faculty Attitudes regarding NEED for Intercultural Education
  29. Attitudes & Experiences in Diverse, Local Classrooms • Initially: EVEN when the %s of students of color started rising dramatically, many faculty saw no need to make any changes in how they teach. • Example from other school: class couldn’t function due to racial tensions and attacks in classroom related to “Black Lives Matter” – led to desire to increase intercultural skills
  30. Student Responses? Student-Driven Initiatives to Educate Faculty & Staff about Diversity & Intercultural Competence •That’s crap! •We’re more diverse, but faculty don’t get it. They don’t know how to manage the classroom.
  31. THINGS CHANGED • Students spoke up. • The administration took note – especially on the Student Affairs side. • The president named a Chief Diversity Officer who was committed to fomenting greater involvement across the campus & IN CLASSROOM (previous CDO focused on compliance)
  32. International/Global Ed Staff Helped Create Plan for Key Faculty & Staff to Take & Learn from IDI • International/Global Ed insisted on IDI QA (Qualified Administrator) trainings for key faculty & staff. • Now OUR staff can do some of our own internal intercultural work with student groups, on-campus orientation leaders, & faculty & staff. • Our own Augsburg QAs now provide individual & group feedback for all faculty & staff, with a 3-year cycle of reassessment. ONBOARDING: • We start with all NEW faculty & staff hired. • As of Nov. 2016, 112 faculty & 197 staff have completed IDIs. • Since we are using internal team of QAs, faculty & staff can choose the facilitator with whom they want to work • As of Nov. 2016: many Augsburg QAs
  33. BUDGET ISSUES • Main cost is training QAs. If we train a few per year, this is a relatively small investment over time to create our own team on (& off) campus. • We then SAVE $$$$ by using our own team of QAs instead of hiring expensive consultants. • Example: we can pay to train 25 faculty instead of 2 for the same amount of money.
  34. Buy-in Across Campus: Workshops & More • Strong buy-in from the Director of General Education, who is co-hosting a workshop to teach faculty how to incorpórate principles of inctercultural development into MANGING the classroom • To be run for first time in January 2017 together with Tara Harvey, True North Intercultural • Day-Long Workshop: only for faculty who have done the IDI and are in line with our assessment cycle • 24 faculty can participate. • Faculty can plan to use workshop on- campus or in study-abroad context.
  35. Buy-in Across Campus: Augsburg’s “Diversity & Inclusion Certificate Program” In order to complete the Certificate Program and receive the certificate, participants must complete 18 credits of specified inclusion-based training. The 18 credits of training consist of the following 7 requirements: 1. Complete Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) Process, 4.5 Credits • Register for the IDI waitlist • Complete the online Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) • Attend an IDI Group Profile Session • Attend an IDI Individual Feedback Session 2. Attend Intercultural Conflict Style (ICS) Inventory Workshop, 3 Credits 3. Attend Working Towards Inclusive Spaces Workshop, 2 Credits 4. Attend Ally Training I, 3 Credits 5. Attend Disability as Diversity: Building Bridges To Full Inclusion Workshop, 2 Credits 6. Attend All About Bias Workshop, 1.5 Credits 7. Attend From Microinequities to Inclusion Workshop, 2 Credits For more info, see
  36. Advanced Standing for Certificate Multiple Workshops on Diverse Themes • Faculty and staff who want to received “Advanced Standing” need to complete 6 additional events related to diversity, inclusion and equity. • They are not limited to the nearly weekly workshops and events held on campus, but those are open to them & anyone else on campus. Themes: • Interfaith Dialogue All About Bias • Trans Issues 101 Intercultural Conflict Styles • Ally Training etc.
  37. The Case of Augsburg: From Global to Local & Back • The push for Intercultural Education began with Global/International Ed. • It then took a life of its own LOCALLY among students of color who demanded changes on campus. • That gave Global/International Education the chance to give new life to previous ideas and build a stronger, campus-wide network of support to make International Ed take off on campus. • At the same time that it took off locally, intercultural education also gained new ground again GLOBALLY. 
  38. Impacts on Global Education through Study Abroad • New Course on Intercultural Communication required for all semester-long students in Mexico. • Intercultural education built into most short-term faculty led courses.
  39. Useful Resources for Intercultural Education, both with Faculty & Students – Locally & Globally
  40. Popular Intercultural Learning Activities Among Both Students & Faculty Activities that help them understand the following: • Diverse cultural communication styles, including linear vs. circular/contextual and direct vs. indirect • Low context versus high context cultures and communication styles • Reflection on popular sayings or expressions that reflect values in own culture & different ones • Much more… 
  41. 42 INTERCULTURAL RESOURCES • Own rubric created by professor at the department to assess intercultural development in the Foreign language curriculum and SA • IDI but not university-wide (cost and not everyone considering it effective) • Workshops (i.e. cross cultural communication in the workplace) • BEVI (Beliefs, Events and Values Inventory) • GPI (Global Perspectives Inventory) • LSI (Learning Style Inventory) • ICS (Intercultural Conflict Style Inventory)
  43. 44 BIBLIOGRAPHY • Dooley, K. E., Dooley, L.M., & Carranza, G. (2008). Beliefs, Barriers, and Benefits of a Faculty Abroad Experience in México. AIAEE, 155-165. • Goode, M.L. (). The role of faculty study abroad directors: a case study. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 149-172. • Hand, E., Ricketts, K., & Bruening, T. (2007). Benefits and Barriers: Faculty International Professional Development. AIAEE, 148-153. • Lee, A. K., & Hall, N. M. (2015). Enriching Course Development: The Use of an International Faculty Development Experience. Pedagogy and the Human Sciences, 5 (1), 60-69. • Vande Berg, M., Paige, M., & Lou, K.H. (2012). Student Learning Abroad. What our students are learning, what they’re not and what we can do about it. Stylus.

Editor's Notes

  1. Emphasis on the student But we need to focus on the training of faculty and administrator – more efficient if they have work in their intercultural growth “Most research has focused on providing international opportunities for students. What about university faculty? How can faculty promote and encourage internationalization if they themselves have not been exposed?” (Doodley) Reference to Patent and Callahan Session
  2. Los ejes de la presentación We are going to focus in two possible outcomes of Faculty IC training One is the development of GI The other one is the impact on student learning.
  3. Ths is a result of a survey carried with ex participants of the IFDS Universities have an interest in prepare students to be “global citizens” – develop courses and initiatives Belief: Global initiative = Initiative abroad. University members only have the ability to impact in students’ learning and preparation as a global citizen if they have previous international experience. Applicabe to all areas, not only Humanities, culture content (i.e.Business Communication or Business Administration, Medicine, Psichology, social justice,…) GLOBAL INITIATIVES Pre-departure (Study Abroad)  -- Preparation to help students with their SA experience (learning about host culture and adaptive process) – Preparation for SA with reflection and approach that hep to be prepared to navigate – help to assess upon return Incorporate intercultural pedagogy in class, enrich classes on campus, develop new modules on campus Program development Advocate for Intercultural Communication on campus Preparation for professional career: career servies be able transform students experiencies in professional skills to incorporate in resumes enhancing global competencies and Preparation to teach a study abroad course / short term programs Faculty led  programs and faculty training -- Faculty development -- feel prepared to lead SA programs Better leadership - Professional growth Improving work performance (effectiveness) Improve work with diversity on campus Collaborative initiatives (building a common curricula) among sister universities that belong to different geographical/cultural areas Help students navigate cultural differences Personal growth New content modules, workshops, seminars, Develop certificate program that recognized intercltural competence BASICAMENTE SE PUEDEN AGRUPAR EN VARIAS AREAS: Study Abroad (Pre-Departure/Re-Entry) Faculty Led Programs –become role models, be able to facilitate during time abroad, good leadership Faculty development Program development Deiversity initiatives Leadership/role model
  4. CHALLENGES: 1/ Lack of funds: -- Not always funds are allocated for professional development (especially in this field) -- more fund for research. Need to put together several pieces of funding. Sometimes there is a need to use personal money when enrolling in training workshops. Some schools develop specific funds specially if they count with Global Learning Departments, Global Education Committee, Interdisciplinary Studies majors, Had to minimize costs and plan wisely (i.e. being on site those dates on a personal travel). 2/ Many grants available for development of new initiatives are not always accessible for initiatives of this nature. There is not enough information available about other ways of accessing the funds. 3“Convince” on the importance of Intercultural Development – need of departmental support /Depending on leaders who understand the value of Intercultural development + recruit students attracting them on intercultural subject. Unwillingness of faculty to adapt content 4 5 6/ Overlooked subject: Although institutions may be committed to internationalization intercultural competency and development as well as global learning is not strongly appreciated yet - offer credit (academic discipline)
  5. Faculty are interested in facilitating and fostering student growth/change, but they are unsure of how to go about doing so and are often focused more on other roles.
  6. Just as faculty shape
  7. Worldview refers to IDC, which draws on Milton’s DMIS. Briefly describe stages on continuum Statistically, majority of students fall in minimization So if instructor is in polarization, will not meet needs of students Likewise, an instructor in minimization might reinforce minimization worldview without challenging students to examine differences more closely
  8. This quote highlights the importance of the intercultural development of the educator involved in facilitating students’ intercultural learning.
  9. This quote highlights the importance of the intercultural development of the educator involved in facilitating students’ intercultural learning.