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TOWARD A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR
U.S. EDUCATION ABROAD
Anthony C. Ogden, Ph.D., University of Kentucky
Elizabeth Brewer, Ph.D....
Session Overview
Welcome & Introductions
A Research Agenda for the Internationalization of
Higher Education in the United ...
Association of International
Education Administrators (AIEA)
 Established in 1982, for campus leaders who
facilitate inte...
Association of International
Education Administrators (AIEA)
 AIEA Editorial Committee
− The SAGE Handbook of Internation...
A Research Agenda for the Internationalization of
Higher Education in the United States (1996)
 Focus on internationaliza...
A Research Agenda for the Internationalization of
Higher Education in the United States (1996)
 Faculty and specialist de...
Impetus for a New Look at International
Higher Education Research
 What have we learned over the last two decades?
 How ...
Research Agenda for the Internationalization
of Higher Education (2015)
 Education Abroad
(Outbound mobility)
 Internati...
Research in International Education
Distinct Research
Approaches
Comparative and International
Education
Internationalizat...
Research on the Internationalization of
Higher Education
U.S.
Education
Abroad
Internationalization
(Ex., J. Knight)
Compr...
Historical Overview of
U.S. Education Abroad Research
1950s,
Research
began to
emerge
1970s,
About
189
research
studies
19...
Categorization of Trends in
U.S. Education Abroad Research
Single Domain
(second
language
acquisition,
ICC, etc.)
Multiple...
Assessment of Research Limitations in
U.S. Education Abroad Research
Self-Selection Sample Size
Experimental
Design
Genera...
Major Theoretical Models &
Conceptual Frameworks
STUDENT LEARNING
Experiential Learning Theory Kolb, 1984
Multiple Intelli...
Assessment & Instrumentation
in U.S. Education Abroad Research
LANGUAGE LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT
Language Strategies Surve...
Things to keep in mind…
Be cautious when using self-reporting instruments.
Correlation doesn’t mean causation.
Avoid using...
Notable Gaps and Needed Research
in U.S. Education Abroad
Notable Gaps and Needed Research
in U.S. Education Abroad
Programming
Program
Mobility
Modes
Experience
Types
Curriculum &...
Notable Gaps and Needed Research
in U.S. Education Abroad
Programming
Program
Mobility
Modes
Experience
Types
Curriculum &...
Notable Gaps and Needed Research
in U.S. Education Abroad
Programming
− How do student learning outcomes differ based on h...
What does the future hold for U.S. Education
Abroad Professionals?
Will education abroad
professionals be seen as
logistic...
TOWARD ESTABLISHING A RESEARCH
AGENDA FOR U.S. EDUCATION ABROAD
Anthony C. Ogden, a.ogden@uky.edu
Elizabeth Brewer, brewer...
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Establishing a Research Agenda for U.S. Education Abroad

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This session begins with a brief overview of the major trends in contemporary education-abroad research and an assessment of the major methodological and design challenges. We'll briefly look at the major theoretical models that traditionally have informed education-abroad research and conceptual frameworks from related disciplines that may further extend this research. Commonly used instruments are discussed in the context of measuring outcomes. Notable gaps in existing research and needed directions will be discussed. This session will be particularly relevant for both U.S.- and internationally based educators interested in establishing a research agenda for U.S. education abroad.

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Establishing a Research Agenda for U.S. Education Abroad

  1. 1. TOWARD A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR U.S. EDUCATION ABROAD Anthony C. Ogden, Ph.D., University of Kentucky Elizabeth Brewer, Ph.D., Beloit College
  2. 2. Session Overview Welcome & Introductions A Research Agenda for the Internationalization of Higher Education in the United States (1996) Toward a Research Agenda for U.S. Education Abroad (2015) Notable Gaps and Needed Research Your Input: Key Research Questions Q&A & Discussion
  3. 3. Association of International Education Administrators (AIEA)  Established in 1982, for campus leaders who facilitate internationalization − Bring attention to significant issues in int’l education − Improve int’l education at colleges and universities − Support a professional network of int’l education leaders (SIOs) − Cooperate with national and int’l groups with similar interests.
  4. 4. Association of International Education Administrators (AIEA)  AIEA Editorial Committee − The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education − Occasional Papers − Issue Briefs − Perspectives from Presidents and Provosts − Journal of Studies in International Education − Research Agenda for the Internationalization of Higher Education
  5. 5. A Research Agenda for the Internationalization of Higher Education in the United States (1996)  Focus on internationalization in the next decade − Types of research needed (databases, survey, impact studies, longitudinal social science) − Future private and public sector needs − Status of internationalization − Impact of current strategies, and new approaches
  6. 6. A Research Agenda for the Internationalization of Higher Education in the United States (1996)  Faculty and specialist development  University management and funding  Undergraduate programs  Outreach and extension
  7. 7. Impetus for a New Look at International Higher Education Research  What have we learned over the last two decades?  How has internationalization changed since 1996?  How have universities changed in response to the internationalization agenda?  What old questions still need attention?  What new questions need to be asked?
  8. 8. Research Agenda for the Internationalization of Higher Education (2015)  Education Abroad (Outbound mobility)  International Student & Scholars (Inbound mobility)  Campus & Curriculum Internationalization • Methodological and design challenges • Theoretical models • Instrumentation • Notable gaps in the existing literature • Future directions • Publication venues
  9. 9. Research in International Education Distinct Research Approaches Comparative and International Education Internationalization of Higher Education U.S. Education Abroad International Schools International Research on Teaching and Teacher Education Internationalization of K-12 Education Globalization of Education Dolby, 2008
  10. 10. Research on the Internationalization of Higher Education U.S. Education Abroad Internationalization (Ex., J. Knight) Comprehensive Internationalization (Ex., J. Hudzik) International Student Mobility (Ex., H. De Wit) International Higher Education (Ex., P. Altbach) Comparative Higher Education (Ex., B. Streitwieser) Disciplinary Internationalization (Ex., K. Cushner)
  11. 11. Historical Overview of U.S. Education Abroad Research 1950s, Research began to emerge 1970s, About 189 research studies 1990s, 675 research studies 1990s, Frontiers & JSIE launched 2001, Forum on Education Abroad founded 2007, Forum Guide to Outcomes Assessment published 2015, Numerous Publications on EA Research
  12. 12. Categorization of Trends in U.S. Education Abroad Research Single Domain (second language acquisition, ICC, etc.) Multiple Domains (identity dev., attitude & behavioral change, disciplinary learning, etc.) Longitudinal Studies (Career impact, educational impact, language utilization, etc.) Internal Variables (gender, language proficiency, previous experience, etc.) Program/ Enrollment Variables (duration, housing type, language of instruction, academic enrollment type, etc) Predictor Variables & Outcomes (retention & persistence, alumni development, workforce development, etc.)
  13. 13. Assessment of Research Limitations in U.S. Education Abroad Research Self-Selection Sample Size Experimental Design Generalizability Data Accessibility Terminology
  14. 14. Major Theoretical Models & Conceptual Frameworks STUDENT LEARNING Experiential Learning Theory Kolb, 1984 Multiple Intelligence Theory Gardner, 1985 Transformative Learning Theory Mezirow, 1991, 1996, 2000 INTERCULTURAL LEARNING Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity Bennett, 1993 Intergroup Contact Theory Allport, 1998; Pettigrew, 1968, 1998 STUDENT DEVELOPMENT Theory of Self Authorship Baxter Magolda, 1992 Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky, 1978 Theory of Identity Development Chikering & Reisser, 1993 Reflective Judgment Model King & Kitchener, 1994 Women’s Development Theory Love & Guthrie, 1999 Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development Perry, 1970 Theory of Moral Development Gilligan, 1982 STUDENT ENGAGEMENT High Impact Educational Practices Kuh, 2008 Model of Student Retention Tinto, 1987 Input-Environment-Output Astin, 1993 Situate Learning Theory Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Lave & Wenger 1991 COMMUNICATION Social Exchange Theory Thibault & Kelley, 1952 Social Learning Theory Bandura, 1986 Symbolic Interactionism Theory Blumer, 1969 Theory of Reasoned Action Fishbein & Ajzen, 1977
  15. 15. Assessment & Instrumentation in U.S. Education Abroad Research LANGUAGE LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT Language Strategies Survey Cohen & Chi, 2001 Oral Proficiency Interview ACTFL, 1999 Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview ACTfL, 1999 Speech Act Measure Cohen & Shively, 2003 CULTURE LEARNING AND INTERCULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Beliefs, Events, and Values Inventory Shealy, 2004 Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire Szapocznik, Kurintes & Fernandez, 1980 Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory Kelley & Myers, 1999 Cross-Cultural World-Mindedness Scale Der-Karabetian & Metzer, 1993 Intercultural Adjustment Potential Scale Matsumoto et al, 2001 Intercultural Conflict Style Inventory Hammer, 2002 Intercultural Development Inventory Hammer & Bennett, 1999, 2002 Intercultural Effectiveness Scale The Kozai Group, Inc. Sociocultural Adjustment Scale Ward & Kennedy, 1999 Strategies Inventory for Learning Culture Page, Rong, Zhang, Kappler, Hoff, & Emert, 2003 DISCIPLINARY LEARNING Disciplinary Learning Interview Protocol Hammer, Malone, & Paige (in press) Academic Development Scale Ogden, 2010 GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE & AWARENESS Global Perspectives Inventory Braskamp, Braskamp, and Merrill, 2009 Global Awareness Profile Corbitt, 1998 Global Citizenship Scale Morais & Ogden, 2011; Ogden, 2010 Global Competencies Inventory The Kozai Group, Inc. Global Competence Aptitude Assessment Hunter, White, & Godbey, 2006
  16. 16. Things to keep in mind… Be cautious when using self-reporting instruments. Correlation doesn’t mean causation. Avoid using the scale of most convenience. There is no one size fits all study. Differentiate evidence and anecdote. Avoid comparing institutional EA data with national datasets. Control accordingly and be mindful of confounding variables.
  17. 17. Notable Gaps and Needed Research in U.S. Education Abroad
  18. 18. Notable Gaps and Needed Research in U.S. Education Abroad Programming Program Mobility Modes Experience Types Curriculum & Career Integration Technology Host Community Impact Institutional Impact Financial Issues Participation Global Citizenship Push & Pull Factors Institution Type
  19. 19. Notable Gaps and Needed Research in U.S. Education Abroad Programming Program Mobility Modes Experience Types Curriculum & Career Integration Technology Host Community Impact Institutional Impact Financial Issues Participation Global Citizenship Push & Pull Factors Institution Type
  20. 20. Notable Gaps and Needed Research in U.S. Education Abroad Programming − How do student learning outcomes differ based on housing type (e.g., homestay, apartment, dormitory, etc)? − How do student learning outcomes differ based on the mode of instruction (e.g., faculty-directed, direct enrollment, island programming, etc)? − How does experiential learning programming enhance student learning (e.g., internship, service-learning, field placement, etc.)? − How do student services enhance student learning outcomes (e.g., field trips and excursions, language exchanges, on-going orientation programming, co- curricular and extra-curricular activities, etc.)? − How are language proficiency gains influenced by the manipulation of programmatic components?
  21. 21. What does the future hold for U.S. Education Abroad Professionals? Will education abroad professionals be seen as logistics experts (aka, a student travel agency) that handles risk management, health and safety, compliance, inbound/ outbound travel, etc? Will education abroad professionals be seen as educators with expertise on program design, student learning pedagogy, outcomes assessment, collaborating with faculty, curriculum integration, etc?
  22. 22. TOWARD ESTABLISHING A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR U.S. EDUCATION ABROAD Anthony C. Ogden, a.ogden@uky.edu Elizabeth Brewer, brewere@beloit.edu

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