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Will it live up to its promises?

APACHE MAVEN 3.X
Arnaud Héritier
                  •    eXo - Software Factory Manager
                        »  In charge of tools and methods
                  •    Apache Maven :
                        »  Committer since 2004 and member of the
                          Project Management Committee

                  •    Coauthor of « Apache Maven »
                        »  published by Pearson (in French)
                  •    Contact me :
                        »  http://aheritier.net
                        »  Twitter : @aheritier
                        »  Skype : aheritier



                          2
Definition

•  Apache Maven is a software project
   management and comprehension tool.
•  Based on the concept of a project object
   model (POM)
     » Maven can manage a project's build, binaries,
       reporting and documentation from a central piece
       of information.
•    Apache Maven is standards/conventions
     driven
     » How many of you are doing JEE and related
       developments ?
                             3
History




•  Initiated in 2001 by Jason Van Zyl in Alexandria,
   an Apache Jakarta project,
•  Moved to Turbine few months after,
•  Became a Top Level Project in 2003.
•  Maven 2.0 released in September 2005
•  Maven 3.0 released in October 2010
     » 3.0.3 – March 2011
                            4
Choose your way of thinking


Conventions approach       Scripting approach




                       5
Competitors

•  Ant + Ivy, Easy Ant, Gant, Gradle, Buildr…
•  Script oriented
    »  You can do what you want !
•  Reuse many of Maven conventions (directories layout,
   …) and services (repositories) but without enforcing
   them
•  The risk for them : Not being able to evolve due to the
   too high level of customization proposed to the user.
    »  We tried on Maven 1 and it died because of that. It was
        impossible to create a set of tests to cover all usages.
     »  It’s like providing a framework without a well tested set of
        public API 


                                    6
With scripts oriented builds
You can have                    But often you have
(if you have good skills)       (moreover after years …)




                            7
With Maven
We dream to deliver       But yesterday we too often had
(Maven 3.x)               (Maven 2.x)




                      8
Apache Maven 3.x
BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY



                   9
Backward compatibility - Criticisms

•  Migration from Maven 1 to Maven 2 was
   impossible. Everything had to be re-done.
•  Updates between 2.x versions and also
   between 2.0.x weren’t often without side
   effects.




                        10
Backward compatibility

•  Near to 700 integration tests
•  Tested for several months on a large set of
   OSS projects
•  7 alphas + 3 betas versions

•  A bug fix release every 6 weeks

•  It’s a revolution under the hood but an
   evolution for end users




                         11
Maven 3.0.x ITs




                  674




                        12
Apache Maven 3.x
PERFORMANCES



                   13
Performances - Criticisms

•  Maven is slow
•  It spends its time to download the world

•  Whereas everybody has multicore CPUs, it
   doesn’t allow to process modules builds in
   parallel




                        14
Performances

•  A set of benchmark tools was developed to
   measure Maven performances (IO, CPU,
   Memory, Network …)
•  Startup and execution times are reduced
     » Java 5 optimizations
     » Code cleanup and improvements
•  Reduced Memory footprint
•  Artifacts Resolution Caching
     » .lastUpdated files in your local repo
     » Enforce checks with –U option
                              15
Performances – Parallel builds

•    Parallel builds
     » An execution plan is predefined at startup to
       define which modules could be built in //
     » Requires to have up to date plugins to avoid dead
       locks and some others issues
     » Launch a build with 2 threads
       •  mvn –T 2 install
     » Launch a build with 2 threads per CPU core
       •  mvn –T 2C install




                              16
Performances – mvnsh

•    Performances optimizations
     » Intelligent cache system (artifacts resolution,
       project descriptors …)
     » No need to restart a JVM for each build
•    Cross platform « unix like » shell
     » Alias, environment settings …
     » Color highlighting




                                17
Performances – mvnsh

•    All in one
     » Includes Maven 3.x
     » Allows to have color highlighting with “standard”
       Maven 3.x
•    Developed and freely distributed by Sonatype




                             18
Performances – mvnsh




                       19
Apache Maven 3.x
EXTENSIBILITY



                   20
Extensibility - Criticisms

•    It is difficult and time consuming to extend
     maven (write plugins)
     » Many unknown technologies like Plexus for IOC
•    It is difficult/impossible to reuse maven
     plugins
     » Its impossible to extend plugins/mojo and
       lifecycles




                             21
Extensibility

•    New APIs to improve abstraction of
     underneath implementation
     » Aether : to manage artifacts and repositories
•  Plugin classloader partitioning
•  Embeddable

•  IOC replaced by Guice
     » For now (3.0) a wrapper is hiding the change
     » You don’t yet use Guice directly (from plugins for
       example)


                             22
Apache Maven 3.x
ROBUSNESS



                   23
Robusness - Criticisms

•  Builds aren’t predictable
•  Errors are difficult to diagnose




                          24
Robusness - Validations

•    Many more validations in POMs (warnings or
     errors)
     » Missing plugins versions
     » Duplicated dependencies in a POM
     » Incoherent inheritance (wrong relative path or
       parent not in the upper directory)
•    Improved error messages with links to wiki
     pages for more detailed information




                              25
Robusness – Artifacts management

•    Parent POMs prefer to resolve from
     repositories
     » Version less parent will be available in a future
       maven 3.x release by using the relativePath
       element
•    Profiles usage consolidation
     » No more profiles.xml (incompatible with future
       polyglot feature)




                              26
Robusness – Artifacts management

•  No more support for legacy repository layout
   for Maven 1.0
•  SNAPSHOTs are always deployed with
   timestamps




                        27
Robusness – Plugins management

•    Plugin version is by default RELEASE and no
     more SNAPSHOT
     » Affects command-line invocation
•    Plugins cannot use versions LATEST or
     RELEASE
     » Affects command-line invocation and POM
•    Plugins are resolved only from
     <pluginRepository> entries



                            28
Robusness – Site plugin

•    Site plugin is now completely extracted from
     Maven core
     » It has its own lifecycle
     » reporting section in POM becomes useless
       (moved in plugin configuration)




                             29
Apache Maven 3.x
POM



                   30
Criticisms

•  XML, we don’t like it
•  POM is too verbose

•  POM v4 didn’t evolve last 5 years
     » When will you add new common attributes to
      ease plugins configuration (encoding …)
     » New feature like global exclusions




                             31
POM

•  No change in POM syntax for Maven 3.0
•  Changes will occur in 3.x versions
     » New model with a new version
     » Only new things
     » Generation / deployment of 4.0.0 current POM to
       keep backward compatibility with old maven
       versions
•    Mixins to allow to import POM fragments



                            32
POM - Polyglot

•  Developed and freely distributed by Sonatype
•  Extended version of Maven 3.0 using its new
   embedding and extensibility capabilities
•  Allow translation (read/write) from/to various
   syntaxes
     » Yaml
     » Scala
     » Groovy
•    Allow macros and freeform scripting


                          33
Apache Maven
QUESTIONS ?



               34
Licence et copyrights

•  Photos and logos belong to their respective
   authors/owners
•  Various ideas are coming from the excellent
   presentation done by Matthew McCullough :
     » http://www.slideshare.net/matthewmccullough/
      maven-30-at-oredev




                            35
Licence et copyrights

•    Content under Creative Commons 3.0
     » Attribution — You must attribute the work in the manner
       specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests
       that they endorse you or your use of the work).

     » Noncommercial — You may not use this work for commercial
       purposes.

     » Share Alike — If you alter, transform, or build upon this work,
       you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar
       license to this one.

•    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/




                                      36
Apache Maven
TO GO FURTHER …
Apache Maven
COMMUNITY



               38
Users Mailing List

•    users@maven.apache.or               •    Blue :
     g                                        » Number of subscribers
     » Traffic statistics cover a
       total of 2025 days.               •    Red :
     » Current subscribers: 1936              » Number of messages
     » Current digest                           per day
       subscribers: 48
     » Total posts (2025 days):
        89687
     » Mean posts per day:
        44.29
•    http://pulse.apache.org/

                                    39
Apache Maven Web Site




                   40
Dowloads

Per month downloads
http://people.apache.org/~vgritsenko/stats/
 projects/maven.html




                        41
The team

•  60 committers,
•  More than 30 active in 2009,

•  Several organizations like Sonatype, deliver
   resources and professional support,
•  A community less isolated : more interactions
   with Eclipse, Jetty,




                        42
Commit Statistics




                    43
Apache Maven
DOCUMENTATIONS



               44
Some links

•    The main web site :
     » http://maven.apache.org
•    Project’s team wiki :
     » http://docs.codehaus.org/display/MAVEN
•    Project’s users wiki :
     » http://docs.codehaus.org/display/MAVENUSER




                              45
Books

•    Nicolas De loof
     Arnaud Héritier
     » Published by Pearson
     » Collection Référence
     » Based on our own
       experiences with
       Maven.
     » From beginners to
       experts.
     » In French only

                              46
Books

•    Sonatype / O’Reilly :
     » The Definitive Guide
     » http://
       www.sonatype.com/
       books
     » Free download
     » Available in several
       languages




                              47
Books

•    Apache Maven 2
     Effective
     Implementation
     » Brett Porter, Maria
       Odea Ching
     » https://
       www.packtpub.com/
       apache-maven-2-
       effective-
       implementation/book


                             48
Books

•    Exist Global
     » Better builds with
       Maven
     » http://
       www.maestrodev.com
       /better-build-maven
     » Free download




                             49
Apache Maven
SUPPORT



               50
Support

•    Mailing lists
     » http://maven.apache.org/mail-lists.html
•    IRC
     » irc.codehaus.org - #maven
•    Forums
     » http://www.developpez.net/ forum maven
     » In French
•    Dedicated support
     » Sonatype and many others companies

                             51

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ToulouseJUG-Maven 3.x, will it lives up to its promises

  • 1. Will it live up to its promises? APACHE MAVEN 3.X
  • 2. Arnaud Héritier •  eXo - Software Factory Manager »  In charge of tools and methods •  Apache Maven : »  Committer since 2004 and member of the Project Management Committee •  Coauthor of « Apache Maven » »  published by Pearson (in French) •  Contact me : »  http://aheritier.net »  Twitter : @aheritier »  Skype : aheritier 2
  • 3. Definition •  Apache Maven is a software project management and comprehension tool. •  Based on the concept of a project object model (POM) » Maven can manage a project's build, binaries, reporting and documentation from a central piece of information. •  Apache Maven is standards/conventions driven » How many of you are doing JEE and related developments ? 3
  • 4. History •  Initiated in 2001 by Jason Van Zyl in Alexandria, an Apache Jakarta project, •  Moved to Turbine few months after, •  Became a Top Level Project in 2003. •  Maven 2.0 released in September 2005 •  Maven 3.0 released in October 2010 » 3.0.3 – March 2011 4
  • 5. Choose your way of thinking Conventions approach Scripting approach 5
  • 6. Competitors •  Ant + Ivy, Easy Ant, Gant, Gradle, Buildr… •  Script oriented »  You can do what you want ! •  Reuse many of Maven conventions (directories layout, …) and services (repositories) but without enforcing them •  The risk for them : Not being able to evolve due to the too high level of customization proposed to the user. »  We tried on Maven 1 and it died because of that. It was impossible to create a set of tests to cover all usages. »  It’s like providing a framework without a well tested set of public API  6
  • 7. With scripts oriented builds You can have But often you have (if you have good skills) (moreover after years …) 7
  • 8. With Maven We dream to deliver But yesterday we too often had (Maven 3.x) (Maven 2.x) 8
  • 9. Apache Maven 3.x BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY 9
  • 10. Backward compatibility - Criticisms •  Migration from Maven 1 to Maven 2 was impossible. Everything had to be re-done. •  Updates between 2.x versions and also between 2.0.x weren’t often without side effects. 10
  • 11. Backward compatibility •  Near to 700 integration tests •  Tested for several months on a large set of OSS projects •  7 alphas + 3 betas versions •  A bug fix release every 6 weeks •  It’s a revolution under the hood but an evolution for end users 11
  • 12. Maven 3.0.x ITs 674 12
  • 14. Performances - Criticisms •  Maven is slow •  It spends its time to download the world •  Whereas everybody has multicore CPUs, it doesn’t allow to process modules builds in parallel 14
  • 15. Performances •  A set of benchmark tools was developed to measure Maven performances (IO, CPU, Memory, Network …) •  Startup and execution times are reduced » Java 5 optimizations » Code cleanup and improvements •  Reduced Memory footprint •  Artifacts Resolution Caching » .lastUpdated files in your local repo » Enforce checks with –U option 15
  • 16. Performances – Parallel builds •  Parallel builds » An execution plan is predefined at startup to define which modules could be built in // » Requires to have up to date plugins to avoid dead locks and some others issues » Launch a build with 2 threads •  mvn –T 2 install » Launch a build with 2 threads per CPU core •  mvn –T 2C install 16
  • 17. Performances – mvnsh •  Performances optimizations » Intelligent cache system (artifacts resolution, project descriptors …) » No need to restart a JVM for each build •  Cross platform « unix like » shell » Alias, environment settings … » Color highlighting 17
  • 18. Performances – mvnsh •  All in one » Includes Maven 3.x » Allows to have color highlighting with “standard” Maven 3.x •  Developed and freely distributed by Sonatype 18
  • 21. Extensibility - Criticisms •  It is difficult and time consuming to extend maven (write plugins) » Many unknown technologies like Plexus for IOC •  It is difficult/impossible to reuse maven plugins » Its impossible to extend plugins/mojo and lifecycles 21
  • 22. Extensibility •  New APIs to improve abstraction of underneath implementation » Aether : to manage artifacts and repositories •  Plugin classloader partitioning •  Embeddable •  IOC replaced by Guice » For now (3.0) a wrapper is hiding the change » You don’t yet use Guice directly (from plugins for example) 22
  • 24. Robusness - Criticisms •  Builds aren’t predictable •  Errors are difficult to diagnose 24
  • 25. Robusness - Validations •  Many more validations in POMs (warnings or errors) » Missing plugins versions » Duplicated dependencies in a POM » Incoherent inheritance (wrong relative path or parent not in the upper directory) •  Improved error messages with links to wiki pages for more detailed information 25
  • 26. Robusness – Artifacts management •  Parent POMs prefer to resolve from repositories » Version less parent will be available in a future maven 3.x release by using the relativePath element •  Profiles usage consolidation » No more profiles.xml (incompatible with future polyglot feature) 26
  • 27. Robusness – Artifacts management •  No more support for legacy repository layout for Maven 1.0 •  SNAPSHOTs are always deployed with timestamps 27
  • 28. Robusness – Plugins management •  Plugin version is by default RELEASE and no more SNAPSHOT » Affects command-line invocation •  Plugins cannot use versions LATEST or RELEASE » Affects command-line invocation and POM •  Plugins are resolved only from <pluginRepository> entries 28
  • 29. Robusness – Site plugin •  Site plugin is now completely extracted from Maven core » It has its own lifecycle » reporting section in POM becomes useless (moved in plugin configuration) 29
  • 31. Criticisms •  XML, we don’t like it •  POM is too verbose •  POM v4 didn’t evolve last 5 years » When will you add new common attributes to ease plugins configuration (encoding …) » New feature like global exclusions 31
  • 32. POM •  No change in POM syntax for Maven 3.0 •  Changes will occur in 3.x versions » New model with a new version » Only new things » Generation / deployment of 4.0.0 current POM to keep backward compatibility with old maven versions •  Mixins to allow to import POM fragments 32
  • 33. POM - Polyglot •  Developed and freely distributed by Sonatype •  Extended version of Maven 3.0 using its new embedding and extensibility capabilities •  Allow translation (read/write) from/to various syntaxes » Yaml » Scala » Groovy •  Allow macros and freeform scripting 33
  • 35. Licence et copyrights •  Photos and logos belong to their respective authors/owners •  Various ideas are coming from the excellent presentation done by Matthew McCullough : » http://www.slideshare.net/matthewmccullough/ maven-30-at-oredev 35
  • 36. Licence et copyrights •  Content under Creative Commons 3.0 » Attribution — You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). » Noncommercial — You may not use this work for commercial purposes. » Share Alike — If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one. •  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/ 36
  • 37. Apache Maven TO GO FURTHER …
  • 39. Users Mailing List •  users@maven.apache.or •  Blue : g » Number of subscribers » Traffic statistics cover a total of 2025 days. •  Red : » Current subscribers: 1936 » Number of messages » Current digest per day subscribers: 48 » Total posts (2025 days): 89687 » Mean posts per day: 44.29 •  http://pulse.apache.org/ 39
  • 40. Apache Maven Web Site 40
  • 42. The team •  60 committers, •  More than 30 active in 2009, •  Several organizations like Sonatype, deliver resources and professional support, •  A community less isolated : more interactions with Eclipse, Jetty, 42
  • 45. Some links •  The main web site : » http://maven.apache.org •  Project’s team wiki : » http://docs.codehaus.org/display/MAVEN •  Project’s users wiki : » http://docs.codehaus.org/display/MAVENUSER 45
  • 46. Books •  Nicolas De loof Arnaud Héritier » Published by Pearson » Collection Référence » Based on our own experiences with Maven. » From beginners to experts. » In French only 46
  • 47. Books •  Sonatype / O’Reilly : » The Definitive Guide » http:// www.sonatype.com/ books » Free download » Available in several languages 47
  • 48. Books •  Apache Maven 2 Effective Implementation » Brett Porter, Maria Odea Ching » https:// www.packtpub.com/ apache-maven-2- effective- implementation/book 48
  • 49. Books •  Exist Global » Better builds with Maven » http:// www.maestrodev.com /better-build-maven » Free download 49
  • 51. Support •  Mailing lists » http://maven.apache.org/mail-lists.html •  IRC » irc.codehaus.org - #maven •  Forums » http://www.developpez.net/ forum maven » In French •  Dedicated support » Sonatype and many others companies 51