SlideShare a Scribd company logo
LECTURE # 4:
Employee Involvement by M. Salman Jamil
 It directly relates with quality & productivity & its not the replacement
of management but its works for improvement for an organization. It
helps in achieving goals for an organization at all levels.
 For proper understanding of Employee Involvement we have to
identify Motivation levels of employees for an organization. Maslow’s
hierarchy needs defined motivation levels.
 Abraham Maslow developed the first and
most popular motivational theories.
 He stated that motivation is best explained
in terms of hierarchy.
2
3
 Self-Actualization
 Esteem
 Love
 Safety
 Physiological
 Human nature is basically good, not evil
 Normal human development involves the actualization of this
inherent goodness
 Psychopathology results from the frustration of a human being’s
essential nature
 Level 1: This level termed as Survival includes clothing, shelter etc.
An organization has to realize the basic needs for its employee.
 Level 2: This level termed as Security of work and job security as
well. It is one of the important level that if employees considered
secured then he fully motivate and work with its full potential.
Otherwise, it considered as job threat.
 Level 3: This level relates to Social level, we are not living in
isolation. We have to coordinate socially & working as team in a
place. Within a group it provides the chance to motivate
individuals.
4
 Level 4: This level relates to Self Esteem, this level
achieved after long time with lots of success. It
require advice from senior staff that value for an
organization. It gives a personal protocol / status /
control & Freedom to perform its job in an
organization.
 Level 5: This level relates to Self-Actualization,
where an individual is performing its job according to
their abilities. There is proper policy for an
organization for personal to involve in decision
making. So, sometime it threatened the management
so that the management demotes to lower level.
5
 Two Factor Theory states that there are certain
factors in the workplace that cause job
satisfaction, while a separate set of factors
cause dissatisfaction
 The theory was based around interviews with
203 American accountants & engineers in
Pittsburgh, chosen because of their
professions' growing importance in the
business world by Herzberg.
 The subjects were asked to relate times when
they felt exceptionally good or bad about their
present job or any previous job, and to provide
reasons, and a description of the sequence of
events giving rise to that positive or negative
feeling.
6
 Satisfaction which is mostly affected by the "motivator factors".
Motivation factors help increase the satisfaction but aren't that
affective on dissatisfaction.
 Dissatisfaction is the results of the "hygiene factors". These
factors, if absent or inadequate, cause dissatisfaction, but their
presence has little effect on long-term satisfaction.
7
 There is strong discussion between employee wants and
management perceptions.
 Maslow and Herzberg describe theories in its own perspective
such as employee involvement require proper reward &
recognitions while managers achieved quality and productivity.
 There is need to analyze proper understanding of motivators
closely. Some of the motivator factors are mentioned below:
 Interesting Work
 Appreciation
 Involvement
 Job Security
 Good Pay
 Promotion/growth etc.
8
 There are multiple models to describe multiple condition of a workforce. It is
considered as success factor for an organization. Some of factors that helps
to generate motivated workforce are:
 Know Thyself: Managers must understand the motivation, strength &
weaknesses of an organization. Mainly it identifies most valuable
resource & it help in achieving goals.
 Know your employees: It is one of the important point and effective
manager have interactive behavior with its staff in perspective to
knowledge. In an effective business context manager learns about
employee and satisfies him related to goals it would help to utilize
strength.
 Establish a positive attitudes: It is one of the important factor in both
employer and employee to have positive attitude. A positive attitude
generate positive actions. It also helps in addressing problems in a
positive manner.
 Share the goals: The goals needs to determine at all levels evaluating
individual and organization needs. It also help in evaluating missions &
road map to achieve something in future.
9
 Monitor progress: The organizations has to monitor closely roadmap
& discussed with different departments monthly, quarterly or annually.
This would help an organization to act upon plan.
 Developing interesting work: The interest in work is one of the
important aspect for an organization for an employee. For interest
factor management should act upon job rotation, job enlargement &
job enrichment as well to keep interest factor going on.
 Communicate Effectively: It gives the employees with knowledge
related to the work. For lapses within the department or an
organization it is important for employees to communicate effectively
so that message conveyed properly.
 Celebrate Success: It is the part of recognition where achievement
celebrates, it considered as one of the powerful tool for organization &
considered by employees. Although it cost nothing to an organization
but have strong impact on employees.
10
11
 It is an environment where people have ability, confidence to
take ownership to initiate and satisfy the Increasing the
spiritual, political, social, or economic strength of individuals
and communities.
 Requires individuals to be held responsible for accomplishing a
whole task. In order to create the empowered, three conditions
are necessary:
 Everyone must understand the need for change
 The system needs to change to the new paradigm
 The organization must enable its employees
12
 In the modern system of an organization there is strong role of teams
which reflects the effort of employee involvement. However, there are
some reservation regarding problem solving of quality & productivity.
 Team - a small number of people with complementary skills who are
committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and
approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. They
also termed as group of people with common objectives & goals. Each
member of teams termed as subordinate.
 Each member of team has right to utilize its efforts, skills in its own
capacity towards achievement of goals.
 Effective teams are goal-centered, independent, open, supportive, and
empowered
13
 The participants have its own expertise & everyone capable in its
own perspective to solve problems. There is business
requirement that single personal couldn’t solve issues completely
but the teams.
 When there is interaction between the teams are done there is
chances of results are greater than individuals.
 The team members works rapidly that allow the job in a better
way.
 There is communication increase through faster communication
between the members increase the chance of successful solution.
14
 Quality circles – team of workers and supervisors from the same
work center that meet regularly to address problems
 Problem solving teams – team whose members gather to solve a
specific problem and then disband
 Management teams – team members from various functional
areas that are all managers
 Work teams – teams organized to perform entire job
 Project teams – team to develop something new (New Mustang)
 Virtual teams – team members communicate by computer
15
 Process improvement Team: It is a team of efficient workflow
processes related to primary objective problem-solve in an
organization. Means that all procedure are simplified & faster that
involves in supply chain, it includes the power of "team think"
often makes the difference. It would help to considerable cost
savings and provide better efficiency.
 Cross-functional Team: It is a group of people with
different functional expertise working toward a common goal. It
may include people from finance, marketing, operations, and
human resources departments. Typically, it includes employees
from all levels of an organization.
Prepared By: Muhammad Salman
Jamil 16
 Natural Work Teams: Its not the voluntary composed of
members are work together in a participative environment.
There is authority and autonomy of the team for purposes of
decision making within the team. The participative approach is
based on the belief that employees will be more productive if
they have a higher level of responsibility for their work.
 Self Directed / Self-managed teams: It performs daily
operations in particular process or department. They are
authorized to make decisions on a wide range of issues such as
safety, quality etc. Their responsibilities also include processes
traditionally held by managers, such as goal-setting, allocation
of assignments and conflict resolution.
17
Decision making is a critical process towards success of a team, below are some
processes involves in decision making.
Non-Decision: The team will discuss the subject extensively & not conclude to
make Decisions, it’s the wastage of time & bizarre for team management.
Unilateral Decisions: It is undertaking such as one side or party, not mutual for
the purpose of problem solving. It saves the time for an organization & the leader
has all necessary information. The team has to take positive other team would be
imperial.
Handclasp Decision: It is sort of minor decision, this type of decision can carry a
very low group commitment. Handclasp- decisions made by two members. One
suggests, the other endorses and carries it through without adequate discussion
or group consideration.
18
 Minority Rule Decision: There are some selected people
involve in discussion of decision making that rule their decision
on majority. This happens in some organization where some
individual take responsibility & needs to avoid conflict in an
organization.
 Majority Rule Decision: There are numerous companies that
using this method unanimously. It is considered as the best
alternate method / approach. It is mixture of strategy of
creativity and compromises. There are commitment needs to
implement that compromised during team meeting.
 Consensus: It is a creative and dynamic approach between all
members of a group. Instead of voting in this method majority
approach is considered in a group. Using this approach each
member considered to find solutions that supports the majority.
19
20
• Effective team meetings
eventually result into
effective decision making for
an organization.
• There are some processes
helps to achieve desired
results
• Meeting should be regularly
scheduled.
• Agenda should be developed
• Agenda should be listed
• Periodically the meeting
should be conducted
 Team development is considered as one of important factor
towards performance of an individuals. It is required that every
individual of team know exactly which goals needs to perform.
Bruce Tuckerman found that there are FOUR stages of team’s
development.
 FORMING
 STORMING
 NORMING
 PERFORMING
21
FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING
Teams are
generally new
teams that are
learning how to
work together
Teams have moved
past the early
forming stages and
are now
encountering some
disagreements
and/or conflict.
This is natural, but
teams need to find
effective ways to
handle conflict
before they can
move on to
Norming Stage.
Norming teams
have successfully
moved out of the
storming stage
and are ready to
move to a higher
level of
communication
and problem-
solving.
Performing teams
are at the highest
level of
performance and
can process their
SWOT while
accomplishing
their goals.
22
Adjourning: It’s a reserve stage considered as temporary team. There is need of
evaluation & past experiences. Most companies are lacking that when participant
change for future team they don’t considered key participant or team’s contribution. It
is difficult for an organization to monitor lapses in stages.
 Insufficient training
 Incompatible reward & compensation
 First-line supervisor resistance
 Lack of planning
 Lack of Management Support
 Access to Information Systems
 Lack of Union Support
 Project scope too large
 Project objectives are not significant
 No clear measure of success
 No time to do improvement work
23
 Training is an essential tool for an effective team
 It includes an experimental approach such as practical knowledge
 Trainers characteristics are knowledgeable, enthusiasm etc
 Team should feel comfortable after training whatever role provided
 Team leader should be receptive to suggestions and changes
warranted
 Initially, there must be strong awareness regarding training
objectives
 There must be room of suggestion, feedback needs to accommodate
 There is need to analyze the changes in behavior & attitude
 In relation to TQM it covers group dynamics, awareness of problem
solving & technical aspects
24
25
 A formalized mechanism which encourage employees to contribute effective ideas
for improving organizational systems.
 The aim is to gather, analyze & implement ideas in order to achieve positive
impact on business that considered value for the customer.
 There are some ground principles on which this effective system is managed:
 There is need to have progressive approach in an organization such as
suggestion box gives positive impact.
 There is to simplify the business processes & remove fear from an organization
because it kills employees.
 Every individual encourage to participate & it needs to simplify such as paper
work, review & procedure.
 There is need to respond quickly as timely decision is the requirement
otherwise it wont beneficial
 There is need for reward the idea so everyone feels its worth and contribution
in an organization.
26
 RECOGNITION: Appreciation or acclaim for an achievement, service, or
ability. It also considered as motivational factor in an organization
publicize & deliver positive contribution.
 REWARD: A thing given in recognition of service, effort, or achievement.
It sometime considered as tangible items like cash awards or other gifts.
 There are numerous tools involve in establishing effective recognition &
reward system:
1. It gives continual reminder so that organization regards quality &
productivity.
2. It provide visible technique for high achievers for outstanding
performance.
3. It provides specific goals to follow also it motivates employees.
4. It boost the morale of the employees by creating healthy environment.
27
28
 Employee involvement means allowing employees to participate in
work-related decisions and improvement activities that affect them.
 This doesn’t mean anarchy, but it means that management shares its
responsibilities in decision-making with employees. It increase the
chance of competition in an organization, it also increase quality &
productivity in an organization due to below defined factors:
1. Increases trust and commitment.
2. Improves employee communications and attitudes.
3. Involved employees are more likely to generate new ideas
and achieve a higher quality of work life
4. Reduce the workload of managers
29
30

More Related Content

What's hot

Designing Organizational Structure
Designing Organizational StructureDesigning Organizational Structure
Designing Organizational Structure
nanayem
 
Taguchi loss function
Taguchi loss functionTaguchi loss function
Taguchi loss function
nithyanithi26
 
Quality management principles
Quality management principlesQuality management principles
Quality management principles
Mohit Singla
 
House of quality
House  of  qualityHouse  of  quality
House of quality
Avinash Sharma
 
Types of managers, Managerial roles and skills
Types of managers, Managerial roles and skillsTypes of managers, Managerial roles and skills
Types of managers, Managerial roles and skills
R.Arun Kumar M.E (Ph.D.)
 
Unit v final
Unit v finalUnit v final
Unit v final
Senthil Rajan
 
Basic Approaches of Quality management (TQM)
Basic Approaches of Quality management (TQM)Basic Approaches of Quality management (TQM)
Basic Approaches of Quality management (TQM)
Mudassar Shah
 
Chapter 2 quality management
Chapter 2  quality managementChapter 2  quality management
Chapter 2 quality management
alpha flores
 
Benchmarking tqm
Benchmarking   tqmBenchmarking   tqm
Benchmarking tqm
Deborah Sharon
 
R chart
R chartR chart
Buyer supplier relationship
Buyer supplier relationshipBuyer supplier relationship
Buyer supplier relationship
GAURAV SHARMA
 
House of Quality in Total Quality Management
House of Quality in Total Quality ManagementHouse of Quality in Total Quality Management
House of Quality in Total Quality Management
Dr.Raja R
 
Benchmarking TQM
Benchmarking TQMBenchmarking TQM
Benchmarking TQM
amarjeetgorai
 
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
TOTAL QUALITY  MANAGEMENTTOTAL QUALITY  MANAGEMENT
Controlling for Organizational Performance
Controlling for Organizational PerformanceControlling for Organizational Performance
Controlling for Organizational Performance
Kriti Kampani
 
Force field analysis
Force field analysisForce field analysis
Force field analysis
Robin Jadhav
 
Contionus improvement case analysis
Contionus improvement case analysisContionus improvement case analysis
Contionus improvement case analysis
1shruthika
 
INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENTINTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
Mohammad Salman
 
TQM Unit 2
TQM Unit 2TQM Unit 2
TQM Unit 2
Adani University
 
Supply Chain Management And Logistics PowerPoint Presentation Slides
Supply Chain Management And Logistics PowerPoint Presentation SlidesSupply Chain Management And Logistics PowerPoint Presentation Slides
Supply Chain Management And Logistics PowerPoint Presentation Slides
SlideTeam
 

What's hot (20)

Designing Organizational Structure
Designing Organizational StructureDesigning Organizational Structure
Designing Organizational Structure
 
Taguchi loss function
Taguchi loss functionTaguchi loss function
Taguchi loss function
 
Quality management principles
Quality management principlesQuality management principles
Quality management principles
 
House of quality
House  of  qualityHouse  of  quality
House of quality
 
Types of managers, Managerial roles and skills
Types of managers, Managerial roles and skillsTypes of managers, Managerial roles and skills
Types of managers, Managerial roles and skills
 
Unit v final
Unit v finalUnit v final
Unit v final
 
Basic Approaches of Quality management (TQM)
Basic Approaches of Quality management (TQM)Basic Approaches of Quality management (TQM)
Basic Approaches of Quality management (TQM)
 
Chapter 2 quality management
Chapter 2  quality managementChapter 2  quality management
Chapter 2 quality management
 
Benchmarking tqm
Benchmarking   tqmBenchmarking   tqm
Benchmarking tqm
 
R chart
R chartR chart
R chart
 
Buyer supplier relationship
Buyer supplier relationshipBuyer supplier relationship
Buyer supplier relationship
 
House of Quality in Total Quality Management
House of Quality in Total Quality ManagementHouse of Quality in Total Quality Management
House of Quality in Total Quality Management
 
Benchmarking TQM
Benchmarking TQMBenchmarking TQM
Benchmarking TQM
 
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
TOTAL QUALITY  MANAGEMENTTOTAL QUALITY  MANAGEMENT
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
 
Controlling for Organizational Performance
Controlling for Organizational PerformanceControlling for Organizational Performance
Controlling for Organizational Performance
 
Force field analysis
Force field analysisForce field analysis
Force field analysis
 
Contionus improvement case analysis
Contionus improvement case analysisContionus improvement case analysis
Contionus improvement case analysis
 
INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENTINTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
 
TQM Unit 2
TQM Unit 2TQM Unit 2
TQM Unit 2
 
Supply Chain Management And Logistics PowerPoint Presentation Slides
Supply Chain Management And Logistics PowerPoint Presentation SlidesSupply Chain Management And Logistics PowerPoint Presentation Slides
Supply Chain Management And Logistics PowerPoint Presentation Slides
 

Similar to Total Quality Management

Employee Morale
Employee MoraleEmployee Morale
Employee Morale
Bendita Baylôn Ü
 
Tools for team excellence husczo
Tools for team excellence   husczoTools for team excellence   husczo
Tools for team excellence husczo
Edorta Agirre
 
. Executive summary Organizations have increasingly made it k.docx
. Executive summary Organizations have increasingly made it k.docx. Executive summary Organizations have increasingly made it k.docx
. Executive summary Organizations have increasingly made it k.docx
mercysuttle
 
Assignment
AssignmentAssignment
Assignment
Jeet Poria
 
MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATION How do managers group task into jobs tha...
MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATION How do managers group task into jobs tha...MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATION How do managers group task into jobs tha...
MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATION How do managers group task into jobs tha...
Agnes Querencia
 
Hr Lean.Ppt Rev Final.Ppt To Ac
Hr  Lean.Ppt Rev Final.Ppt To AcHr  Lean.Ppt Rev Final.Ppt To Ac
Hr Lean.Ppt Rev Final.Ppt To Ac
JOHNFWHITE1
 
Emp Engagemnt
Emp EngagemntEmp Engagemnt
Emp Engagemnt
swati18
 
Employee Engagement.Doc
Employee Engagement.DocEmployee Engagement.Doc
Employee Engagement.Doc
swati18
 
Employee motivation FOR MBA FROJECT
Employee motivation FOR MBA FROJECTEmployee motivation FOR MBA FROJECT
Employee motivation FOR MBA FROJECT
John Ap
 
Honda mba project
Honda mba project Honda mba project
Honda mba project
John Ap
 
Running Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docx
Running Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docxRunning Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docx
Running Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docx
todd581
 
Running Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docx
Running Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docxRunning Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docx
Running Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docx
glendar3
 
Motivating Employees
Motivating EmployeesMotivating Employees
Motivating Employees
abdullah shahzad
 
Intro to management
Intro to managementIntro to management
Intro to management
SadafZZaidi
 
Empowerment
EmpowermentEmpowerment
Empowerment
Jo Woolery
 
employee motivation
employee motivationemployee motivation
employee motivation
ravi2907
 
Hrm- EVP Twins
Hrm- EVP TwinsHrm- EVP Twins
Hrm- EVP Twins
NakibulQuader
 
Motivation of Employees in the Work Place
Motivation of Employees in the Work PlaceMotivation of Employees in the Work Place
Motivation of Employees in the Work Place
Bahadir Beadin
 
Quality Work Life
Quality Work Life Quality Work Life
Quality Work Life
Bahadir Beadin
 
Empower
EmpowerEmpower
Empower
hemasheba
 

Similar to Total Quality Management (20)

Employee Morale
Employee MoraleEmployee Morale
Employee Morale
 
Tools for team excellence husczo
Tools for team excellence   husczoTools for team excellence   husczo
Tools for team excellence husczo
 
. Executive summary Organizations have increasingly made it k.docx
. Executive summary Organizations have increasingly made it k.docx. Executive summary Organizations have increasingly made it k.docx
. Executive summary Organizations have increasingly made it k.docx
 
Assignment
AssignmentAssignment
Assignment
 
MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATION How do managers group task into jobs tha...
MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATION How do managers group task into jobs tha...MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATION How do managers group task into jobs tha...
MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATION How do managers group task into jobs tha...
 
Hr Lean.Ppt Rev Final.Ppt To Ac
Hr  Lean.Ppt Rev Final.Ppt To AcHr  Lean.Ppt Rev Final.Ppt To Ac
Hr Lean.Ppt Rev Final.Ppt To Ac
 
Emp Engagemnt
Emp EngagemntEmp Engagemnt
Emp Engagemnt
 
Employee Engagement.Doc
Employee Engagement.DocEmployee Engagement.Doc
Employee Engagement.Doc
 
Employee motivation FOR MBA FROJECT
Employee motivation FOR MBA FROJECTEmployee motivation FOR MBA FROJECT
Employee motivation FOR MBA FROJECT
 
Honda mba project
Honda mba project Honda mba project
Honda mba project
 
Running Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docx
Running Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docxRunning Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docx
Running Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docx
 
Running Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docx
Running Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docxRunning Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docx
Running Head MOTIVATING PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY 1.docx
 
Motivating Employees
Motivating EmployeesMotivating Employees
Motivating Employees
 
Intro to management
Intro to managementIntro to management
Intro to management
 
Empowerment
EmpowermentEmpowerment
Empowerment
 
employee motivation
employee motivationemployee motivation
employee motivation
 
Hrm- EVP Twins
Hrm- EVP TwinsHrm- EVP Twins
Hrm- EVP Twins
 
Motivation of Employees in the Work Place
Motivation of Employees in the Work PlaceMotivation of Employees in the Work Place
Motivation of Employees in the Work Place
 
Quality Work Life
Quality Work Life Quality Work Life
Quality Work Life
 
Empower
EmpowerEmpower
Empower
 

More from Aneel Raza

Review of property market in corona
Review of property market in coronaReview of property market in corona
Review of property market in corona
Aneel Raza
 
How to kick start your business with a cash grant
How to kick start your business with a cash grantHow to kick start your business with a cash grant
How to kick start your business with a cash grant
Aneel Raza
 
Chapter 18
Chapter 18Chapter 18
Chapter 18
Aneel Raza
 
Total Quality Management
Total Quality ManagementTotal Quality Management
Total Quality Management
Aneel Raza
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
Aneel Raza
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
Aneel Raza
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
Aneel Raza
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
Aneel Raza
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
Aneel Raza
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
Aneel Raza
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
Aneel Raza
 

More from Aneel Raza (11)

Review of property market in corona
Review of property market in coronaReview of property market in corona
Review of property market in corona
 
How to kick start your business with a cash grant
How to kick start your business with a cash grantHow to kick start your business with a cash grant
How to kick start your business with a cash grant
 
Chapter 18
Chapter 18Chapter 18
Chapter 18
 
Total Quality Management
Total Quality ManagementTotal Quality Management
Total Quality Management
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
 

Recently uploaded

20240608 QFM019 Engineering Leadership Reading List May 2024
20240608 QFM019 Engineering Leadership Reading List May 202420240608 QFM019 Engineering Leadership Reading List May 2024
20240608 QFM019 Engineering Leadership Reading List May 2024
Matthew Sinclair
 
Integrity in leadership builds trust by ensuring consistency between words an...
Integrity in leadership builds trust by ensuring consistency between words an...Integrity in leadership builds trust by ensuring consistency between words an...
Integrity in leadership builds trust by ensuring consistency between words an...
Ram V Chary
 
Sethurathnam Ravi: A Legacy in Finance and Leadership
Sethurathnam Ravi: A Legacy in Finance and LeadershipSethurathnam Ravi: A Legacy in Finance and Leadership
Sethurathnam Ravi: A Legacy in Finance and Leadership
Anjana Josie
 
Comparing Stability and Sustainability in Agile Systems
Comparing Stability and Sustainability in Agile SystemsComparing Stability and Sustainability in Agile Systems
Comparing Stability and Sustainability in Agile Systems
Rob Healy
 
在线办理(UVic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证录取通知书一模一样
在线办理(UVic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证录取通知书一模一样在线办理(UVic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证录取通知书一模一样
在线办理(UVic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证录取通知书一模一样
tdt5v4b
 
The Management Guide: From Projects to Portfolio
The Management Guide: From Projects to PortfolioThe Management Guide: From Projects to Portfolio
The Management Guide: From Projects to Portfolio
Ahmed AbdelMoneim
 
原版制作(澳洲WSU毕业证书)西悉尼大学毕业证文凭证书一模一样
原版制作(澳洲WSU毕业证书)西悉尼大学毕业证文凭证书一模一样原版制作(澳洲WSU毕业证书)西悉尼大学毕业证文凭证书一模一样
原版制作(澳洲WSU毕业证书)西悉尼大学毕业证文凭证书一模一样
tdt5v4b
 
Leadership Ethics and Change, Purpose to Impact Plan
Leadership Ethics and Change, Purpose to Impact PlanLeadership Ethics and Change, Purpose to Impact Plan
Leadership Ethics and Change, Purpose to Impact Plan
Muhammad Adil Jamil
 
Make it or Break it - Insights for achieving Product-market fit .pdf
Make it or Break it - Insights for achieving Product-market fit .pdfMake it or Break it - Insights for achieving Product-market fit .pdf
Make it or Break it - Insights for achieving Product-market fit .pdf
Resonate Digital
 
Enriching engagement with ethical review processes
Enriching engagement with ethical review processesEnriching engagement with ethical review processes
Enriching engagement with ethical review processes
strikingabalance
 
Resource-mobilization-guide-for-community-based-organizations1.pdf
Resource-mobilization-guide-for-community-based-organizations1.pdfResource-mobilization-guide-for-community-based-organizations1.pdf
Resource-mobilization-guide-for-community-based-organizations1.pdf
FeteneA
 
Employment Practices Regulation and Multinational Corporations
Employment PracticesRegulation and Multinational CorporationsEmployment PracticesRegulation and Multinational Corporations
Employment Practices Regulation and Multinational Corporations
RoopaTemkar
 
Stuart Wilson the teams I have led - 2024
Stuart Wilson the teams I have led - 2024Stuart Wilson the teams I have led - 2024
Stuart Wilson the teams I have led - 2024
stuwilson.co.uk
 
Addiction to Winning Across Diverse Populations.pdf
Addiction to Winning Across Diverse Populations.pdfAddiction to Winning Across Diverse Populations.pdf
Addiction to Winning Across Diverse Populations.pdf
Bill641377
 
Public Speaking Tips to Help You Be A Strong Leader.pdf
Public Speaking Tips to Help You Be A Strong Leader.pdfPublic Speaking Tips to Help You Be A Strong Leader.pdf
Public Speaking Tips to Help You Be A Strong Leader.pdf
Pinta Partners
 
W.H.Bender Quote 66 - ServPoints Sequence of Service™ should be Identified fo...
W.H.Bender Quote 66 - ServPoints Sequence of Service™ should be Identified fo...W.H.Bender Quote 66 - ServPoints Sequence of Service™ should be Identified fo...
W.H.Bender Quote 66 - ServPoints Sequence of Service™ should be Identified fo...
William (Bill) H. Bender, FCSI
 
原版制作(CDU毕业证书)查尔斯达尔文大学毕业证PDF成绩单一模一样
原版制作(CDU毕业证书)查尔斯达尔文大学毕业证PDF成绩单一模一样原版制作(CDU毕业证书)查尔斯达尔文大学毕业证PDF成绩单一模一样
原版制作(CDU毕业证书)查尔斯达尔文大学毕业证PDF成绩单一模一样
tdt5v4b
 
Credit-Management seminar for cooperative power point presentation
Credit-Management seminar for cooperative power point presentationCredit-Management seminar for cooperative power point presentation
Credit-Management seminar for cooperative power point presentation
bernanbumatay1
 
在线办理(Murdoch毕业证书)莫道克大学毕业证电子版成绩单一模一样
在线办理(Murdoch毕业证书)莫道克大学毕业证电子版成绩单一模一样在线办理(Murdoch毕业证书)莫道克大学毕业证电子版成绩单一模一样
在线办理(Murdoch毕业证书)莫道克大学毕业证电子版成绩单一模一样
tdt5v4b
 
12 steps to transform your organization into the agile org you deserve
12 steps to transform your organization into the agile org you deserve12 steps to transform your organization into the agile org you deserve
12 steps to transform your organization into the agile org you deserve
Pierre E. NEIS
 

Recently uploaded (20)

20240608 QFM019 Engineering Leadership Reading List May 2024
20240608 QFM019 Engineering Leadership Reading List May 202420240608 QFM019 Engineering Leadership Reading List May 2024
20240608 QFM019 Engineering Leadership Reading List May 2024
 
Integrity in leadership builds trust by ensuring consistency between words an...
Integrity in leadership builds trust by ensuring consistency between words an...Integrity in leadership builds trust by ensuring consistency between words an...
Integrity in leadership builds trust by ensuring consistency between words an...
 
Sethurathnam Ravi: A Legacy in Finance and Leadership
Sethurathnam Ravi: A Legacy in Finance and LeadershipSethurathnam Ravi: A Legacy in Finance and Leadership
Sethurathnam Ravi: A Legacy in Finance and Leadership
 
Comparing Stability and Sustainability in Agile Systems
Comparing Stability and Sustainability in Agile SystemsComparing Stability and Sustainability in Agile Systems
Comparing Stability and Sustainability in Agile Systems
 
在线办理(UVic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证录取通知书一模一样
在线办理(UVic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证录取通知书一模一样在线办理(UVic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证录取通知书一模一样
在线办理(UVic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证录取通知书一模一样
 
The Management Guide: From Projects to Portfolio
The Management Guide: From Projects to PortfolioThe Management Guide: From Projects to Portfolio
The Management Guide: From Projects to Portfolio
 
原版制作(澳洲WSU毕业证书)西悉尼大学毕业证文凭证书一模一样
原版制作(澳洲WSU毕业证书)西悉尼大学毕业证文凭证书一模一样原版制作(澳洲WSU毕业证书)西悉尼大学毕业证文凭证书一模一样
原版制作(澳洲WSU毕业证书)西悉尼大学毕业证文凭证书一模一样
 
Leadership Ethics and Change, Purpose to Impact Plan
Leadership Ethics and Change, Purpose to Impact PlanLeadership Ethics and Change, Purpose to Impact Plan
Leadership Ethics and Change, Purpose to Impact Plan
 
Make it or Break it - Insights for achieving Product-market fit .pdf
Make it or Break it - Insights for achieving Product-market fit .pdfMake it or Break it - Insights for achieving Product-market fit .pdf
Make it or Break it - Insights for achieving Product-market fit .pdf
 
Enriching engagement with ethical review processes
Enriching engagement with ethical review processesEnriching engagement with ethical review processes
Enriching engagement with ethical review processes
 
Resource-mobilization-guide-for-community-based-organizations1.pdf
Resource-mobilization-guide-for-community-based-organizations1.pdfResource-mobilization-guide-for-community-based-organizations1.pdf
Resource-mobilization-guide-for-community-based-organizations1.pdf
 
Employment Practices Regulation and Multinational Corporations
Employment PracticesRegulation and Multinational CorporationsEmployment PracticesRegulation and Multinational Corporations
Employment Practices Regulation and Multinational Corporations
 
Stuart Wilson the teams I have led - 2024
Stuart Wilson the teams I have led - 2024Stuart Wilson the teams I have led - 2024
Stuart Wilson the teams I have led - 2024
 
Addiction to Winning Across Diverse Populations.pdf
Addiction to Winning Across Diverse Populations.pdfAddiction to Winning Across Diverse Populations.pdf
Addiction to Winning Across Diverse Populations.pdf
 
Public Speaking Tips to Help You Be A Strong Leader.pdf
Public Speaking Tips to Help You Be A Strong Leader.pdfPublic Speaking Tips to Help You Be A Strong Leader.pdf
Public Speaking Tips to Help You Be A Strong Leader.pdf
 
W.H.Bender Quote 66 - ServPoints Sequence of Service™ should be Identified fo...
W.H.Bender Quote 66 - ServPoints Sequence of Service™ should be Identified fo...W.H.Bender Quote 66 - ServPoints Sequence of Service™ should be Identified fo...
W.H.Bender Quote 66 - ServPoints Sequence of Service™ should be Identified fo...
 
原版制作(CDU毕业证书)查尔斯达尔文大学毕业证PDF成绩单一模一样
原版制作(CDU毕业证书)查尔斯达尔文大学毕业证PDF成绩单一模一样原版制作(CDU毕业证书)查尔斯达尔文大学毕业证PDF成绩单一模一样
原版制作(CDU毕业证书)查尔斯达尔文大学毕业证PDF成绩单一模一样
 
Credit-Management seminar for cooperative power point presentation
Credit-Management seminar for cooperative power point presentationCredit-Management seminar for cooperative power point presentation
Credit-Management seminar for cooperative power point presentation
 
在线办理(Murdoch毕业证书)莫道克大学毕业证电子版成绩单一模一样
在线办理(Murdoch毕业证书)莫道克大学毕业证电子版成绩单一模一样在线办理(Murdoch毕业证书)莫道克大学毕业证电子版成绩单一模一样
在线办理(Murdoch毕业证书)莫道克大学毕业证电子版成绩单一模一样
 
12 steps to transform your organization into the agile org you deserve
12 steps to transform your organization into the agile org you deserve12 steps to transform your organization into the agile org you deserve
12 steps to transform your organization into the agile org you deserve
 

Total Quality Management

  • 1. LECTURE # 4: Employee Involvement by M. Salman Jamil
  • 2.  It directly relates with quality & productivity & its not the replacement of management but its works for improvement for an organization. It helps in achieving goals for an organization at all levels.  For proper understanding of Employee Involvement we have to identify Motivation levels of employees for an organization. Maslow’s hierarchy needs defined motivation levels.  Abraham Maslow developed the first and most popular motivational theories.  He stated that motivation is best explained in terms of hierarchy. 2
  • 3. 3  Self-Actualization  Esteem  Love  Safety  Physiological
  • 4.  Human nature is basically good, not evil  Normal human development involves the actualization of this inherent goodness  Psychopathology results from the frustration of a human being’s essential nature  Level 1: This level termed as Survival includes clothing, shelter etc. An organization has to realize the basic needs for its employee.  Level 2: This level termed as Security of work and job security as well. It is one of the important level that if employees considered secured then he fully motivate and work with its full potential. Otherwise, it considered as job threat.  Level 3: This level relates to Social level, we are not living in isolation. We have to coordinate socially & working as team in a place. Within a group it provides the chance to motivate individuals. 4
  • 5.  Level 4: This level relates to Self Esteem, this level achieved after long time with lots of success. It require advice from senior staff that value for an organization. It gives a personal protocol / status / control & Freedom to perform its job in an organization.  Level 5: This level relates to Self-Actualization, where an individual is performing its job according to their abilities. There is proper policy for an organization for personal to involve in decision making. So, sometime it threatened the management so that the management demotes to lower level. 5
  • 6.  Two Factor Theory states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction  The theory was based around interviews with 203 American accountants & engineers in Pittsburgh, chosen because of their professions' growing importance in the business world by Herzberg.  The subjects were asked to relate times when they felt exceptionally good or bad about their present job or any previous job, and to provide reasons, and a description of the sequence of events giving rise to that positive or negative feeling. 6
  • 7.  Satisfaction which is mostly affected by the "motivator factors". Motivation factors help increase the satisfaction but aren't that affective on dissatisfaction.  Dissatisfaction is the results of the "hygiene factors". These factors, if absent or inadequate, cause dissatisfaction, but their presence has little effect on long-term satisfaction. 7
  • 8.  There is strong discussion between employee wants and management perceptions.  Maslow and Herzberg describe theories in its own perspective such as employee involvement require proper reward & recognitions while managers achieved quality and productivity.  There is need to analyze proper understanding of motivators closely. Some of the motivator factors are mentioned below:  Interesting Work  Appreciation  Involvement  Job Security  Good Pay  Promotion/growth etc. 8
  • 9.  There are multiple models to describe multiple condition of a workforce. It is considered as success factor for an organization. Some of factors that helps to generate motivated workforce are:  Know Thyself: Managers must understand the motivation, strength & weaknesses of an organization. Mainly it identifies most valuable resource & it help in achieving goals.  Know your employees: It is one of the important point and effective manager have interactive behavior with its staff in perspective to knowledge. In an effective business context manager learns about employee and satisfies him related to goals it would help to utilize strength.  Establish a positive attitudes: It is one of the important factor in both employer and employee to have positive attitude. A positive attitude generate positive actions. It also helps in addressing problems in a positive manner.  Share the goals: The goals needs to determine at all levels evaluating individual and organization needs. It also help in evaluating missions & road map to achieve something in future. 9
  • 10.  Monitor progress: The organizations has to monitor closely roadmap & discussed with different departments monthly, quarterly or annually. This would help an organization to act upon plan.  Developing interesting work: The interest in work is one of the important aspect for an organization for an employee. For interest factor management should act upon job rotation, job enlargement & job enrichment as well to keep interest factor going on.  Communicate Effectively: It gives the employees with knowledge related to the work. For lapses within the department or an organization it is important for employees to communicate effectively so that message conveyed properly.  Celebrate Success: It is the part of recognition where achievement celebrates, it considered as one of the powerful tool for organization & considered by employees. Although it cost nothing to an organization but have strong impact on employees. 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12.  It is an environment where people have ability, confidence to take ownership to initiate and satisfy the Increasing the spiritual, political, social, or economic strength of individuals and communities.  Requires individuals to be held responsible for accomplishing a whole task. In order to create the empowered, three conditions are necessary:  Everyone must understand the need for change  The system needs to change to the new paradigm  The organization must enable its employees 12
  • 13.  In the modern system of an organization there is strong role of teams which reflects the effort of employee involvement. However, there are some reservation regarding problem solving of quality & productivity.  Team - a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. They also termed as group of people with common objectives & goals. Each member of teams termed as subordinate.  Each member of team has right to utilize its efforts, skills in its own capacity towards achievement of goals.  Effective teams are goal-centered, independent, open, supportive, and empowered 13
  • 14.  The participants have its own expertise & everyone capable in its own perspective to solve problems. There is business requirement that single personal couldn’t solve issues completely but the teams.  When there is interaction between the teams are done there is chances of results are greater than individuals.  The team members works rapidly that allow the job in a better way.  There is communication increase through faster communication between the members increase the chance of successful solution. 14
  • 15.  Quality circles – team of workers and supervisors from the same work center that meet regularly to address problems  Problem solving teams – team whose members gather to solve a specific problem and then disband  Management teams – team members from various functional areas that are all managers  Work teams – teams organized to perform entire job  Project teams – team to develop something new (New Mustang)  Virtual teams – team members communicate by computer 15
  • 16.  Process improvement Team: It is a team of efficient workflow processes related to primary objective problem-solve in an organization. Means that all procedure are simplified & faster that involves in supply chain, it includes the power of "team think" often makes the difference. It would help to considerable cost savings and provide better efficiency.  Cross-functional Team: It is a group of people with different functional expertise working toward a common goal. It may include people from finance, marketing, operations, and human resources departments. Typically, it includes employees from all levels of an organization. Prepared By: Muhammad Salman Jamil 16
  • 17.  Natural Work Teams: Its not the voluntary composed of members are work together in a participative environment. There is authority and autonomy of the team for purposes of decision making within the team. The participative approach is based on the belief that employees will be more productive if they have a higher level of responsibility for their work.  Self Directed / Self-managed teams: It performs daily operations in particular process or department. They are authorized to make decisions on a wide range of issues such as safety, quality etc. Their responsibilities also include processes traditionally held by managers, such as goal-setting, allocation of assignments and conflict resolution. 17
  • 18. Decision making is a critical process towards success of a team, below are some processes involves in decision making. Non-Decision: The team will discuss the subject extensively & not conclude to make Decisions, it’s the wastage of time & bizarre for team management. Unilateral Decisions: It is undertaking such as one side or party, not mutual for the purpose of problem solving. It saves the time for an organization & the leader has all necessary information. The team has to take positive other team would be imperial. Handclasp Decision: It is sort of minor decision, this type of decision can carry a very low group commitment. Handclasp- decisions made by two members. One suggests, the other endorses and carries it through without adequate discussion or group consideration. 18
  • 19.  Minority Rule Decision: There are some selected people involve in discussion of decision making that rule their decision on majority. This happens in some organization where some individual take responsibility & needs to avoid conflict in an organization.  Majority Rule Decision: There are numerous companies that using this method unanimously. It is considered as the best alternate method / approach. It is mixture of strategy of creativity and compromises. There are commitment needs to implement that compromised during team meeting.  Consensus: It is a creative and dynamic approach between all members of a group. Instead of voting in this method majority approach is considered in a group. Using this approach each member considered to find solutions that supports the majority. 19
  • 20. 20 • Effective team meetings eventually result into effective decision making for an organization. • There are some processes helps to achieve desired results • Meeting should be regularly scheduled. • Agenda should be developed • Agenda should be listed • Periodically the meeting should be conducted
  • 21.  Team development is considered as one of important factor towards performance of an individuals. It is required that every individual of team know exactly which goals needs to perform. Bruce Tuckerman found that there are FOUR stages of team’s development.  FORMING  STORMING  NORMING  PERFORMING 21
  • 22. FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING Teams are generally new teams that are learning how to work together Teams have moved past the early forming stages and are now encountering some disagreements and/or conflict. This is natural, but teams need to find effective ways to handle conflict before they can move on to Norming Stage. Norming teams have successfully moved out of the storming stage and are ready to move to a higher level of communication and problem- solving. Performing teams are at the highest level of performance and can process their SWOT while accomplishing their goals. 22 Adjourning: It’s a reserve stage considered as temporary team. There is need of evaluation & past experiences. Most companies are lacking that when participant change for future team they don’t considered key participant or team’s contribution. It is difficult for an organization to monitor lapses in stages.
  • 23.  Insufficient training  Incompatible reward & compensation  First-line supervisor resistance  Lack of planning  Lack of Management Support  Access to Information Systems  Lack of Union Support  Project scope too large  Project objectives are not significant  No clear measure of success  No time to do improvement work 23
  • 24.  Training is an essential tool for an effective team  It includes an experimental approach such as practical knowledge  Trainers characteristics are knowledgeable, enthusiasm etc  Team should feel comfortable after training whatever role provided  Team leader should be receptive to suggestions and changes warranted  Initially, there must be strong awareness regarding training objectives  There must be room of suggestion, feedback needs to accommodate  There is need to analyze the changes in behavior & attitude  In relation to TQM it covers group dynamics, awareness of problem solving & technical aspects 24
  • 25. 25
  • 26.  A formalized mechanism which encourage employees to contribute effective ideas for improving organizational systems.  The aim is to gather, analyze & implement ideas in order to achieve positive impact on business that considered value for the customer.  There are some ground principles on which this effective system is managed:  There is need to have progressive approach in an organization such as suggestion box gives positive impact.  There is to simplify the business processes & remove fear from an organization because it kills employees.  Every individual encourage to participate & it needs to simplify such as paper work, review & procedure.  There is need to respond quickly as timely decision is the requirement otherwise it wont beneficial  There is need for reward the idea so everyone feels its worth and contribution in an organization. 26
  • 27.  RECOGNITION: Appreciation or acclaim for an achievement, service, or ability. It also considered as motivational factor in an organization publicize & deliver positive contribution.  REWARD: A thing given in recognition of service, effort, or achievement. It sometime considered as tangible items like cash awards or other gifts.  There are numerous tools involve in establishing effective recognition & reward system: 1. It gives continual reminder so that organization regards quality & productivity. 2. It provide visible technique for high achievers for outstanding performance. 3. It provides specific goals to follow also it motivates employees. 4. It boost the morale of the employees by creating healthy environment. 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29.  Employee involvement means allowing employees to participate in work-related decisions and improvement activities that affect them.  This doesn’t mean anarchy, but it means that management shares its responsibilities in decision-making with employees. It increase the chance of competition in an organization, it also increase quality & productivity in an organization due to below defined factors: 1. Increases trust and commitment. 2. Improves employee communications and attitudes. 3. Involved employees are more likely to generate new ideas and achieve a higher quality of work life 4. Reduce the workload of managers 29
  • 30. 30