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Total Quality Management

Chapter 1

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Total Quality Management

  1. 1. LECTURE # 1: Introduction by Muhammad Salman Jamil
  2. 2. ◦ Currently Production Manager at Dawlance Private Limited (1.5 years) ◦ Assistant Quality Control Manager at Dawlance Private Limited (3.5 years)  Current Designation: ◦ Deputy Manager – Foaming Department  Education: ◦ Masters in Engineering Management (NED University) ◦ Bachelors in Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering (NED University) 2
  3. 3.  Name  Company  Designation & Department  Work Experience 3
  4. 4. TOPICS TO COVERED: Lecture 1  Definition  Basic Approach  Gurus of TQM  TQM Framework  Awareness  Defining Quality  Historical review  Obstacles  Benefits of TQM  TQM Exemplary Organization 4
  5. 5.  Total Quality Management is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It has main 3 pillars are: 5 Total • Made up of the whole Quality • Degree of excellence a product or services provides Management • Act, Art or a manner of handling, controlling or directing etc.
  6. 6.  It is the art of managing the role to achieve excellence under philosophical guidance with continuous improvement.  “A degree or level of excellence.” Oxford Dictionary  According to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC):“The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy given needs”  Quality is excellence that is better than a minimum standard. 6
  7. 7.  It is conformance to standards and ‘fitness of purpose’  ISO 9000:2000 definition of quality- “It is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.”  Quality is conformance to standards, specifications or requirements (Crosby, 1979)  Quality is fitness for use (Juran, 1989)  Quality as excellence (Peters and Waterman, 1982)  Quality means delighting the customer (Peters, 1989) 7
  8. 8. 1. Management commitment to TQM principles and methods & long term Quality plans for the Organization 2. Focus on customers – internal & external 3. Quality at all levels of the work force. 4. Continuous improvement of the production / business process. 5. Treating suppliers as partners 6. Establish performance measures for the processes. 8
  9. 9. 9 Quality Element Previous State TQM Definition Product Oriented Customer Oriented Priorities Second to Service & Cost First among equals of service and cost Decisions Short-Term Long-Term Emphasis Detection Prevention Errors Operations System Responsibility Quality Control Everyone Problem Solving Managers Teams Procurement Price Life-cycle costs, partnership Manager’s Role Plan, Assign, Control & Enforce Delegate, Coach, Facilitate & mentor
  10. 10.  For implementation of TQM movement, we need go through philosophies of notable individuals in field of TQM. TQM current positioning have contributed to modern setup of organization. 10
  11. 11. The framework of TQM depends upon elements are such as philosophical elements, generic tools & Tools of QC Department 11
  12. 12.  Quality is also defined as excellence in the product or service that fulfills or exceeds the expectations of the customer.  There are 9 dimensions of quality that may be found in products that produce customer-satisfaction.  Though quality is an abstract perception, it has a quantitative measure Q= (P / E ) , where Q = quality, P = performance (as measured by the Manufacturer) E = expectations (of the customer)  If Q >1 then custom has good feeling about product or services 12
  13. 13.  Quality is not fine-tuning your product at the final stage of manufacturing before packaging and shipping  Quality is in-built into the product at every stage from conceiving –specification & design stages to prototyping – testing and manufacturing stages.  TQM philosophy and guiding principles continuously improve the Organization processes and result in customer satisfaction.  Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirement – ISO 9000: 2000 13 MORE ABOUT QUALITY
  14. 14. 1. Performance 2. Features 3. Conformance 4. Reliability 5. Durability 6. Service 7. Response 8. Aesthetics 9. Reputation 14 Performance Services CostFeatures
  15. 15.  Quality in articles and art & crafts produced by skilled craftsmen and artisans from the B.C. era e.g. goldsmiths, silversmiths, blacksmiths, potters etc  Artists & Artisans Guilds in the Middle ages spent years imparting quality skills and the workmen had pride in making quality products.  Industrial Revolution brought factory manufacturing where articles were mass-produced and each worker made only a part of the product and they don’t have idea about quality of the product .  In 1924, W.A. Shewart of Bell Telephone Labs developed a statistical chart for the control of product variables – the beginning of SQC and SPC.  In 1946, the American Society for Quality Control was formed. 15
  16. 16.  In 1950, W. Edwards Deming, who learnt SQC from Shewart, taught SPC & SQC to Japanese engineers and CEO’s  In 1954,Joseph M. Juran taught Japanese managements their responsibility to achieve quality .  In 1960, the first quality control circles were formed. SQC techniques were being applied by Japanese workers.  1970’s US managers were learning from Japan Quality implementation miracles.  In 1980’s TQM principles and methods became popular.(also in auto industry)  In 1990’s ,the ISO 9000 model became the world-wide standard for QMS. 16
  17. 17. There are lots of obstacles for implementation of TQM in an organization because it depends upon physical, social, economic, technological or political. These barriers determined by Robert J. Masters after extensive research are:  Lack of management commitment Top management embrace quality improvement programs no matter how far reaching the programs may appear the monetary implications therein. Competition alone should not be considered as the single factor that drives managers into implementing quality initiatives.  Inability to change organizational culture In adequate cultural dynamism has made total quality implementation difficult because most of the top level management of many organizations are rigid in their ways of doing things. 17
  18. 18. Improper planning The absence of a sound strategy has often contributed to ineffective quality improvement. There is need of developing the right attitude and level of awareness is crucial to achieving success in a quality improvement program. Lack of continuous training & education There is evidence that lack of understanding and proper training exists at all levels of any organization, and that it is a large contributor to worker resistance. TQM should provide comprehensive training, including technical expertise, communication skills, small-team management, problem-solving tools, and customer relations. Incompatible Organizational Structure & isolated individuals & Departments There is need of co-ordination between departments and individuals, it’s the longest internal barrier. The only way to resolve conflicts are restructuring through proper segmentation such as Spartan Light Metal products Inc. implemented 18
  19. 19. Ineffective Management techniques & lack of access to Data & Results Data plays an important role in management decision making , it needs to improve the effect of management ideas for design effective processes. The processes are helpful through excessive inspection, training & management encouragement. Paying scarce attention to internal & external customers Most companies don’t involve quality in their strategic plan, little attention is paid to TQM in terms of human and financial resources. The company attention towards increasing product & quality. TQM has been neglected as its implementation “May not necessarily bring gains to the organization in the short term”. 19
  20. 20. Inadequate use of empowerment and teamwork. A key challenge in implementation of teams, especially self- directed work. Team members should be trained enough in problem solving, monitoring, and resolving conflicts. Norms need to be established around the issues of leadership, membership, and processes. Failure to continually improve There is need to explore problems; constantly improve the system of production and service. There should be continual rise in productivity and a decrease in costs. 20
  21. 21.  TQM is implemented in an organization in 1980s & there are multiple roles implemented at different stages.  In 1981 Motorolla launched improvement of quality with “Zero defects in everything we do”. The company achieved “Total customer satisfaction”. It would achieved through network of customer surveys, field audit & customer feedback etc.  Motorolla implemented Six Sigma & total cycle time to achieve 3.4 defects per million with more improved processes such as design, administration, marketing & administration.  Finally the company launched Participated Management Program – PMP this would help to achieve specific aim, goals, new initiated & problem solving also company devoted 40% of worker training. 21
  22. 22.  Total Quality Management - Dale H. Besterfield et al. ,Pearson education LPE  Certified Manager of Quality / Organizational Excellence – Russell T. Westcott, ASQ (USA) , (2012). Smart Investors: BARRIERS TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION 22
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