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The role of Nuclear Cultural Heritage in long-term
nuclear waste governance
Viktoria Noka, Dr. Melanie Mbah, Ryan Kelly, Alexandra Lampke, Dr. Sophie Kuppler | Berlin, 15.09.2023
Context: nuclear waste management (in Germany)
2
• Highly radioactive waste as an eternal burden (Brunnengräber 2015)
• The site selection procedure (StandAG) should be transparent, participatory,
learning, self-questioning and science-based to promote the acceptability and
ensure ‘added value’ of the site beyond its core function (NEA, 2022)
• During and after the site selection process, the construction and operating phase,
and after closure, the memory of these processes must be preserved, to guarantee
safety in dynamically changing contexts, and honor the region that takes on the
burden (cf. Kuppler/Hocke 2019; Mbah/Kuppler 2021; Mbah/Kuppler i.a.)
• An active nuclear cultural heritage can serve the prevention of loss of knowledge
and support decision-making processes with regard to nuclear sites (Rindzevičiūtė, 2019)
all technical and social knowledges, artefacts and practices related to nuclear technologies can
become part of a nuclear cultural heritage (practice)
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
Context: the NuCultAge project
3
Aims: identify and synthesize theoretical concepts and approaches; identify sites of
nuclear heritage in Germany and analyze examples; describe characteristics and
prerequisites for the institutionalization of a nuclear heritage; identify research
needs
WP1: Literature review on cultural-theoretical approaches (nuclear heritage)
WP2: annotated bibliography on nuclear
cultural heritage in Germany
WP3: Mapping of sites of nuclear cultural
heritage in Germany
WP4: relational analysis of tangible and intangible heritage
WP5: Status quo and outlook for research
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
Methodological approach: literature review
4
Cluster Keywords
cultural heritage
cultural heritage, cultural memories,
heritage futures, (German) nuclear
legacies
energy (German) energy cultures
imaginaries
sociotechnical imaginaries (STI), spatial
imaginaries
place
place attachment, place identitiy, identity
politics, homeland/home
historical
places of remembrance, culture of
remembrance, agency of objects
nuclearity
nuclearity, nuclear landscapes /spaces,
nuclear identity
governance long-term governance, reversibility
Identification of research clusters
and associated keywords
Systematic search for relevant
literature with search strings, i.e.
“nuclear” & “heritage” combined
with snowball search
Identification of ca. 350
publications of which about 200
were significant & scanned
Around 50 publications used for
the literature review
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
Literature review: Cultural Heritage
5
• Cultural heritages are a heterogenous assemblage of “objects, people, places, practices,
pronouncements, bureaucratic apparatuses” that includes “various people, institutions,
apparatuses (dispositifs) and the relations between them” (Harrison 2020, 37)
• Cultural heritage is not an ‘end-product’, but an on-going practice
• Not just a technical and managerial practice, but also a cultural and political one
• Although heritage practices are concerned with the past, heritage work is just as much about
conserving the past as it is about making futures (Penrose/Harrision 2020)
• Preserving memory and information on “unwanted legacies” such as nuclear waste is crucial for
preparing and supporting the decision making of future generations (Penrose/Harrision 2020; Pescatore/Palm 2020)
• Waste has a certain “material and discursive legacy, the management of which is, like heritage,
oriented towards the construction of particular kinds of actual and imagined futures” (Harrison 2020, 49; cf.
Harrison 2016; May/Holtorf 2020)
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
Literature review: defining Nuclear Cultural Heritage
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023 6
“anything that has come into contact with nuclear science and technology”
and includes the “collecting, storing, archiving, preserving and caring for
representative artefacts of nuclear material culture, mapping and safeguarding sites,
preparing and selecting documentation, recording intangible practices, and
establishing and keeping new archives” (Rindzevičiūtė 2019, 4)
Nuclear Cultural Heritage as…
• … a practice
• … meaning-making
• … future-orientated
• … spatialized and place-based
What does this mean
for long-term nuclear
waste governance?
Nuclear imaginaries are both part of the heritage assemblage and influence the practices
of identifying, valuing, curating, and communicating past and future visions of (nuclear)
energy systems
Literature review: energy cultures and imaginaries
7
• Energy cultures as “the social and physical interactions forming relations in the
energy system” (LaBelle 2020, 3) that are shaped and re-produced by dominant socio-
technical and spatial imaginaries (Walker et al. 2010; Sadowski/Bendor 2019; Suhari 2022)
• Sociotechnical imaginaries are visions of desirable futures (Jasanoff/Kim 2009)
• spatial imaginaries are “deeply held collective understandings of socio-spatial relations
that are performed by, give sense to, make possible and change collective socio-spatial
practices” (Davoudi et al. 2018, 101; cf. Chateau et al. 2021)
• Spatiality as a manifestation of social and technological transformation is both,
constitutive and constituting for possible energy futures (Chateau et al. 2021, 7; Levenda et al. 2019)
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
Integrating place-based experiences of the past acknowledges that there are significant
bottom-up processes at work that reflect how the past is curated for the future
Literature review: the role of place and remembrance
8
• “Places are continuously made through ‘social, political, and material processes by
which people iteratively create and recreate the experienced geographies in which
they live’” (Landström/Kemp 2020, 38 based on Pierce et al. 2011, 54)
• Place attachments activate networks and foster social cohesion within
institutionalization processes (cf. Otto/Leibenath 2014; Knaps et al. 2022; Osborne et al 2021; Landström/Kemp 2020)
• Places of remembrance are “crystallization points of collective memory and identity”
(François/Schulze 2001, 9)
• Product of both, material and immaterial elements - i.e. geographical places, but also
social constructs, like events or rituals (Kroh/Lang 2010)
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
Literature review: Long-term governance and institutionalisation
9
• “Institutionalization - the activities and mechanisms by which structures, models,
rules, and problem-solving routines become established as a taken-for-granted part
of everyday social reality” (Schneiberg/Soule 2005, 122)
• Institutions are enablers for processes of cooperation and coordination among
actors in that they offer rules for engagement and thus also offer a frame for the
production of new institutions (Hasse/Krücken 2008, Beunen et al. 2022)
• (Long-term) governance process – a system of interactions through which specific
societal tasks are accomplished
• Specific challenge of long-term governance: creating opportunities, preparing future
decisions, passing on knowledge (cf. Kuppler/Hocke 2019)
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
(Im)materiality
influences how we do long-
term waste governance
(what we consider as
important to pass-on in this
context)
Spatiality
significant role in reference
to nuclearity as well as for
the development of heritage
practices, and as part of a
long-term waste governance
Temporality
making decisions about what
pasts are important for the
future as a projection of a
future imaginary
Discussion: understanding Nuclear Cultural Heritage
10
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
Discussion: putting nuclear cultural heritage into practice
11
Nuclear Cultural Heritage as part of long-term governance (Rindzevičiūtė, 2022)
• Nuclear cultural heritage should be embedded within strategic development of
decommissioning
• Nuclear cultural heritage is not made “about the community” but “with and by the
community” (Rindzevičiūtė, 2022, 28)
• Should include methods of participatory governance
• Participation does not always equal democratisation (cf. Mbah 2022)
• Inclusivity in development of material and immaterial nuclear cultural heritage (social
justice and ethical approaches)
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
• Meaning- & value-producing mechanism
• Includes archives, libraries, time capsules,
markers, active heritage, international
mechanisms, oversight provisions
Examples: putting nuclear cultural heritage into practice – a framework
12
“Preserving Records, Knowledge, and
Memory” framework (RK&M) (Pescatore/Palm,
2020)
• Transfer of knowledge and meaning
through multiple forms, formats, and
mechanism to ensure durability
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
Active heritage as a “heritage that is likely
to evolve over time, such as traditions,
local lore, enactment societies of past
historical events or past practices, local
lore, enactment societies of past historical
events”  link to intangible cultural
heritages
Examples: putting nuclear cultural heritage into practice – international
13
Nucleus: public
archive & vistor
centre (Scotland)
Tabloo: exhibition
centre, respository
site, vistor centre,
and open house
(Belgium)
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
Examples: putting nuclear cultural heritage into practice – bottom-up
14
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
Gorleben as a place of nuclear cultural heritage:
culture, places, and practices of remembrance incl.
archives, direct-action interventions
Thank you for your attention!
Research presented as part of the NuCultAge project
Funded by BASE – grant no. 4723F90101
Project contacts:
Viktoria Noka
v.noka@oeko.de
Oeko-Institut
Energy and Climate Division
Berlin, Germany
Dr. Melanie Mbah
m.mbah@oeko.de
Oeko-Institut
Nuclear Engineering & Facility Safety Divison
Freiburg, Germany
References
16
Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
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The role of Nuclear Cultural Heritage in long-term nuclear waste governance

  • 1. The role of Nuclear Cultural Heritage in long-term nuclear waste governance Viktoria Noka, Dr. Melanie Mbah, Ryan Kelly, Alexandra Lampke, Dr. Sophie Kuppler | Berlin, 15.09.2023
  • 2. Context: nuclear waste management (in Germany) 2 • Highly radioactive waste as an eternal burden (Brunnengräber 2015) • The site selection procedure (StandAG) should be transparent, participatory, learning, self-questioning and science-based to promote the acceptability and ensure ‘added value’ of the site beyond its core function (NEA, 2022) • During and after the site selection process, the construction and operating phase, and after closure, the memory of these processes must be preserved, to guarantee safety in dynamically changing contexts, and honor the region that takes on the burden (cf. Kuppler/Hocke 2019; Mbah/Kuppler 2021; Mbah/Kuppler i.a.) • An active nuclear cultural heritage can serve the prevention of loss of knowledge and support decision-making processes with regard to nuclear sites (Rindzevičiūtė, 2019) all technical and social knowledges, artefacts and practices related to nuclear technologies can become part of a nuclear cultural heritage (practice) Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
  • 3. Context: the NuCultAge project 3 Aims: identify and synthesize theoretical concepts and approaches; identify sites of nuclear heritage in Germany and analyze examples; describe characteristics and prerequisites for the institutionalization of a nuclear heritage; identify research needs WP1: Literature review on cultural-theoretical approaches (nuclear heritage) WP2: annotated bibliography on nuclear cultural heritage in Germany WP3: Mapping of sites of nuclear cultural heritage in Germany WP4: relational analysis of tangible and intangible heritage WP5: Status quo and outlook for research Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
  • 4. Methodological approach: literature review 4 Cluster Keywords cultural heritage cultural heritage, cultural memories, heritage futures, (German) nuclear legacies energy (German) energy cultures imaginaries sociotechnical imaginaries (STI), spatial imaginaries place place attachment, place identitiy, identity politics, homeland/home historical places of remembrance, culture of remembrance, agency of objects nuclearity nuclearity, nuclear landscapes /spaces, nuclear identity governance long-term governance, reversibility Identification of research clusters and associated keywords Systematic search for relevant literature with search strings, i.e. “nuclear” & “heritage” combined with snowball search Identification of ca. 350 publications of which about 200 were significant & scanned Around 50 publications used for the literature review Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
  • 5. Literature review: Cultural Heritage 5 • Cultural heritages are a heterogenous assemblage of “objects, people, places, practices, pronouncements, bureaucratic apparatuses” that includes “various people, institutions, apparatuses (dispositifs) and the relations between them” (Harrison 2020, 37) • Cultural heritage is not an ‘end-product’, but an on-going practice • Not just a technical and managerial practice, but also a cultural and political one • Although heritage practices are concerned with the past, heritage work is just as much about conserving the past as it is about making futures (Penrose/Harrision 2020) • Preserving memory and information on “unwanted legacies” such as nuclear waste is crucial for preparing and supporting the decision making of future generations (Penrose/Harrision 2020; Pescatore/Palm 2020) • Waste has a certain “material and discursive legacy, the management of which is, like heritage, oriented towards the construction of particular kinds of actual and imagined futures” (Harrison 2020, 49; cf. Harrison 2016; May/Holtorf 2020) Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
  • 6. Literature review: defining Nuclear Cultural Heritage Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023 6 “anything that has come into contact with nuclear science and technology” and includes the “collecting, storing, archiving, preserving and caring for representative artefacts of nuclear material culture, mapping and safeguarding sites, preparing and selecting documentation, recording intangible practices, and establishing and keeping new archives” (Rindzevičiūtė 2019, 4) Nuclear Cultural Heritage as… • … a practice • … meaning-making • … future-orientated • … spatialized and place-based What does this mean for long-term nuclear waste governance?
  • 7. Nuclear imaginaries are both part of the heritage assemblage and influence the practices of identifying, valuing, curating, and communicating past and future visions of (nuclear) energy systems Literature review: energy cultures and imaginaries 7 • Energy cultures as “the social and physical interactions forming relations in the energy system” (LaBelle 2020, 3) that are shaped and re-produced by dominant socio- technical and spatial imaginaries (Walker et al. 2010; Sadowski/Bendor 2019; Suhari 2022) • Sociotechnical imaginaries are visions of desirable futures (Jasanoff/Kim 2009) • spatial imaginaries are “deeply held collective understandings of socio-spatial relations that are performed by, give sense to, make possible and change collective socio-spatial practices” (Davoudi et al. 2018, 101; cf. Chateau et al. 2021) • Spatiality as a manifestation of social and technological transformation is both, constitutive and constituting for possible energy futures (Chateau et al. 2021, 7; Levenda et al. 2019) Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
  • 8. Integrating place-based experiences of the past acknowledges that there are significant bottom-up processes at work that reflect how the past is curated for the future Literature review: the role of place and remembrance 8 • “Places are continuously made through ‘social, political, and material processes by which people iteratively create and recreate the experienced geographies in which they live’” (Landström/Kemp 2020, 38 based on Pierce et al. 2011, 54) • Place attachments activate networks and foster social cohesion within institutionalization processes (cf. Otto/Leibenath 2014; Knaps et al. 2022; Osborne et al 2021; Landström/Kemp 2020) • Places of remembrance are “crystallization points of collective memory and identity” (François/Schulze 2001, 9) • Product of both, material and immaterial elements - i.e. geographical places, but also social constructs, like events or rituals (Kroh/Lang 2010) Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
  • 9. Literature review: Long-term governance and institutionalisation 9 • “Institutionalization - the activities and mechanisms by which structures, models, rules, and problem-solving routines become established as a taken-for-granted part of everyday social reality” (Schneiberg/Soule 2005, 122) • Institutions are enablers for processes of cooperation and coordination among actors in that they offer rules for engagement and thus also offer a frame for the production of new institutions (Hasse/Krücken 2008, Beunen et al. 2022) • (Long-term) governance process – a system of interactions through which specific societal tasks are accomplished • Specific challenge of long-term governance: creating opportunities, preparing future decisions, passing on knowledge (cf. Kuppler/Hocke 2019) Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
  • 10. (Im)materiality influences how we do long- term waste governance (what we consider as important to pass-on in this context) Spatiality significant role in reference to nuclearity as well as for the development of heritage practices, and as part of a long-term waste governance Temporality making decisions about what pasts are important for the future as a projection of a future imaginary Discussion: understanding Nuclear Cultural Heritage 10 Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
  • 11. Discussion: putting nuclear cultural heritage into practice 11 Nuclear Cultural Heritage as part of long-term governance (Rindzevičiūtė, 2022) • Nuclear cultural heritage should be embedded within strategic development of decommissioning • Nuclear cultural heritage is not made “about the community” but “with and by the community” (Rindzevičiūtė, 2022, 28) • Should include methods of participatory governance • Participation does not always equal democratisation (cf. Mbah 2022) • Inclusivity in development of material and immaterial nuclear cultural heritage (social justice and ethical approaches) Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
  • 12. • Meaning- & value-producing mechanism • Includes archives, libraries, time capsules, markers, active heritage, international mechanisms, oversight provisions Examples: putting nuclear cultural heritage into practice – a framework 12 “Preserving Records, Knowledge, and Memory” framework (RK&M) (Pescatore/Palm, 2020) • Transfer of knowledge and meaning through multiple forms, formats, and mechanism to ensure durability Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023 Active heritage as a “heritage that is likely to evolve over time, such as traditions, local lore, enactment societies of past historical events or past practices, local lore, enactment societies of past historical events”  link to intangible cultural heritages
  • 13. Examples: putting nuclear cultural heritage into practice – international 13 Nucleus: public archive & vistor centre (Scotland) Tabloo: exhibition centre, respository site, vistor centre, and open house (Belgium) Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023
  • 14. Examples: putting nuclear cultural heritage into practice – bottom-up 14 Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023 Gorleben as a place of nuclear cultural heritage: culture, places, and practices of remembrance incl. archives, direct-action interventions
  • 15. Thank you for your attention! Research presented as part of the NuCultAge project Funded by BASE – grant no. 4723F90101 Project contacts: Viktoria Noka v.noka@oeko.de Oeko-Institut Energy and Climate Division Berlin, Germany Dr. Melanie Mbah m.mbah@oeko.de Oeko-Institut Nuclear Engineering & Facility Safety Divison Freiburg, Germany
  • 16. References 16 Nuclear Cultural Heritage│Noka et al.│Berlin│15.09.2023 Beunen, R.; van Assche, K.; Gruezmacher, M. (2022): Evolutionary perspectives on environmental governance: Strategy and the co-construction of governance, community, and environment. In: Sustainability 14 (16), p. 9912. DOI: 10.3390/su14169912. Brunnengräber, A. (2015): Ewigkeitslasten, Die "Endlagerung" radioaktiver Abfälle als soziales, politisches und wissenschaftliches Projekt - eine Einführung 1. Auflage. Baden-Baden: Nomos, Edition Sigma. Online available at https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/kxp/detail.action?docID=4350203. Chateau, Z.; Devine-Wright, P.; Wills, J. (2021): Integrating sociotechnical and spatial imaginaries in researching energy futures. In: Energy Research & Social Science 80, pp. 1–8. DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2021.102207. Davoudi, S.; Crawford, J.; Raynor, R.; Reid, B.; Sykes, O.; Shaw, D. (2018): Policy and Practice Spatial imaginaries: tyrannies or transformations? In: Town Planning Review 89 (2), pp. 97–124. DOI: 10.3828/tpr.2018.7. François, E.; Schulze, H. (ed.) (2001): Deutsche Erinnerungsorte. 3 volumes (2). München: Beck. Harrison, R. (2016): Archaeologies of emergent presents and futures. In: Historical Archaeology 50 (3), pp. 165–180. DOI: 10.1007/BF03377340. Harrison, R. (2020): Heritage as future-making practices. In: Harrison, R.; DeSilvey, C.; Holtorf, C.; Macdonald, S.; Bartolini, N.; Breithoff, E. et al. (ed.): Heritage Futures. Comparative approaches to natural and cultural heritage practice. Unter Mitarbeit von Anders Högberg und Gustav Wollentz. London: UCL Press (Comparative Approaches to Natural and Cultural Heritage Practices), pp. 20–50. Harrison, R.; DeSilvey, C.; Holtorf, C.; Macdonald, S.; Bartolini, N.; Breithoff, E. et al. (ed.) (2020): Heritage Futures, Comparative approaches to natural and cultural heritage practice. In collaboration with Högberg, A. and Wollentz, G. (Comparative Approaches to Natural and Cultural Heritage Practices). London: UCL Press. Online available at https://directory.doabooks.org/handle/20.500.12854/74734. Hasse, R. and Krücken, G. (2009): Neo-institutionalistische Theorie. In: Kneer, G. and Schroer, M. (ed.): Handbuch soziologische Theorien. Wiesbaden: Springer VS (Handbuch), pp. 237–251. Jasanoff, S. and Kim, S.-H. (2009): Containing the atom: Sociotechnical imaginaries and nuclear power in the United States and South Korea. In: Minerva 47 (2), pp. 119– 146. DOI: 10.1007/s11024-009-9124-4. Knaps, F.; Herrmann, S.; Mölders, T. (2022): Landscape identity: Approaches to its conceptualisation, capture and integration into place branding processes. In: Abassiharofteh, M.; Baier, J.; Göb, A.; Thimm, I.; Eberth, A.; Knaps, F. et al. (ed.): Spatial transformation. Processes, strategies, research design. Hanover: ARL - Academy for Territorial Development in the Leibniz Association (Forschungsberichte der ARL, 19), pp. 164–178.
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