SlideShare a Scribd company logo
www.oeko.de
Injection: Risks and challenges
Injection of CO2 into geological rock formations
Online Expert Workshop 1
Florian Krob
Öko-Institut e.V.
22/04/2024
modified after Equinor, 2024
https://www.equinor.com/energy/carbon-capture-utilisation-and-storage
2
www.oeko.de
1 – Introduction
Technical process description
● Offshore Injection of Carbon Dioxide
● Into geological rock formations deep underground
● Via seabed injection wells
Figures:
Left & Middle: Courtesy of Dril-Quip
Right: modified after Equinor, 2024
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
3
www.oeko.de
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
1 – Introduction
Figure: IEA, 2008
● Reservoir conditions mainly determine
injectivity
● Pressure of CO2 must exceed the prevailing
conditions in the target reservoir
Technical process description
● Suitable Carbon Dioxide conditions for successful Injection
● Compressed to liquefied to supercritical state (> 8 Mpa)
● High purity (>95,5%) without admixtures (< 50 – 100 ppm depending on
substance)
● Suitable properties of reservoir rocks
● High porosity and permeability
● Pressure of formation water
4
www.oeko.de
2 – Risks & Challenges
Figure: modified after GCCSI, 2019
● Lifecyle Risk Profile for Carbon Storage Projects
● Risk Profile increases and peaks after injection begins
● After operation Risk Potential decreases significantly
● After well closure Risk Potential wanes constantly throughout post-operational phase
Operational period
(5 – 50 years)
Post-Closure
Pre-injection
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
5
www.oeko.de
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
2 – Risks & Challenges
Figure: Vilarrasa, 2016
● Risks can materialize in different areas
of the geological environment
● affect
the reservoir
around injection zone
● Damage Cap-
and Baserocks
● Far Field effects
due to fault reactivation
● Impacts can even
be visible
at the Earth’s surface
6
www.oeko.de
2 – Risks & Challenges
Figures: Song et al., 2023
Risk: Caprock Failure
 Hazards: Rock Fractures and
Leakage of CO2
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
7
www.oeko.de
2 – Risks & Challenges
Figures: Song et al., 2023
Risk: Fault Reactivation
 Hazards: Induced Seismicity and
Leakage of CO2
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
8
www.oeko.de
2 – Risks & Challenges
Figures: Song et al., 2023
Risk: Deformation
 Hazards: Surface Uplift and
Ground Movement
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
9
www.oeko.de
2 – Risks & Challenges
Figures: Song et al., 2023
Risk: Well Integrity Loss
 Hazards: Leakage of CO2 and
Microfractures
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
10
www.oeko.de
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
2 – Risks & Challenges
Figure: Marston, 2023
Main Challenges
● Pre-Injection Site Characterisation
● Site Performance characterisation
(e.g., reservoir properties &
conditions, and capacity)
● Pressure Management
(e.g., determination of
reservoir fracture pressure
and injectivity)
● Injection
● Monitor and Intervene
● Pressure Management
(e.g., Blowouts,
and Overpressurisation)
11
www.oeko.de
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
Take Away Messages
● Not a zero-risk technology but a comparatively low-risk technology overall
● Decades of experiences with CO2 injection wells were being made
● Challenges can be addressed through
efficient pre-injection site characterisation, monitoring, and remediation
● Examples have shown that interventions minimize risks efficiently
● As with any technology, various risks & challenges exist
● Every storage site has its own unique geology and technical set up:
Risk factors must be avoided or mitigated
● No characterisation methods is fool proof:
Unforeseen storage behaviour should be expected at all time
● Comprehensive monitoring and remediation is imperative to track deviations
● Which are technical limitations!? Safe, industrial ramp-up to achieve climate goals might be
the biggest challenge
www.oeko.de
Thank you for your attention!
Do you have any questions? ?
13
www.oeko.de
3 – Examples
Figures: Ringrose et al., 2013a
In Salah, Algeria
● Onshore CCS-Project, Operation: 2004 – 2011
● Materialised Risk: Overpressurisation,
Caprock Failure, and Deformation
● Effect: Surface Uplift (20 – 25 mm)
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
14
www.oeko.de
3 – Examples
Figures: Ringrose et al. (2013)
In Salah, Algeria
Consequences:
● Wells were eventually
shut down permanently
to avoid further hazards
● CO2 may have leaked
outside the target
reservoir
● No proof that leaked CO2
reached the Earth’s
surface
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
15
www.oeko.de
3 – Examples
Figure: Ringrose et al, 2013b
Snøvhit, Norway
● Offshore CCS-Project, Operation: since 2008
● Materialised Risk: Unexpected subsurface storage behaviour
● Effect: Geological formation unable to accept predicted amounts of
injection
Consequences:
● Fast unexpected rise of CO2 injection
site pressure
● Immediate emergency well intervention
● Target Formation (Tubåen Fm) turned
out to be significantly less porous
● Wells were plugged and abandoned
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
16
www.oeko.de
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
3 – Examples
Figure: IEEFA, 2023
Snøvhit, Norway
Consequences:
● Switched to shallower formation (Stø Fm) on the same well bore
● Stø formation turned out to provide
significantly less storage capacities
and obtain other risks
● By now, Equinor switched
to a third storage site
(future Snøvhit)
● Besides explosion of financial costs
for remediation measures and
intervention, no further effects are
known so far
17
www.oeko.de
3 – Examples
Figure: IEEFA, 2023
Sleipner, Norway
● Offshore CCS-Project, Operation: since 1996
● Materialised Risk: Unexpected subsurface storage behaviour
● Effect: Fast migration of CO2 into unexpected areas
Consequences:
● Deviation from plan
● CO2 migrated to shallower previously
unidentified layer 9 (220 m in 3 years)
● Comprehensive 3D seismic surveys
followed since
● To date, Layer 9 contained further
migration of CO2
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
18
www.oeko.de
Backup Slide. Industrial Ramp-up
EU Carbon Management Strategie, 2024
• Net Zero Act proposed
at least 50 Mt CO2/a
until 2030
• EU CMS proposes
~230 Mt CO2/a by 2040
~2%0 Mt CO2/a by 2050
Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024

More Related Content

Similar to Injection: Risks and challenges - Injection of CO2 into geological rock formations

2010 2012-groundwater-plume
2010 2012-groundwater-plume2010 2012-groundwater-plume
2010 2012-groundwater-plume
Eric Xanderson
 
CO2QUEST: Techno-economic Assessment of CO2 Quality Effect on its Storage and...
CO2QUEST: Techno-economic Assessment of CO2 Quality Effect on its Storage and...CO2QUEST: Techno-economic Assessment of CO2 Quality Effect on its Storage and...
CO2QUEST: Techno-economic Assessment of CO2 Quality Effect on its Storage and...
UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre
 
208_fullpaper_notes
208_fullpaper_notes208_fullpaper_notes
208_fullpaper_notes
Gjorgi Vezenkovski
 
CCS Risk analysis, Neil Wildgust, Global CCS Institute
CCS Risk analysis, Neil Wildgust, Global CCS InstituteCCS Risk analysis, Neil Wildgust, Global CCS Institute
CCS Risk analysis, Neil Wildgust, Global CCS Institute
Global CCS Institute
 
Saudi Aramco Carbon Management - May 2013
Saudi Aramco Carbon Management - May 2013Saudi Aramco Carbon Management - May 2013
Saudi Aramco Carbon Management - May 2013
Global CCS Institute
 
IOR drilling technologies
IOR drilling technologiesIOR drilling technologies
IOR drilling technologies
Statoil
 
EOR vs. Storage, Ed Steadman, EERC
EOR vs. Storage, Ed Steadman, EERCEOR vs. Storage, Ed Steadman, EERC
EOR vs. Storage, Ed Steadman, EERC
Global CCS Institute
 
Enhanced oil recovery and storage
Enhanced oil recovery and storageEnhanced oil recovery and storage
Enhanced oil recovery and storage
Global CCS Institute
 
04 martynov -_ukccsc_winter_school_2012_-_co2_transportation_-_10_jan12
04 martynov -_ukccsc_winter_school_2012_-_co2_transportation_-_10_jan1204 martynov -_ukccsc_winter_school_2012_-_co2_transportation_-_10_jan12
04 martynov -_ukccsc_winter_school_2012_-_co2_transportation_-_10_jan12
UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre
 
Developments in Heavy-Oil EOR for the Era of Low Oil Pricing
Developments in Heavy-Oil EOR for the Era of Low Oil PricingDevelopments in Heavy-Oil EOR for the Era of Low Oil Pricing
Developments in Heavy-Oil EOR for the Era of Low Oil Pricing
Society of Petroleum Engineers
 
2013 iea - potential for CO2 storage in oil gas shale reservoirs
2013 iea - potential for CO2 storage in oil gas shale reservoirs2013 iea - potential for CO2 storage in oil gas shale reservoirs
2013 iea - potential for CO2 storage in oil gas shale reservoirs
Steve Wittrig
 
Dr Wang Rui - Status of Sinopec CCUS technology
Dr Wang Rui - Status of Sinopec CCUS technologyDr Wang Rui - Status of Sinopec CCUS technology
Dr Wang Rui - Status of Sinopec CCUS technology
Global CCS Institute
 
Geoscience in Offshore Renewables
Geoscience in Offshore RenewablesGeoscience in Offshore Renewables
Geoscience in Offshore Renewables
Farida Ismayilova
 
Peter Brownsort (SCCS) - Overview of CO2 Shipping Studies Worldwide, Plus Bri...
Peter Brownsort (SCCS) - Overview of CO2 Shipping Studies Worldwide, Plus Bri...Peter Brownsort (SCCS) - Overview of CO2 Shipping Studies Worldwide, Plus Bri...
Peter Brownsort (SCCS) - Overview of CO2 Shipping Studies Worldwide, Plus Bri...
UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre
 
Opito bosiet safety induction
Opito bosiet safety inductionOpito bosiet safety induction
Opito bosiet safety induction
Tejpal Barnela
 
CO2QUEST - Techno-economic Assessment of Impact of CO2 Impurities on its Tran...
CO2QUEST - Techno-economic Assessment of Impact of CO2 Impurities on its Tran...CO2QUEST - Techno-economic Assessment of Impact of CO2 Impurities on its Tran...
CO2QUEST - Techno-economic Assessment of Impact of CO2 Impurities on its Tran...
UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre
 
Northern Lights: A European CO2 transport and storage project
Northern Lights: A European CO2 transport and storage project Northern Lights: A European CO2 transport and storage project
Northern Lights: A European CO2 transport and storage project
Global CCS Institute
 
205
205205
14.40 Assessing Air Quality and Climate Change Impacts for Offshore Wind Farm...
14.40 Assessing Air Quality and Climate Change Impacts for Offshore Wind Farm...14.40 Assessing Air Quality and Climate Change Impacts for Offshore Wind Farm...
14.40 Assessing Air Quality and Climate Change Impacts for Offshore Wind Farm...
IES / IAQM
 
Christian Koch
Christian KochChristian Koch
Christian Koch
Svenskt Projektforum
 

Similar to Injection: Risks and challenges - Injection of CO2 into geological rock formations (20)

2010 2012-groundwater-plume
2010 2012-groundwater-plume2010 2012-groundwater-plume
2010 2012-groundwater-plume
 
CO2QUEST: Techno-economic Assessment of CO2 Quality Effect on its Storage and...
CO2QUEST: Techno-economic Assessment of CO2 Quality Effect on its Storage and...CO2QUEST: Techno-economic Assessment of CO2 Quality Effect on its Storage and...
CO2QUEST: Techno-economic Assessment of CO2 Quality Effect on its Storage and...
 
208_fullpaper_notes
208_fullpaper_notes208_fullpaper_notes
208_fullpaper_notes
 
CCS Risk analysis, Neil Wildgust, Global CCS Institute
CCS Risk analysis, Neil Wildgust, Global CCS InstituteCCS Risk analysis, Neil Wildgust, Global CCS Institute
CCS Risk analysis, Neil Wildgust, Global CCS Institute
 
Saudi Aramco Carbon Management - May 2013
Saudi Aramco Carbon Management - May 2013Saudi Aramco Carbon Management - May 2013
Saudi Aramco Carbon Management - May 2013
 
IOR drilling technologies
IOR drilling technologiesIOR drilling technologies
IOR drilling technologies
 
EOR vs. Storage, Ed Steadman, EERC
EOR vs. Storage, Ed Steadman, EERCEOR vs. Storage, Ed Steadman, EERC
EOR vs. Storage, Ed Steadman, EERC
 
Enhanced oil recovery and storage
Enhanced oil recovery and storageEnhanced oil recovery and storage
Enhanced oil recovery and storage
 
04 martynov -_ukccsc_winter_school_2012_-_co2_transportation_-_10_jan12
04 martynov -_ukccsc_winter_school_2012_-_co2_transportation_-_10_jan1204 martynov -_ukccsc_winter_school_2012_-_co2_transportation_-_10_jan12
04 martynov -_ukccsc_winter_school_2012_-_co2_transportation_-_10_jan12
 
Developments in Heavy-Oil EOR for the Era of Low Oil Pricing
Developments in Heavy-Oil EOR for the Era of Low Oil PricingDevelopments in Heavy-Oil EOR for the Era of Low Oil Pricing
Developments in Heavy-Oil EOR for the Era of Low Oil Pricing
 
2013 iea - potential for CO2 storage in oil gas shale reservoirs
2013 iea - potential for CO2 storage in oil gas shale reservoirs2013 iea - potential for CO2 storage in oil gas shale reservoirs
2013 iea - potential for CO2 storage in oil gas shale reservoirs
 
Dr Wang Rui - Status of Sinopec CCUS technology
Dr Wang Rui - Status of Sinopec CCUS technologyDr Wang Rui - Status of Sinopec CCUS technology
Dr Wang Rui - Status of Sinopec CCUS technology
 
Geoscience in Offshore Renewables
Geoscience in Offshore RenewablesGeoscience in Offshore Renewables
Geoscience in Offshore Renewables
 
Peter Brownsort (SCCS) - Overview of CO2 Shipping Studies Worldwide, Plus Bri...
Peter Brownsort (SCCS) - Overview of CO2 Shipping Studies Worldwide, Plus Bri...Peter Brownsort (SCCS) - Overview of CO2 Shipping Studies Worldwide, Plus Bri...
Peter Brownsort (SCCS) - Overview of CO2 Shipping Studies Worldwide, Plus Bri...
 
Opito bosiet safety induction
Opito bosiet safety inductionOpito bosiet safety induction
Opito bosiet safety induction
 
CO2QUEST - Techno-economic Assessment of Impact of CO2 Impurities on its Tran...
CO2QUEST - Techno-economic Assessment of Impact of CO2 Impurities on its Tran...CO2QUEST - Techno-economic Assessment of Impact of CO2 Impurities on its Tran...
CO2QUEST - Techno-economic Assessment of Impact of CO2 Impurities on its Tran...
 
Northern Lights: A European CO2 transport and storage project
Northern Lights: A European CO2 transport and storage project Northern Lights: A European CO2 transport and storage project
Northern Lights: A European CO2 transport and storage project
 
205
205205
205
 
14.40 Assessing Air Quality and Climate Change Impacts for Offshore Wind Farm...
14.40 Assessing Air Quality and Climate Change Impacts for Offshore Wind Farm...14.40 Assessing Air Quality and Climate Change Impacts for Offshore Wind Farm...
14.40 Assessing Air Quality and Climate Change Impacts for Offshore Wind Farm...
 
Christian Koch
Christian KochChristian Koch
Christian Koch
 

More from Oeko-Institut

How to deal with rising energy prices: financial compensation for all VS targ...
How to deal with rising energy prices: financial compensation for all VS targ...How to deal with rising energy prices: financial compensation for all VS targ...
How to deal with rising energy prices: financial compensation for all VS targ...
Oeko-Institut
 
Transport: CO2 conditions during transport - Risks of transport by trains, sh...
Transport: CO2 conditions during transport - Risks of transport by trains, sh...Transport: CO2 conditions during transport - Risks of transport by trains, sh...
Transport: CO2 conditions during transport - Risks of transport by trains, sh...
Oeko-Institut
 
Holz, Klima und Nachhaltigkeit: Was sagt die Wissenschaft? Was bedeutet das f...
Holz, Klima und Nachhaltigkeit: Was sagt die Wissenschaft? Was bedeutet das f...Holz, Klima und Nachhaltigkeit: Was sagt die Wissenschaft? Was bedeutet das f...
Holz, Klima und Nachhaltigkeit: Was sagt die Wissenschaft? Was bedeutet das f...
Oeko-Institut
 
Co-Transformation durch kontextsensitive Partizipation in der Planung: ein Pl...
Co-Transformation durch kontextsensitive Partizipation in der Planung: ein Pl...Co-Transformation durch kontextsensitive Partizipation in der Planung: ein Pl...
Co-Transformation durch kontextsensitive Partizipation in der Planung: ein Pl...
Oeko-Institut
 
Perceptions of surface facilities of a potential disposal site and the role o...
Perceptions of surface facilities of a potential disposal site and the role o...Perceptions of surface facilities of a potential disposal site and the role o...
Perceptions of surface facilities of a potential disposal site and the role o...
Oeko-Institut
 
The role of Nuclear Cultural Heritage in long-term nuclear waste governance
The role of Nuclear Cultural Heritage in long-term nuclear waste governanceThe role of Nuclear Cultural Heritage in long-term nuclear waste governance
The role of Nuclear Cultural Heritage in long-term nuclear waste governance
Oeko-Institut
 
Technische Probleme in den französischen AKW und ihre Auswirkungen
Technische Probleme in den französischen AKW und ihre AuswirkungenTechnische Probleme in den französischen AKW und ihre Auswirkungen
Technische Probleme in den französischen AKW und ihre Auswirkungen
Oeko-Institut
 
Die aktuelle energiepolitische Situation - mit einem Ausflug in die Klimapoli...
Die aktuelle energiepolitische Situation - mit einem Ausflug in die Klimapoli...Die aktuelle energiepolitische Situation - mit einem Ausflug in die Klimapoli...
Die aktuelle energiepolitische Situation - mit einem Ausflug in die Klimapoli...
Oeko-Institut
 
Der Klimasozialfonds: Grüner Wandel in Europas Gebäuden –wie sozial und fair ...
Der Klimasozialfonds: Grüner Wandel in Europas Gebäuden –wie sozial und fair ...Der Klimasozialfonds: Grüner Wandel in Europas Gebäuden –wie sozial und fair ...
Der Klimasozialfonds: Grüner Wandel in Europas Gebäuden –wie sozial und fair ...
Oeko-Institut
 
Potentials and challenges of applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) in geoscie...
Potentials and challenges of applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) in geoscie...Potentials and challenges of applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) in geoscie...
Potentials and challenges of applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) in geoscie...
Oeko-Institut
 
Research needs around politically influenceable factors of climate policy acc...
Research needs around politically influenceable factors of climate policy acc...Research needs around politically influenceable factors of climate policy acc...
Research needs around politically influenceable factors of climate policy acc...
Oeko-Institut
 
Facilitating Socially Just Carbon Pricing in the EU - Identification of vulne...
Facilitating Socially Just Carbon Pricing in the EU - Identification of vulne...Facilitating Socially Just Carbon Pricing in the EU - Identification of vulne...
Facilitating Socially Just Carbon Pricing in the EU - Identification of vulne...
Oeko-Institut
 
Klimaschutz sozial gerecht gestalten
Klimaschutz sozial gerecht gestaltenKlimaschutz sozial gerecht gestalten
Klimaschutz sozial gerecht gestalten
Oeko-Institut
 
Gesundes Essen fürs Klima - Auswirkungen der Planetary Health Diet auf die L...
 Gesundes Essen fürs Klima - Auswirkungen der Planetary Health Diet auf die L... Gesundes Essen fürs Klima - Auswirkungen der Planetary Health Diet auf die L...
Gesundes Essen fürs Klima - Auswirkungen der Planetary Health Diet auf die L...
Oeko-Institut
 
Endlagerung in Deutschland - Warum brauchen wir das? Wie geht das? Und wer en...
Endlagerung in Deutschland - Warum brauchen wir das? Wie geht das? Und wer en...Endlagerung in Deutschland - Warum brauchen wir das? Wie geht das? Und wer en...
Endlagerung in Deutschland - Warum brauchen wir das? Wie geht das? Und wer en...
Oeko-Institut
 
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Dienstwagen
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Dienstwagencompan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Dienstwagen
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Dienstwagen
Oeko-Institut
 
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Ladeinfrastruktur am Wohnort
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Ladeinfrastruktur am Wohnortcompan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Ladeinfrastruktur am Wohnort
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Ladeinfrastruktur am Wohnort
Oeko-Institut
 
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Mobilitätsbudget
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Mobilitätsbudgetcompan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Mobilitätsbudget
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Mobilitätsbudget
Oeko-Institut
 
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Car Policy
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Car Policycompan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Car Policy
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Car Policy
Oeko-Institut
 
An ETS-2 for buildings and road transport: Impacts, vulnerabilities and the r...
An ETS-2 for buildings and road transport: Impacts, vulnerabilities and the r...An ETS-2 for buildings and road transport: Impacts, vulnerabilities and the r...
An ETS-2 for buildings and road transport: Impacts, vulnerabilities and the r...
Oeko-Institut
 

More from Oeko-Institut (20)

How to deal with rising energy prices: financial compensation for all VS targ...
How to deal with rising energy prices: financial compensation for all VS targ...How to deal with rising energy prices: financial compensation for all VS targ...
How to deal with rising energy prices: financial compensation for all VS targ...
 
Transport: CO2 conditions during transport - Risks of transport by trains, sh...
Transport: CO2 conditions during transport - Risks of transport by trains, sh...Transport: CO2 conditions during transport - Risks of transport by trains, sh...
Transport: CO2 conditions during transport - Risks of transport by trains, sh...
 
Holz, Klima und Nachhaltigkeit: Was sagt die Wissenschaft? Was bedeutet das f...
Holz, Klima und Nachhaltigkeit: Was sagt die Wissenschaft? Was bedeutet das f...Holz, Klima und Nachhaltigkeit: Was sagt die Wissenschaft? Was bedeutet das f...
Holz, Klima und Nachhaltigkeit: Was sagt die Wissenschaft? Was bedeutet das f...
 
Co-Transformation durch kontextsensitive Partizipation in der Planung: ein Pl...
Co-Transformation durch kontextsensitive Partizipation in der Planung: ein Pl...Co-Transformation durch kontextsensitive Partizipation in der Planung: ein Pl...
Co-Transformation durch kontextsensitive Partizipation in der Planung: ein Pl...
 
Perceptions of surface facilities of a potential disposal site and the role o...
Perceptions of surface facilities of a potential disposal site and the role o...Perceptions of surface facilities of a potential disposal site and the role o...
Perceptions of surface facilities of a potential disposal site and the role o...
 
The role of Nuclear Cultural Heritage in long-term nuclear waste governance
The role of Nuclear Cultural Heritage in long-term nuclear waste governanceThe role of Nuclear Cultural Heritage in long-term nuclear waste governance
The role of Nuclear Cultural Heritage in long-term nuclear waste governance
 
Technische Probleme in den französischen AKW und ihre Auswirkungen
Technische Probleme in den französischen AKW und ihre AuswirkungenTechnische Probleme in den französischen AKW und ihre Auswirkungen
Technische Probleme in den französischen AKW und ihre Auswirkungen
 
Die aktuelle energiepolitische Situation - mit einem Ausflug in die Klimapoli...
Die aktuelle energiepolitische Situation - mit einem Ausflug in die Klimapoli...Die aktuelle energiepolitische Situation - mit einem Ausflug in die Klimapoli...
Die aktuelle energiepolitische Situation - mit einem Ausflug in die Klimapoli...
 
Der Klimasozialfonds: Grüner Wandel in Europas Gebäuden –wie sozial und fair ...
Der Klimasozialfonds: Grüner Wandel in Europas Gebäuden –wie sozial und fair ...Der Klimasozialfonds: Grüner Wandel in Europas Gebäuden –wie sozial und fair ...
Der Klimasozialfonds: Grüner Wandel in Europas Gebäuden –wie sozial und fair ...
 
Potentials and challenges of applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) in geoscie...
Potentials and challenges of applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) in geoscie...Potentials and challenges of applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) in geoscie...
Potentials and challenges of applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) in geoscie...
 
Research needs around politically influenceable factors of climate policy acc...
Research needs around politically influenceable factors of climate policy acc...Research needs around politically influenceable factors of climate policy acc...
Research needs around politically influenceable factors of climate policy acc...
 
Facilitating Socially Just Carbon Pricing in the EU - Identification of vulne...
Facilitating Socially Just Carbon Pricing in the EU - Identification of vulne...Facilitating Socially Just Carbon Pricing in the EU - Identification of vulne...
Facilitating Socially Just Carbon Pricing in the EU - Identification of vulne...
 
Klimaschutz sozial gerecht gestalten
Klimaschutz sozial gerecht gestaltenKlimaschutz sozial gerecht gestalten
Klimaschutz sozial gerecht gestalten
 
Gesundes Essen fürs Klima - Auswirkungen der Planetary Health Diet auf die L...
 Gesundes Essen fürs Klima - Auswirkungen der Planetary Health Diet auf die L... Gesundes Essen fürs Klima - Auswirkungen der Planetary Health Diet auf die L...
Gesundes Essen fürs Klima - Auswirkungen der Planetary Health Diet auf die L...
 
Endlagerung in Deutschland - Warum brauchen wir das? Wie geht das? Und wer en...
Endlagerung in Deutschland - Warum brauchen wir das? Wie geht das? Und wer en...Endlagerung in Deutschland - Warum brauchen wir das? Wie geht das? Und wer en...
Endlagerung in Deutschland - Warum brauchen wir das? Wie geht das? Und wer en...
 
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Dienstwagen
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Dienstwagencompan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Dienstwagen
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Dienstwagen
 
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Ladeinfrastruktur am Wohnort
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Ladeinfrastruktur am Wohnortcompan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Ladeinfrastruktur am Wohnort
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Ladeinfrastruktur am Wohnort
 
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Mobilitätsbudget
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Mobilitätsbudgetcompan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Mobilitätsbudget
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Mobilitätsbudget
 
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Car Policy
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Car Policycompan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Car Policy
compan-e: Befragungsergebnisse Themenfeld Car Policy
 
An ETS-2 for buildings and road transport: Impacts, vulnerabilities and the r...
An ETS-2 for buildings and road transport: Impacts, vulnerabilities and the r...An ETS-2 for buildings and road transport: Impacts, vulnerabilities and the r...
An ETS-2 for buildings and road transport: Impacts, vulnerabilities and the r...
 

Recently uploaded

Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Hossein Fani
 
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
Sharon Liu
 
Summer program introduction in Yunnan university
Summer program introduction in Yunnan universitySummer program introduction in Yunnan university
Summer program introduction in Yunnan university
Hayato Shimabukuro
 
Computer aided biopharmaceutical characterization
Computer aided biopharmaceutical characterizationComputer aided biopharmaceutical characterization
Computer aided biopharmaceutical characterization
souravpaul769171
 
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
PANDURANGLAWATE1
 
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Sérgio Sacani
 
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
Thane Heins
 
Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)
Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)
Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)
Kashyap J
 
Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...
Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...
Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...
Dr. sreeremya S
 
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptxpoikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
muralinath2
 
Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...
Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...
Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptxBragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Lisandro Cunci
 
Anatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptx
Anatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptxAnatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptx
Anatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptx
karthiksaran8
 
How Does TaskTrain Integrate Workflow and Project Management Efficiently.pdf
How Does TaskTrain Integrate Workflow and Project Management Efficiently.pdfHow Does TaskTrain Integrate Workflow and Project Management Efficiently.pdf
How Does TaskTrain Integrate Workflow and Project Management Efficiently.pdf
Task Train
 
Dalghren, Thorne and Stebbins System of Classification of Angiosperms
Dalghren, Thorne and Stebbins System of Classification of AngiospermsDalghren, Thorne and Stebbins System of Classification of Angiosperms
Dalghren, Thorne and Stebbins System of Classification of Angiosperms
Gurjant Singh
 
SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx
SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptxSCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx
SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx
WALTONMARBRUCAL
 
2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...
2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...
2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...
khadija07kubra
 
SUBJECT SPECIFIC ETHICAL ISSUES IN STUDY
SUBJECT SPECIFIC ETHICAL ISSUES IN STUDYSUBJECT SPECIFIC ETHICAL ISSUES IN STUDY
SUBJECT SPECIFIC ETHICAL ISSUES IN STUDY
Dr Kirpa Ram Jangra
 
degree Certificate of Aston University
degree Certificate of Aston Universitydegree Certificate of Aston University
degree Certificate of Aston University
ebgyz
 
Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)
Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)
Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)
Robert Luk
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
 
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
 
Summer program introduction in Yunnan university
Summer program introduction in Yunnan universitySummer program introduction in Yunnan university
Summer program introduction in Yunnan university
 
Computer aided biopharmaceutical characterization
Computer aided biopharmaceutical characterizationComputer aided biopharmaceutical characterization
Computer aided biopharmaceutical characterization
 
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
 
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
 
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
 
Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)
Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)
Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)
 
Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...
Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...
Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...
 
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptxpoikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
 
Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...
Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...
Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...
 
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptxBragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
 
Anatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptx
Anatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptxAnatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptx
Anatomy, and reproduction of Gnetum.pptx
 
How Does TaskTrain Integrate Workflow and Project Management Efficiently.pdf
How Does TaskTrain Integrate Workflow and Project Management Efficiently.pdfHow Does TaskTrain Integrate Workflow and Project Management Efficiently.pdf
How Does TaskTrain Integrate Workflow and Project Management Efficiently.pdf
 
Dalghren, Thorne and Stebbins System of Classification of Angiosperms
Dalghren, Thorne and Stebbins System of Classification of AngiospermsDalghren, Thorne and Stebbins System of Classification of Angiosperms
Dalghren, Thorne and Stebbins System of Classification of Angiosperms
 
SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx
SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptxSCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx
SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx
 
2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...
2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...
2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...
 
SUBJECT SPECIFIC ETHICAL ISSUES IN STUDY
SUBJECT SPECIFIC ETHICAL ISSUES IN STUDYSUBJECT SPECIFIC ETHICAL ISSUES IN STUDY
SUBJECT SPECIFIC ETHICAL ISSUES IN STUDY
 
degree Certificate of Aston University
degree Certificate of Aston Universitydegree Certificate of Aston University
degree Certificate of Aston University
 
Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)
Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)
Testing the Son of God Hypothesis (Jesus Christ)
 

Injection: Risks and challenges - Injection of CO2 into geological rock formations

  • 1. www.oeko.de Injection: Risks and challenges Injection of CO2 into geological rock formations Online Expert Workshop 1 Florian Krob Öko-Institut e.V. 22/04/2024 modified after Equinor, 2024 https://www.equinor.com/energy/carbon-capture-utilisation-and-storage
  • 2. 2 www.oeko.de 1 – Introduction Technical process description ● Offshore Injection of Carbon Dioxide ● Into geological rock formations deep underground ● Via seabed injection wells Figures: Left & Middle: Courtesy of Dril-Quip Right: modified after Equinor, 2024 Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
  • 3. 3 www.oeko.de Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024 1 – Introduction Figure: IEA, 2008 ● Reservoir conditions mainly determine injectivity ● Pressure of CO2 must exceed the prevailing conditions in the target reservoir Technical process description ● Suitable Carbon Dioxide conditions for successful Injection ● Compressed to liquefied to supercritical state (> 8 Mpa) ● High purity (>95,5%) without admixtures (< 50 – 100 ppm depending on substance) ● Suitable properties of reservoir rocks ● High porosity and permeability ● Pressure of formation water
  • 4. 4 www.oeko.de 2 – Risks & Challenges Figure: modified after GCCSI, 2019 ● Lifecyle Risk Profile for Carbon Storage Projects ● Risk Profile increases and peaks after injection begins ● After operation Risk Potential decreases significantly ● After well closure Risk Potential wanes constantly throughout post-operational phase Operational period (5 – 50 years) Post-Closure Pre-injection Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
  • 5. 5 www.oeko.de Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024 2 – Risks & Challenges Figure: Vilarrasa, 2016 ● Risks can materialize in different areas of the geological environment ● affect the reservoir around injection zone ● Damage Cap- and Baserocks ● Far Field effects due to fault reactivation ● Impacts can even be visible at the Earth’s surface
  • 6. 6 www.oeko.de 2 – Risks & Challenges Figures: Song et al., 2023 Risk: Caprock Failure  Hazards: Rock Fractures and Leakage of CO2 Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
  • 7. 7 www.oeko.de 2 – Risks & Challenges Figures: Song et al., 2023 Risk: Fault Reactivation  Hazards: Induced Seismicity and Leakage of CO2 Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
  • 8. 8 www.oeko.de 2 – Risks & Challenges Figures: Song et al., 2023 Risk: Deformation  Hazards: Surface Uplift and Ground Movement Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
  • 9. 9 www.oeko.de 2 – Risks & Challenges Figures: Song et al., 2023 Risk: Well Integrity Loss  Hazards: Leakage of CO2 and Microfractures Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
  • 10. 10 www.oeko.de Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024 2 – Risks & Challenges Figure: Marston, 2023 Main Challenges ● Pre-Injection Site Characterisation ● Site Performance characterisation (e.g., reservoir properties & conditions, and capacity) ● Pressure Management (e.g., determination of reservoir fracture pressure and injectivity) ● Injection ● Monitor and Intervene ● Pressure Management (e.g., Blowouts, and Overpressurisation)
  • 11. 11 www.oeko.de Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024 Take Away Messages ● Not a zero-risk technology but a comparatively low-risk technology overall ● Decades of experiences with CO2 injection wells were being made ● Challenges can be addressed through efficient pre-injection site characterisation, monitoring, and remediation ● Examples have shown that interventions minimize risks efficiently ● As with any technology, various risks & challenges exist ● Every storage site has its own unique geology and technical set up: Risk factors must be avoided or mitigated ● No characterisation methods is fool proof: Unforeseen storage behaviour should be expected at all time ● Comprehensive monitoring and remediation is imperative to track deviations ● Which are technical limitations!? Safe, industrial ramp-up to achieve climate goals might be the biggest challenge
  • 12. www.oeko.de Thank you for your attention! Do you have any questions? ?
  • 13. 13 www.oeko.de 3 – Examples Figures: Ringrose et al., 2013a In Salah, Algeria ● Onshore CCS-Project, Operation: 2004 – 2011 ● Materialised Risk: Overpressurisation, Caprock Failure, and Deformation ● Effect: Surface Uplift (20 – 25 mm) Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
  • 14. 14 www.oeko.de 3 – Examples Figures: Ringrose et al. (2013) In Salah, Algeria Consequences: ● Wells were eventually shut down permanently to avoid further hazards ● CO2 may have leaked outside the target reservoir ● No proof that leaked CO2 reached the Earth’s surface Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
  • 15. 15 www.oeko.de 3 – Examples Figure: Ringrose et al, 2013b Snøvhit, Norway ● Offshore CCS-Project, Operation: since 2008 ● Materialised Risk: Unexpected subsurface storage behaviour ● Effect: Geological formation unable to accept predicted amounts of injection Consequences: ● Fast unexpected rise of CO2 injection site pressure ● Immediate emergency well intervention ● Target Formation (Tubåen Fm) turned out to be significantly less porous ● Wells were plugged and abandoned Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
  • 16. 16 www.oeko.de Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024 3 – Examples Figure: IEEFA, 2023 Snøvhit, Norway Consequences: ● Switched to shallower formation (Stø Fm) on the same well bore ● Stø formation turned out to provide significantly less storage capacities and obtain other risks ● By now, Equinor switched to a third storage site (future Snøvhit) ● Besides explosion of financial costs for remediation measures and intervention, no further effects are known so far
  • 17. 17 www.oeko.de 3 – Examples Figure: IEEFA, 2023 Sleipner, Norway ● Offshore CCS-Project, Operation: since 1996 ● Materialised Risk: Unexpected subsurface storage behaviour ● Effect: Fast migration of CO2 into unexpected areas Consequences: ● Deviation from plan ● CO2 migrated to shallower previously unidentified layer 9 (220 m in 3 years) ● Comprehensive 3D seismic surveys followed since ● To date, Layer 9 contained further migration of CO2 Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024
  • 18. 18 www.oeko.de Backup Slide. Industrial Ramp-up EU Carbon Management Strategie, 2024 • Net Zero Act proposed at least 50 Mt CO2/a until 2030 • EU CMS proposes ~230 Mt CO2/a by 2040 ~2%0 Mt CO2/a by 2050 Injection│Krob│MS Teams│22/04/2024