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Potentials and challenges of applying
Artificial Intelligence (AI) in geosciences
for the search of a repository for high-
level waste in Germany
EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023
AI
Krob, F.C., Krohn, J., Ustohalova, V.,
Wittek, S., Bratzel, D.
2
www.oeko.de
Research Project on behalf of the BASE
Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany
EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023
https://www.oeko.de/fileadmin/oekodoc/AKI_Abschlussbericht_2022-11.pdf
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in the
German site selection process (GSSP) for
a deep geological repository for high-level
waste
Öko-Institut: Krohn, J., Ustohalova, V., Krob, F., Chaudry, S.
TU Clausthal: Rausch, A., Wittek, S., Bratzel, D.
3
www.oeko.de
Research Project on behalf of the BASE
Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany
EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023
Development an interdisciplinary assessment tool to evaluate the
applicability of AI methods
● evaluation of quality, qualification, traceability, relevance
● both in geosciences generally
● and regarding geological key activities within the GSSP
Based on an international literature study
Today: focus on potentials, challenges and limitations that may arise
from the use of AI during the GSSP
4
www.oeko.de
GSSP: Goals and Challenges
Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany
EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023
Search for the site with the best possible safety for a deep geological
repository for high-level waste
● for a period of one million years
● science-based, iterative, participative site selection process
Investigation and evaluation of the geological subsurface of the
German federal territory
● large variability in geological rock formations
● very long verification period to ensure best possible long-term safety
● enormous amount of heterogenous geodata
5
www.oeko.de
State-of-the-art in Geosciences
Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany
EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023
Application of AI in geosciences
● recognition, segmentation, generation and processing of data in digital
images (computer vision)
● predictions, forecasts, surrogate models
● anomaly detection
Geological key activities
● sampling, field work, laboratory methods
● processing and evaluation of large heterogenous data sets
● calculation and modelling of complex and coupled processes
6
www.oeko.de
Results & Conclusions I
Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany
EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023
● data management
● handling high dimensional
data sources
● geostatistical analysis
● modelling of multiscale spaces
and time intervals
● cost- and time consuming
calculation and modelling of
complex and coupled
processes
● control instance, detection of
errors and anomalies
Potentials of the use of AI within the GSSP
● support
decisions
● complete
processing
data
● supervise
7
www.oeko.de
Results & Conclusions II
Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany
EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023
Challenges of the use of AI methods within the GSSP
● risks of obscured uncertainties,
generation of error chains
● risks of data and developer BIAS
● inter- and extrapolations over large
geological spaces of any scale
● caution with generation of data
● validation, applicability and
transferability of a method to the needs
and requirements of the GSSP is not
always provided
● dealing with general suspicion and
scepticism in the public reception
● transparency
and
traceability
● combined AI
methods
● bear risks of
jeopardizing
the trust of
the population
8
www.oeko.de
Use and application of AI will most likely be inevitable and necessary
during the GSSP
Adaptions, conditions and limitations
● AI methods must be subject-specific and methodologically appropriate
● a high-quality database is a basic requirement
● high demands on the traceability and transparency
● always evaluate and validate iteratively all AI methods
● provide results to the public
AI should only be used in a supportive way
and must not have any decision-making power when used in the GSSP
Outlook
Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany
EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023
www.oeko.de
Thank you for your attention!
Do you have any questions?
?
Contact
Dr. Florian Krob
Researcher
Nuclear Engineering Facility Safety
Office Darmstadt
Phone: + 49 6151 8191-142
Email: f.krob@oeko.de
https://www.oeko.de/en/the-institute/staff/team-detail/florian-krob
https://www.linkedin.com/in/dr-florian-krob-3bbba5199
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Florian-Krob
Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in
Germany
EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023
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Potentials and challenges of applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) in geosciences for the search of a repository forhigh-level waste in Germany

  • 1. www.oeko.de Potentials and challenges of applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) in geosciences for the search of a repository for high- level waste in Germany EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023 AI Krob, F.C., Krohn, J., Ustohalova, V., Wittek, S., Bratzel, D.
  • 2. 2 www.oeko.de Research Project on behalf of the BASE Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023 https://www.oeko.de/fileadmin/oekodoc/AKI_Abschlussbericht_2022-11.pdf The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in the German site selection process (GSSP) for a deep geological repository for high-level waste Öko-Institut: Krohn, J., Ustohalova, V., Krob, F., Chaudry, S. TU Clausthal: Rausch, A., Wittek, S., Bratzel, D.
  • 3. 3 www.oeko.de Research Project on behalf of the BASE Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023 Development an interdisciplinary assessment tool to evaluate the applicability of AI methods ● evaluation of quality, qualification, traceability, relevance ● both in geosciences generally ● and regarding geological key activities within the GSSP Based on an international literature study Today: focus on potentials, challenges and limitations that may arise from the use of AI during the GSSP
  • 4. 4 www.oeko.de GSSP: Goals and Challenges Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023 Search for the site with the best possible safety for a deep geological repository for high-level waste ● for a period of one million years ● science-based, iterative, participative site selection process Investigation and evaluation of the geological subsurface of the German federal territory ● large variability in geological rock formations ● very long verification period to ensure best possible long-term safety ● enormous amount of heterogenous geodata
  • 5. 5 www.oeko.de State-of-the-art in Geosciences Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023 Application of AI in geosciences ● recognition, segmentation, generation and processing of data in digital images (computer vision) ● predictions, forecasts, surrogate models ● anomaly detection Geological key activities ● sampling, field work, laboratory methods ● processing and evaluation of large heterogenous data sets ● calculation and modelling of complex and coupled processes
  • 6. 6 www.oeko.de Results & Conclusions I Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023 ● data management ● handling high dimensional data sources ● geostatistical analysis ● modelling of multiscale spaces and time intervals ● cost- and time consuming calculation and modelling of complex and coupled processes ● control instance, detection of errors and anomalies Potentials of the use of AI within the GSSP ● support decisions ● complete processing data ● supervise
  • 7. 7 www.oeko.de Results & Conclusions II Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023 Challenges of the use of AI methods within the GSSP ● risks of obscured uncertainties, generation of error chains ● risks of data and developer BIAS ● inter- and extrapolations over large geological spaces of any scale ● caution with generation of data ● validation, applicability and transferability of a method to the needs and requirements of the GSSP is not always provided ● dealing with general suspicion and scepticism in the public reception ● transparency and traceability ● combined AI methods ● bear risks of jeopardizing the trust of the population
  • 8. 8 www.oeko.de Use and application of AI will most likely be inevitable and necessary during the GSSP Adaptions, conditions and limitations ● AI methods must be subject-specific and methodologically appropriate ● a high-quality database is a basic requirement ● high demands on the traceability and transparency ● always evaluate and validate iteratively all AI methods ● provide results to the public AI should only be used in a supportive way and must not have any decision-making power when used in the GSSP Outlook Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023
  • 9. www.oeko.de Thank you for your attention! Do you have any questions? ? Contact Dr. Florian Krob Researcher Nuclear Engineering Facility Safety Office Darmstadt Phone: + 49 6151 8191-142 Email: f.krob@oeko.de https://www.oeko.de/en/the-institute/staff/team-detail/florian-krob https://www.linkedin.com/in/dr-florian-krob-3bbba5199 https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Florian-Krob Potentials and challenges of applying AI in geosciences for the search of a repository a high-level waste in Germany EGU 2023│Dr. Florian Krob│Vienna│25.04.2023 Fore more information: